ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery for congenital heart defects is commonly complicated by shunt-induced chronic pulmonary hypertension and associated acute hypertensive crises. To investigate the effects of vasodilators in chronic and acute pulmonary hypertension, we used the innominate artery to create a growing aortopulmonary shunt in young piglets.
Pulmonary hemodynamics and right ventricular function and their responses to hypoxia, intravenous prostacyclin, and inhaled nitric oxide were investigated after closure of the shunt by using pulmonary flow-pressure relationships, pulmonary vascular resistance partitioning, pulmonary vascular impedance, and ventriculoarterial coupling expressed as the ratio of right ventricular end-systolic elastance to effective pulmonary arterial elastance.
Shunt-induced pulmonary hypertension was associated with medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries, increased resistance, increased elastance, increased wave reflection, and preserved ventriculoarterial coupling. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was blunted in the shunt group. Compared with prostacyclin, inhaled nitric oxide was a more effective vasodilator in the shunt group and in hypoxia. Effective pulmonary arterial elastance and right ventricular end-systolic elastance increased in chronic (shunt) and acute (hypoxic) hypertension and decreased with vasodilators, preserving a normal coupling.
A growing aortopulmonary shunt in the young pig is a reliable model of chronic pulmonary hypertension, with medial hypertrophy, increased resistance, and increased elastance. In this model inhaled nitric oxide is a better pulmonary vasodilator than intravenous prostacyclin, with neither drug having a specific inotropic effect, and normal coupling is preserved in chronic and acute pulmonary hypertension.
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 12/2003; 126(5):1434-41. · 3.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of endogenous endothelins on pulmonary haemodynamics and gas exchange in oleic acid lung injury.
Prospective experimental study in dogs.
Animal research laboratory in a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS. Seventeen anaesthetised and ventilated mongrel dogs.
Nine pretreated dogs received an infusion of the endothelin A and B receptor antagonist bosentan (10 mg/kg) started before oleic acid. Eight treated dogs received bosentan started 90 min after oleic acid. Cardiac index (CI) was manipulated by inflating an inferior vena caval balloon or by opening a femoral arterio-venous bypass.
Pulmonary vascular resistance was defined by measuring the gradient between mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and occluded PAP (PAOP) at five levels of CI. Intrapulmonary shunt was measured using the inert gas SF(6). Pretreatment with bosentan prevented the oleic acid-induced shift of (MPAP-PAOP)/CI plots to higher pressures, but did not affect the increase in intrapulmonary shunt. Treatment of established oleic acid lung injury with bosentan had no effect.
Pretreatment, but not treatment, with bosentan, in the dose used, blunted the oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, suggesting that endothelins contribute to the increase in pulmonary vascular tone in the early stages of oleic acid lung injury.
Intensive Care Medicine 07/2003; 29(6):1003-6. · 5.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To characterize the endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent components of abnormal pulmonary vascular tone in canine oleic acid lung injury.
Prospective, interventional study.
Twenty anesthetized mongrel dogs.
Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary vascular resistance before and after induction of oleic acid lung injury in ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs. Pulmonary and internal mammary artery rings were sampled in these ten dogs with oleic acid injury and in ten anesthetized healthy control dogs. We also studied the responses to acetylcholine, to phenylephrine, and to hypoxia of the intact or endothelium-denuded rings mounted in organ baths.
Oleic acid lung injury was associated with an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance from 118 +/- 11 to 245 +/- 47 dyne.sec.cm-5.m-2 and a decrease in the Pao2/Fio2 ratio from 451 +/- 42 to 139 +/- 26 mm Hg (mean +/- se, p <.05 and p <.01, respectively). Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was decreased in the oleic acid pulmonary artery rings compared with the controls (85 +/- 3% vs. 99 +/- 6% of precontraction level, p <.05). Phenylephrine-induced contraction was decreased in denuded oleic acid pulmonary artery rings compared with the controls (81 +/- 8% vs. 102 +/- 10% of contraction to KCl 120 mM, p <.05). In vitro hypoxia induced a small endothelium-dependent contraction followed by an endothelium-independent relaxation. These responses were not different in oleic acid lung artery rings and in controls, except for a decrease in hypoxic contraction in the oleic acid pulmonary artery rings. In vitro hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and relaxation were, respectively, directly (r =.48) and inversely (r = -.67) correlated with oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. There was no correlation between in vitro internal mammary artery reactivity and oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance.
Oleic acid-induced lung injury slightly impairs pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation and endothelium-independent contraction. In vitro hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity is related to in vivo oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance.
Critical Care Medicine 07/2002; 30(7):1565-9. · 6.33 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study sought to determine the site of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in primary pulmonary hypertension by standard bedside hemodynamic evaluation.Background. The measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures at several levels of flow (Q) allows the discrimination between active and passive, flow-dependent changes in mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), and may detect the presence of an increased pulmonary vascular closing pressure. The determination of a capillary pressure (Pc′) from the analysis of a Ppa decay curve after balloon occlusion allows the partitioning of PVR in an arterial and a (capillary + venous) segment. These approaches have not been reported in primary pulmonary hypertension.Methods. Ppa and Pc′ were measured at baseline and after an increase in Q induced either by exercise or by an infusion of dobutamine, at a dosage up to 8 μg/kg body weight per min, in 11 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Reversibility of pulmonary hypertension was assessed by the inhalation of 20 ppm nitric oxide (NO), and, in 6 patients, by an infusion of prostacyclin.Results. At baseline, Ppa was 52 ± 3 mm Hg (mean value ± SE), Q 2.2 ± 0.2 liters/min per m2, and Pc′ 29 ± 3 mm Hg. Dobutamine did not affect Pc′ and allowed the calculation of an averaged extrapolated pressure intercept of Ppa/Q plots of 34 mm Hg. Inhaled NO had no effect. Prostacyclin decreased Pc′ and PVR. Exercise increased Pc′ to 40 ± 3 mm Hg but did not affect PVR.Conclusions. These findings are compatible with a major increase of resistance and reactivity at the periphery of the pulmonary arterial tree.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology.