Stacey A Secreto

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (7)8.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The intensity and duration of pain following surgical placement of dental implants has not been well studied. Thus, the aim of this open-label study was to characterize the nature of postsurgical pain following the placement of one to three implants. The secondary goal was to explore the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of intranasal ketorolac in this patient population. Following implant surgery, postoperative pain was rated moderate or severe in 25/28 patients (89 percent), requiring prn analgesic dosing for up to 3 days in 14/25 individuals (56 percent). Intranasal ketorolac displayed an analgesic onset within 20 minutes, a duration of at least 6 hours, and was well tolerated by the cohort with brief stinging of the nasal mucosa reported by 9/25 individuals (36 percent).
    Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995). 09/2013; 34(8):570-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the cardiovascular effects and pharmacokinetics of an intranasal 3 percent tetracaine/0.05 percent oxymetazoline spray developed to provide needle-free anesthesia of maxillary teeth. The authors administered to 12 participants a proposed maximum recommended dose (MRD) (18 milligrams tetracaine/0.3 mg oxymetazoline) as three bilateral pairs of 0.1-milliliter nasal sprays. They administered two times this dose (36 mg tetracaine/0.6 mg oxymetazoline) as six bilateral pairs one to three weeks later. The authors recorded the patients' heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. They drew blood samples at baseline and 15 times during the two hours after drug administration. Physiological measures remained fairly stable throughout the two-hour period, with small but significant decreases (P < .05) in heart rate at 40 and 50 minutes for the two-times MRD (6.1 beats/minute) and MRD (7.5 beats/minute) administrations, respectively, and a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure (5.9 millimeters of mercury) for the two-times-MRD administration at 90 minutes. Mean oxygen saturation remained above 99 percent. Tetracaine plasma levels were undetectable in most participants, whereas concentrations of its major metabolite parabutylaminobenzoic acid from the two-times-MRD administration were approximately twice that from the MRD administration. Oxymetazoline concentrations from the two-times-MRD administration were approximately 50 percent greater than those from the MRD administration, with a half-life of 1.72 to 2.32 hours. Intranasal tetracaine/oxymetazoline mist generally was well tolerated in study participants. The safety profile and pharmacokinetics of this intranasal formulation indicate that it appears to be generally well tolerated in patients for achieving anesthesia of the maxilla. Additional safety and efficacy data are required, particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities.
    Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 08/2012; 143(8):872-80. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been employed in the study of altered regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in experimental and chronic pain. CBF patterns have not been evaluated in patients with acute postoperative pain. The purpose of this pilot study was to employ SPECT to measure CBF distribution associated with postoperative dental pain and to compare these CBF patterns to subsequent images in the same patients who were experiencing pain relief versus continued or worsening pain who had received active or placebo analgesic interventions. The primary outcome measure was the percentage change in blood flow in various regions of interest. Twenty-two healthy individuals (10 males and 12 females, age range 20-29 years) who underwent the removal of ≥1 partial or full bony impacted mandibular third molars were evaluated for pain intensity as the local anesthesia dissipated, employing a 0 to10 numeric rating scale (0 = no pain; 10 = worst imaginable). When the subjects' pain level reached ≥4/10, they were injected intravenously with 260 MBq of technetium Tc 99m bicisate (ethyl cysteinate dimer). Under double-blind conditions and 10 minutes before being placed in the SPECT scanner, the first 10 subjects were randomized to receive intravenous ketorolac 15 mg or saline while the remaining 12 subjects were randomized to receive by mouth either ibuprofen 400 mg, ibuprofen 200 mg, acetaminophen 1000 mg, or placebo. One hour after drug administration, subjects were reevaluated for pain, injected with 925 MBq of technetium Tc 99m bicisate, given rescue medication if required, and then rescanned. CBF ratios were obtained for regions of interest and by normalizing to average whole brain activity. Subjects generally had a moderate degree (mean [SD], 7.3% [4.0%]) of thalamic asymmetry on initial scans with pain; after treatment, subjects reporting worsening pain regardless of the intervention had higher thalamic asymmetry (8.1% vs 2.8%) than those reporting relief of pain. Subjects who reported reduced pain after the intervention had significantly different (P < 0.05) mean CBF changes compared with those reporting worsening pain in the left prefrontal cortex, left sensorimotor area, right anterior cingulate, and right caudate. Acute postoperative dental pain was associated with moderate thalamic asymmetry that improved following successful pain management. Sustained or worsening pain was associated with increased CBF in brain regions associated with pain pathways, whereas pain relief was associated with decreased activity in the same areas.
    Clinical Therapeutics 11/2011; 33(12):1894-903. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover clinical trial to compare the pharmacokinetics and cardiovascular effects of 11.9 milliliters of 4 percent articaine hydrochloride (HCl) plus 1:100,000 epinephrine (A100) with those of 11.9 mL of 4 percent articaine HCl plus 1:200,000 epinephrine (A200). During two testing sessions, the authors administered injections of A100 and A200 over a seven-minute period (in one-cartridge doses unless otherwise noted): maxillary right first molar infiltration, maxillary left first molar infiltration, maxillary right first premolar infiltration, maxillary left first premolar infiltration, right inferior alveolar injection, left inferior alveolar injection, right long buccal infiltration (one-half cartridge) and left long buccal infiltration (one-half cartridge). They analyzed venous blood samples for articaine levels. They used noninvasive acoustic tonometry to measure a variety of cardiovascular parameters over a two-hour period. Plasma concentration curves of articaine over time were similar for both solutions, with peak concentrations and times to maximum concentration being 2,037 nanograms per milliliter and 22 minutes for A100 and 2,145 ng/mL and 22 minutes for A200. At the 10-minute point, the mean systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly elevated (P < .05) with A100 versus A200. Maximum dose recommendations for the A100 solution also can be applied to the A200 solution. A200 produces less cardiovascular stimulation than does A100. A200 is as safe as A100, and may be preferable to A100 in patients with cardiovascular disease and in those taking drugs that reportedly enhance the systemic effects of epinephrine.
    Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 11/2006; 137(11):1562-71. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This pilot study evaluated subject compliance with a proposed OTC label with improved dosing directions for self-application of a 20% benzocaine gel for toothache pain, and assessed the methodology for evaluating efficacy in a future pivotal study of benzocaine gel. It was hypothesized that > or = 75% of subjects would apply < or = 400 mg of product (80 mg benzocaine). Exploratory analyses of efficacy were also performed. Thirty patients with spontaneous pain of moderate or severe intensity from a single tooth due to caries, a lost restoration, or a fracture entered this randomized, parallel group, double-blind study. Before self-applying 20% benzocaine gel or placebo, patients read a label containing new dosing directions, including a picture of how much product to apply to their tooth and the surrounding gingival tissues. The amount applied was determined by weighing the tube before and after dosing. Following dosing, pain intensity and relief were recorded every five minutes through 30 minutes, then every ten minutes through 120 minutes. Responders were defined as those subjects who experienced at least a one-unit reduction in pain intensity from baseline at two consecutive time points within the first 20 minutes. Onset of meaningful relief was recorded using a stopwatch. The percentage of responders was compared using the Mantel-Haenszel test. ANOVA was employed to test for differences in Pain Relief Combined with Pain Intensity Difference (PRID), and the areas under the curve at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes for this measure (SPRID). Median onset and duration times were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model. Adverse events were recorded if and when they occurred. It was found that 86.7% of the subjects (26/30) applied < or = 375 mg of product (mean +/- SD = 327.7 +/- 276.8 mg). The benzocaine group had a significantly higher (p = 0.022) responder rate (86.7%) than the placebo group (46.7%). Significant differences in favor of the benzocaine group were also recorded for PRID at 10, 15, and 30 minutes (p < 0.05) and SPRID-30 (p = 0.037). Median onset and duration times were 8.3 minutes and > 115 minutes for the benzocaine group, >120 minutes and 5 minutes for the placebo group. There were no adverse events recorded in the study. The improved dosing directions resulted in a high percentage of subjects self-applying an appropriate amount of benzocaine gel or matching placebo. The label and study methodology appear suitable for a pivotal dose-response study in subjects with toothache pain. While the current study was not statistically powered to make firm efficacy conclusions, 20% benzocaine gel appeared more efficacious than placebo, providing a rapid onset of pain relief and a relatively long duration of action.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 02/2005; 16(4):103-8.
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    ABSTRACT: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effectiveness and tolerability of a novel intraoral benzocaine patch was evaluated in 60 patients who presented to the Dental School's emergency clinic with spontaneous toothache pain of at least a moderate intensity. Mucoadhesive patches, containing either 12 mg of benzocaine or a matching placebo, were applied approximately two millimeters apical to the mucogingival junction of the symptomatic tooth and remained in place for 60 minutes. Pain intensity (0-4 scale) and pain relief (0-4 scale) were recorded every five minutes through 30 minutes, and then every ten minutes through the 90-minute time point. The onset times of first perceptible and meaningful relief were recorded using two stopwatches. The occurrence of adverse events was also monitored. While the benzocaine patches were numerically superior to the placebo patches at all time points with respect to pain relief, PID (pain intensity difference) and their summed measures (TOTPAR and SPID scores), an analysis of covariance revealed no significant differences between treatments. Survival analysis indicated that the percentage of patients reporting meaningful pain relief by 30 minutes was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the benzocaine group than in the placebo group (77% for benzocaine and 47% for placebo). The median onset times to first perceptible and meaningful relief were 5.4 and 18.1 minutes in the benzocaine group, and 7.8 and 30.4 minutes in the placebo group. Only two side effects (headache) were reported in the entire study. Although the results of the present study were promising, further research on this novel delivery system of benzocaine is warranted to firmly establish efficacy in patients with spontaneous toothache pain.
    The Journal of clinical dentistry 01/2003; 14(1):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Ibuprofen liquigel is a solubilized potassium ibuprofen 200-mg gelatin capsule formulation that was approved for over-the-counter use in 1995. This study compared the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of ibuprofen liquigel 200 mg, ibuprofen liquigel 400 mg, acetaminophen caplets 1000 mg, and placebo in patients experiencing moderate or severe pain after surgical removal of impacted third molars. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 6-hour study was conducted in 210 patients experiencing moderate or severe postoperative pain. Ratings of pain intensity and pain relief were recorded every 15 minutes for the first hour, at 90 and 120 minutes, and then hourly through hour 6. The onsets of first perceptible relief and meaningful relief were recorded using 2 stopwatches. An analysis of variance model was employed to test for significant differences (P < or = 0.05) between treatment groups with respect to pain relief, pain intensity difference, total pain relief (TOTPAR), and summed pain intensity difference (SPID). Stopwatch measures were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Drug tolerability was assessed by monitoring the occurrence of adverse events. During the first 2 hours of the study (TOTPAR 2 and SPID 2), all active treatments were significantly more efficacious than placebo (P < 0.001), with ibuprofen liquigel 200 and 400 mg significantly more efficacious than acetaminophen 1000 mg (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). For the entire duration of the study (TOTPAR 6 and SPID 6), only the 2 doses of ibuprofen liquigel were significantly more efficacious than placebo (P < 0.001). Ibuprofen liquigel 200 and 400 mg were also significantly more efficacious than acetaminophen 1000 mg on the summary measures TOTPAR 6 and SPID 6 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Analysis of the stopwatch data revealed that all active treatments displayed significantly more rapid onsets to confirmed first perceptible relief (P < 0.001 to < 0.05) and meaningful relief (P < 0.001 to < 0.01) than did placebo, with ibuprofen liquigel 400 mg displaying a significantly more rapid onset to meaningful relief than acetaminophen 1000 mg (P < 0.05) and a significantly more rapid onset to confirmed first perceptible relief than acetaminophen 1000 mg (P < 0.001) and ibuprofen liquigel 200 mg (P < 0.01). All adverse events were considered mild or moderate, with an overall incidence of 11.5% in the ibuprofen liquigel 200-mg group, 6.8% in the ibuprofen liquigel 400-mg group, 19.0% in the acetaminophen 1000-mg group, and 25.9% in the placebo group. Ibuprofen liquigel provided greater peak and overall analgesic effects and a more rapid onset to analgesia than did acetaminophen 1000 mg.
    Clinical Therapeutics 11/2000; 22(11):1306-18. · 2.23 Impact Factor