[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lipocalin family is a large group of proteins that exhibits great structural and functional variation both within and among species, including a significant number of animal-derived aeroallergens, such as the bovine BDA20 (major cow dander allergen). This protein is classified as an occupational allergen causing asthma and other work-related allergic disorders among dairy farmers. Using a somatic cell panel the BDA20 gene was assigned to the bovine X chromosome (BTAX) with a significant concordant value of 97% to the previously mapped reference marker MAF45. A radiation hybrid (RH) mapping approach confirmed the assignment of BDA20 to BTAX. Two-point LOD scores showed that BDA20 is linked to XBM451 with a LOD score of 22.1 for a theta value of 0.03.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-resolution gene maps of individual equine chromosomes are essential to identify genes governing traits of economic importance in the horse. In pursuit of this goal we herein report the generation of a dense map of horse chromosome 22 (ECA22) comprising 83 markers, of which 52 represent specific genes and 31 are microsatellites. The map spans 831 cR over an estimated 64 Mb of physical length of the chromosome, thus providing markers at approximately 770 kb or 10 cR intervals. Overall, the resolution of the map is to date the densest in the horse and is the highest for any of the domesticated animal species for which annotated sequence data are not yet available. Comparative analysis showed that ECA22 shares remarkable conservation of gene order along the entire length of dog chromosome 24, something not yet found for an autosome in evolutionarily diverged species. Comparison with human, mouse, and rat homologues shows that ECA22 can be traced as two conserved linkage blocks, each related to individual arms of the human homologue-HSA20. Extending the comparison to the chicken genome showed that one of the ECA22 blocks that corresponds to HSA20q shares synteny conservation with chicken chromosome 20, suggesting the segment to be ancestral in mammals and birds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To get more information about the order of genes located in Bos taurus (BTA) chromosome 27 segments, supposed to harbor loci influencing clinical mastitis and somatic cell count, and to identify genes that serve as positional candidates for the mentioned traits, we constructed a high-resolution, comparative, and comprehensive gene map for BTA27. The map includes 57 loci in a 5000-rad cattle-hamster whole genome radiation hybrid panel supported by 50 syntenic assignments in a cattle-murine somatic hybrid cell panel. Thirty-eight new loci (36 genes, 2 microsatellites) together with repeated mappings of 5 genes and 7 microsatellites and integration of existing data from 7 microsatellites were used to generate a comprehensive RH5000 map. The RH map, constructed at lod score criterion 8 using the software RHMAP v.3.0, consisted of three linkage groups 23, 22, and 590 cR5000 in length. Gene assignments on BTA27 and the localization of 8 more genes on BTA8 and BTA14 previously predicted on BTA8/BTA27 and BTA14/BTA27 narrowed down significantly the chromosome break points between the three cattle chromosomes and segments on Homo sapiens chromosomes HSA4 and HSA8. Defined evolutionary break points increase the accuracy of comparative in silico mapping of further human genes in conserved chromosome segments of BTA27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Titin-cap (TCAP), one of the abundant transcripts in skeletal muscles, was nvestigated in this study in cattle because of its role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts by interacting with the myostatin gene. From the 5, and 3, RACE experiments, full-length TCAP coding sequence was identified, comprising 166 amino acids. The amino acid comparison showed high sequence similarities with previously identified human (95.8%) and mouse (95.2%) TCAP genes. The TCAP expression, addressed by northern blot, is limited in muscle tissues as indicated by Valle et al. (1997). The radiation hybrid analysis localized the gene on BTA19, where the comparative human and porcine counterparts are on HSA17 and SSC12. A few muscle-related genetic disorders were mapped on HSA17 and some growth-related QTLs were identified on SSC12. The bovine TCAP gene found in this study opens up new possibilities for the investigation of muscle-related genetic diseases as well as meat yield traits in cattle.
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 10/2004; 17(10). · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A second-generation 5000 rad radiation hybrid (RH) map of the cattle genome was constructed primarily using cattle ESTs that were targeted to gaps in the existing cattle-human comparative map, as well as to sparsely populated map intervals. A total of 870 targeted markers were added, bringing the number of markers mapped on the RH(5000) panel to 1913. Of these, 1463 have significant BLASTN hits (E < e(-5)) against the human genome sequence. A cattle-human comparative map was created using human genome sequence coordinates of the paired orthologs. One-hundred and ninety-five conserved segments (defined by two or more genes) were identified between the cattle and human genomes, of which 31 are newly discovered and 34 were extended singletons on the first-generation map. The new map represents an improvement of 20% genome-wide comparative coverage compared with the first-generation map. Analysis of gene content within human genome regions where there are gaps in the comparative map revealed gaps with both significantly greater and significantly lower gene content. The new, more detailed cattle-human comparative map provides an improved resource for the analysis of mammalian chromosome evolution, the identification of candidate genes for economically important traits, and for proper alignment of sequence contigs on cattle chromosomes.
Genome Research 07/2004; 14(7):1424-37. · 13.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We herein report a detailed physical map of the horse Y chromo-some. The euchromatic region of the chromosome comprises 15 megabases (Mb) of the total 45-to 50-Mb size and lies in the distal one-third of the long arm, where the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is located terminally. The rest of the chromosome is predom-inantly heterochromatic. Because of the unusual organization of the chromosome (common to all mammalian Y chromosomes), a number of approaches were used to crossvalidate the results. Analysis of the 5,000-rad horse hamster radiation hybrid panel produced a map spanning 88 centirays with 8 genes and 15 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. The map was verified by several fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches. Isolation of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones for the radiation hybrid-mapped markers, end sequencing of the BACs, STS devel-opment, and bidirectional chromosome walking yielded 109 mark-ers (100 STS and 9 genes) contained in 73 BACs. STS content mapping grouped the BACs into seven physically ordered contigs (of which one is predominantly ampliconic) that were verified by metaphase-, interphase-, and fiber-fluorescence in situ hybridiza-tion and also BAC fingerprinting. The map spans almost the entire euchromatic region of the chromosome, of which 20 –25% (4 Mb) is covered by isolated BACs. The map is presently the most informative among Y chromosome maps in domesticated species, third only to the human and mouse maps. The foundation laid through the map will be critical in obtaining complete sequence of the euchromatic region of the horse Y chromosome, with an aim to identify Y specific factors governing male infertility and pheno-typic sex variation. gene map
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2004; · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparative genomics has served as a backbone for the rapid development of gene maps in domesticated animals. The integration of this approach with radiation hybrid (RH) analysis provides one of the most direct ways to obtain physically ordered comparative maps across evolutionarily diverged species. We herein report the development of a detailed RH and comparative map for horse chromosome 17 (ECA17). With markers distributed at an average interval of every 1.4 Mb, the map is currently the most informative among the equine chromosomes. It comprises 75 markers (56 genes and 19 microsatellites), of which 50 gene specific and 5 microsatellite markers were generated in this study and typed to our 5000-rad horse x hamster whole genome RH panel. The markers are dispersed over six RH linkage groups and span 825 cR(5000). The map is among the most comprehensive whole chromosome comparative maps currently available for domesticated animals. It finely aligns ECA17 to human and mouse homologues (HSA13 and MMU1, 3, 5, 8, and 14, respectively) and homologues in other domesticated animals. Comparisons provide insight into their relative organization and help to identify evolutionarily conserved segments. The new ECA17 map will serve as a template for the development of clusters of BAC contigs in regions containing genes of interest. Sequencing of these regions will help to initiate studies aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms for various diseases and inherited disorders in horse as well as human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of a dense map of the horse genome is key to efforts aimed at identifying genes controlling health, reproduction, and performance. We herein report a high-resolution gene map of the horse (Equus caballus) X chromosome (ECAX) generated by developing and typing 116 gene-specific and 12 short tandem repeat markers on the 5,000-rad horse x hamster whole-genome radiation hybrid panel and mapping 29 gene loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The human X chromosome sequence was used as a template to select genes at 1-Mb intervals to develop equine orthologs. Coupled with our previous data, the new map comprises a total of 175 markers (139 genes and 36 short tandem repeats, of which 53 are fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped) distributed on average at approximately 880-kb intervals along the chromosome. This is the densest and most uniformly distributed chromosomal map presently available in any mammalian species other than humans and rodents. Comparison of the horse and human X chromosome maps shows remarkable conservation of gene order along the entire span of the chromosomes, including the location of the centromere. An overview of the status of the horse map in relation to mouse, livestock, and companion animal species is also provided. The map will be instrumental for analysis of X linked health and fertility traits in horses by facilitating identification of targeted chromosomal regions for isolation of polymorphic markers, building bacterial artificial chromosome contigs, or sequencing.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2004; 101(8):2386-91. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coordination of the primary defense mechanisms against pathogens relies on the appropriate expression of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) triggering the early release of effector molecules of the innate immune system. To analyze the impact of this system on the counteraction of infections of the mammary gland (mastitis), we characterized the bovine gene encoding the key PRR Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and mapped its precise position on chromosome BTA22. The sequence information was used to establish real-time PCR quantification assays to measure the mRNA abundances of TLR9, TLR2, and TLR4 together with those of beta-defensin 5 (BNBD5), an early bactericidal effector molecule of the innate system, in healthy and infected mammary glands. Mastitis strongly increased (4- to 13-fold) the mRNA abundances of all of these genes except TLR9. Slight subclinical infections already caused a substantial increase in the copy numbers, though they did so the least for TLR9. Induction was not systemic, since mRNA abundance was low in uninfected control quarters of the udder but high in the severely infected quarters of the same animal. The number of TLR2 copies correlated well with those of TLR4, indicating coordinated regulation of these two PRRs during infection of the udder. Their coordinated regulation explains our unexpected observation that pure Staphylococcus aureus infections caused a strong increase also in TLR4 mRNA abundance. In situ hybridizations revealed that BNBD5 is expressed predominantly in the mammary epithelial cells (MEC) of the infected gland. Our data therefore suggest a significant contribution of the innate immune system to counteract mastitis and attribute a prominent effector function to the MEC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coordination of the primary defense mechanisms against pathogens relies on the appropriate expression of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) triggering the early release of effector molecules of the innate immune system. To analyze the impact of this system on the counteraction of infections of the mammary gland (mastitis), we characterized the bovine gene encoding the key PRR Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and mapped its precise position on chromosome BTA22. The sequence information was used to establish real-time PCR quantification assays to measure the mRNA abundances of TLR9, TLR2, and TLR4 together with those of -defensin 5 (BNBD5), an early bactericidal effector molecule of the innate system, in healthy and infected mammary glands. Mastitis strongly increased (4- to 13-fold) the mRNA abundances of all of these genes except TLR9. Slight subclinical infections already caused a substantial increase in the copy numbers, though they did so the least for TLR9. Induction was not systemic, since mRNA abundance was low in uninfected control quarters of the udder but high in the severely infected quarters of the same animal. The number of TLR2 copies correlated well with those of TLR4, indicating coordinated regulation of these two PRRs during infection of the udder. Their coordinated regulation explains our unexpected observation that pure Staphylococcus aureus infections caused a strong increase also in TLR4 mRNA abundance. In situ hybridizations revealed that BNBD5 is expressed predominantly in the mammary epithelial cells (MEC) of the infected gland. Our data therefore suggest a significant contribution of the innate immune system to counteract mastitis and attribute a prominent effector function to the MEC. Infections of the mammary gland (mastitis) are the most costly single trait diseases in dairy cattle housing (48). They are caused by a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Invading pathogens activate the immune defense in the udder, which is manifest as an increase of somatic cells in the milk. Mainly polymorph nuclear neutrophil granulocytes are re- cruited to the gland (38, 40), and their numbers increase 10- to 50-fold during the first few hours after infection (22, 23). The etiology of the pathogens influences the severity of the inflam- mation. Contagious pathogens, like Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus agalactiae, tend to result in chronic, subclinical mastitis while the environmental coliform bacteria very often cause acute, clinical infections of the gland (17). The reasons for these pathogen-related differences in the ability of the host's immune defense system to cope with infections of the mammary gland are unknown. They might reside in factors contributing to the innate branch of the immune system, since the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathogen receptors and the -de- fensin-type bactericidal effector molecules of the innate im- mune system are both known to display some pathogen spec- ificity. However, there are no systematic reports available on the mammary gland-specific or mastitis-related expression of any key factor of the innate immune system.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 01/2004; 11(1):174-185. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family is an ancient stress response system whose primary function is regulation of cellular ATP. Activation of AMPK, which is instigated by environmental and nutritional stresses, initiates energy-conserving measures that protect the cell by inhibition and phosphorylation of key enzymes in energy-consuming biochemical pathways. The seven genes that comprise the bovine AMPK family were mapped in cattle by using a radiation hybrid panel. The seven genes mapped to six different cattle chromosomes, each with a LOD score greater than 10.0. PRKAA1 mapped to BTA 20, PRKAA2 and PRKAB2 to BTA 3, PRKAB1 to BTA 17, PRKAG1 to BTA 5, PRKAG2 to BTA 4, and PRKAG3 to BTA 2. Five of the seven genes mapped to regions expected from human/cattle comparative maps. PRKAB2 and PRKAG3, however, have not been mapped in humans. We predict these genes to be located on HSA 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, one synonymous and one non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were detected in PRKAG3 in Bos taurus cattle. In an effort to determine ancestral origins, various herds of mixed breed cattle as well as other ruminant species were characterized for sequence variation in this region of PRKAG3. Owing to the physiological importance of this gene family, we believe that its individual genes are candidate genes for conferring resistance to diseases in cattle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from cDNA libraries of different developmental stages of embryos were mapped using a whole genome bovine hamster radiation hybrid panel. These include 14 markers representing genes, most of which have not so far been mapped in cattle, with another three being novel in both cattle and human. The markers were placed on specific chromosomes with high LOD scores and except two all localizations fit the current human and cattle comparative map. The assignment of these genes further enriches the cattle genome map and also contributes to the international effort of generating comparative maps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A first-generation radiation hybrid (RH) map of the equine (Equus caballus) genome was assembled using 92 horse x hamster hybrid cell lines and 730 equine markers. The map is the first comprehensive framework map of the horse that (1) incorporates type I as well as type II markers, (2) integrates synteny, cytogenetic, and meiotic maps into a consensus map, and (3) provides the most detailed genome-wide information to date on the organization and comparative status of the equine genome. The 730 loci (258 type I and 472 type II) included in the final map are clustered in 101 RH groups distributed over all equine autosomes and the X chromosome. The overall marker retention frequency in the panel is approximately 21%, and the possibility of adding any new marker to the map is approximately 90%. On average, the mapped markers are distributed every 19 cR (4 Mb) of the equine genome--a significant improvement in resolution over previous maps. With 69 new FISH assignments, a total of 253 cytogenetically mapped loci physically anchor the RH map to various chromosomal segments. Synteny assignments of 39 gene loci complemented the RH mapping of 27 genes. The results added 12 new loci to the horse gene map. Lastly, comparison of the assembly of 447 equine genes (256 linearly ordered RH-mapped and additional 191 FISH-mapped) with the location of draft sequences of their human and mouse orthologs provides the most extensive horse-human and horse-mouse comparative map to date. We expect that the foundation established through this map will significantly facilitate rapid targeted expansion of the horse gene map and consequently, mapping and positional cloning of genes governing traits significant to the equine industry.
Genome Research 05/2003; 13(4):742-51. · 13.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have applied a targeted physical mapping approach, based on the isolation of bovine region-specific large-insert clones using homologous human sequences and chromosome microdissection, to enhance the physical gene map of the telomeric region of BTA18 and to prove its evolutionary conservation. The latter is a prerequisite to exploit the dense human gene map for future positional cloning approaches. Partial sequencing and homology search were used to characterize 20 BACs targeted to the BTA18q2.4-q2.6 region. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to create physical maps of 11 BACs containing 15 gene loci; these BACs served as anchor loci. Using these approaches, 12 new gene loci (CKM, STK13, PSCD2, IRF3, VASP, ACTN4, ITPKC, CYP2B6, FOSB, DMPK, MIA, SIX5) were assigned on BTA18 in the bovine cytogenetic map. A resolved physical map of BTA18q2.4-q2.6 was developed, which encompasses 28 marker loci and a comparative cytogenetic map that contains 15 genes. The mapping results demonstrate the high evolutionary conservation between the telomeric region of BTA18q and HSA19q.