Stacey M Fernandes

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (4)15.17 Total impact

  • Fengxin Lu, Stacey M Fernandes, Alvin E Davis
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Activation of the complement system has been demonstrated to be an important mechanism in the mediation of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MIR) injury. C1 inhibitor (C1INH) has been shown to be beneficial in experimental MIR models. The underlying mechanism of this effect has been assumed to result primarily from inhibition of complement system activation. We recently demonstrated that C1INH plays a direct role in suppression of leukocyte transmigration in the mouse intestinal ischemia and reperfusion model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the beneficial effect of C1INH in mouse MIR model. METHODS: C57BL/6, C1INH-deficient (C1INH(-/-)), and C3-deficient mice (C3(-/-)) were subjected to 30-min (C57BL/6 and C1INH(-/-)) or 60-min (C3(-/-)) occlusion of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery followed by 4-h reperfusion. C1INH or reactive center cleaved inactive C1INH (iC1INH) was injected intravenously 5 min before reperfusion. RESULTS: Myocardial infarct size relative to the area at risk or relative to left ventricular area was significantly reduced in C1INH-treated wild-type, C1INH(-/-), and C3(-/-) mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. MIR induced an increase in myocardial polymorphonuclear neutrophil accumulation and plasma cardiac specific troponin I levels in vehicle-treated MIR mice, while C1INH treatment significantly attenuated these effects. iC1INH had a similar protective effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that C1INH prevented MIR injury in mice and that this cardioprotective effect may not solely result from complement inhibition, but might be also contributed by inhibiting leukocyte recruitment into ischemic tissue, an effect that is not mediated via protease inhibition.
    Cardiovascular pathology: the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology 06/2012; 22(1). DOI:10.1016/j.carpath.2012.05.003 · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Fengxin Lu, Stacey M Fernandes, Alvin E Davis
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    ABSTRACT: The complement and contact systems may be involved in the pathophysiological process of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is the most important inhibitor of both the complement and contact systems. We evaluated the role of these systems and the effect of both active and inactive forms of C1INH (iC1INH) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Three percent DSS was used in drinking water to induce colitis in complement C3-deficient (C3(-/-)) mice, bradykinin type 2 receptor deficient (Bk(2)R(-/-)) mice, and C57BL/6 mice. After ten days DSS exposure, C3(-/-) mice exhibited markedly less weight loss than wild-type (WT) mice (12 +/- 3.3% vs. 30 +/- 1.2%, P < 0.05) and developed a milder disease-activity index (DAI), histological score, colon shortening, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) elevation (P < 0.05, respectively). The Bk(2)R(-/-) mice were not protected from the disease. Seven-day treatment with either native C1INH or iC1INH reduced the severity of the disease in WT mice, as indicated by decreased weight loss (15 +/- 1.8%, 14 +/- 2.1% vs. 30 +/- 1.2%, P < 0.05, respectively), DAI, intestinal tissue damage, and MPO elevation compared with untreated WT DSS control mice (P < 0.05, respectively). These findings suggest that complement plays a role in the development of DSS-induced colitis and that blockade of the complement system might be useful for the acute phase of IBD treatment. C1INH, however, leads to an amelioration of DSS-induced colitis via a mechanism that does not involve the inhibition of complement or contact system activation but does result in significant suppression of leukocyte infiltration.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 03/2010; 298(6):G878-83. DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.00400.2009 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complement activation and neutrophil stimulation are two major components in events leading to ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. C1 inhibitor (C1INH) inhibits activation of each of the three pathways of complement activation and of the contact system. It is also endowed with anti-inflammatory properties that are independent of protease inhibition. The goal of these studies was to investigate the role and mechanism of C1INH in alleviating IR-induced intestinal injury. C57BL/6, C1INH-deficient (C1INH(-/-)), bradykinin type 2 receptor-deficient (Bk2R(-/-)), and C3-deficient mice (C3(-/-)) were randomized into three groups: sham operated control, IR, and IR + C1INH-treated groups. Ischemia was generated by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by reperfusion. C1INH or reactive center-cleaved inactive C1INH (iC1INH) was injected intravenously before reperfusion. IR resulted in intestinal injury in C57BL/6, C1INH(-/-), Bk2R(-/-), and C3(-/-) mice with significantly increased neutrophil infiltration into intestinal tissue. In each mouse strain, C1INH treatment reduced intestinal tissue injury and attenuated leukocyte infiltration compared with the untreated IR group. C1INH inhibited leukocyte rolling in the mesenteric veins of both C57BL/6 and C3-deficient mice subjected to IR. C1INH treatment also improved the survival rate of C57BL/6 and C1INH(-/-) mice following IR. Similar findings were observed in the IR animals treated with iC1INH. These studies emphasize the therapeutic benefit of C1INH in preventing intestinal injury caused by IR. In addition to the protective activities mediated via inhibition of the complement system, these studies indicate that C1INH also plays a direct role in suppression of leukocyte transmigration into reperfused tissue.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10/2008; 295(5):G1042-9. DOI:10.1152/ajpgi.90460.2008 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C1 inhibitor (C1INH) protects mice from lethal Gram-negative bacterial LPS-induced endotoxin shock and blocks the binding of LPS to the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, via an interaction with lipid A. Using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model for sepsis in mice, treatment with C1INH improved survival in comparison with untreated controls. The effect was not solely the result of inhibition of complement and contact system activation because reactive center-cleaved, inactive C1INH (iC1INH) also was effective. In vivo, C1INH and iC1INH both reduced the number of viable bacteria in the blood and peritoneal fluid and accelerated killing of bacteria by blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages. In vitro, C1INH bound to bacteria cultured from blood or peritoneal fluid of mice with CLP-induced sepsis, but had no direct effect on bacterial growth. However, both C1INH and iC1INH enhanced the bactericidal activity of blood neutrophils and peritoneal exudate leukocytes. C1INH-deficient mice (C1INH-/- mice) subjected to CLP had a higher mortality than did wild-type littermate mice. Survival of C1INH-/- mice was significantly increased with two doses of C1INH, one given immediately following CLP, and the second at 6 h post-CLP. C1INH may be important in protection from sepsis through enhancement of bacterial uptake by, and/or bactericidal capacity of, phagocytes. Treatment with C1INH may provide a useful additional therapeutic approach in some patients with peritonitis and/or sepsis.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2007; 179(6):3966-72. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.179.6.3966 · 5.36 Impact Factor