S Abdel Kafi

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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Publications (16)66.43 Total impact

  • Revue Des Maladies Respiratoires - REV MAL RESPIR. 01/2007; 24:57-57.
  • Revue Des Maladies Respiratoires - REV MAL RESPIR. 01/2006; 23:110-110.
  • S Abdel Kafi, G Deboeck
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 12/2005; 22(5 Pt 3):7S54-7S58. · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • S Abdel Kafi, D Leduc, R Sergysels, V Ninane
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    ABSTRACT: Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is a characteristic feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and leads to dynamic hyperinflation (DH) which is a major source of dyspnoea, particularly during exercise. A new technique for the detection of EFL, based on manual compression of the abdomen (MCA), was assessed both in normal subjects and patients with COPD. MCA was always associated with a moderate increase in pleural pressure and allowed the detection of EFL in a reproducible manner, in both the seated and supine postures. The technique was well tolerated. It was also a reliable method for the detection of EFL during exercise since EFL detection was effectively associated with the development of DH. Finally, MCA was also compared to NEP in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and in these patients, MCA invariably increased expiratory flow whereas the NEP method produced flow limitation in some cases because of upper airway collapse. EFL detection with MCA may be clinically useful since EFL is a determinant of dyspnoea, affects ventilatory response to exercise as well as maximum exercise capacity. MCA is a reliable technique for the detection of EFL in different positions, during resting breathing or exercise, requiring neither special equipment nor patient cooperation.
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 03/2005; 22(1 Pt 1):93-101. · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • S. Abdel Kafi, G. Deboeck
    Revue Des Maladies Respiratoires - REV MAL RESPIR. 01/2005; 22(5):54-58.
  • S. Abdel Kafi, D. Leduc, R. Sergysels, V. Ninane
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionExpiratory flow limitation (EFL) is a characteristic feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and leads to dynamic hyperinflation (DH) which is a major source of dyspnoea, particularly during exercise.State of the artA new technique for the detection of EFL, based on manual compression of the abdomen (MCA), was assessed both in normal subjects and patients with COPD. MCA was always associated with a moderate increase in pleural pressure and allowed the detection of EFL in a reproducible manner, in both the seated and supine postures. The technique was well tolerated. It was also a reliable method for the detection of EFL during exercise since EFL detection was effectively associated with the development of DH. Finally, MCA was also compared to NEP in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and in these patients, MCA invariably increased expiratory flow whereas the NEP method produced flow limitation in some cases because of upper airway collapse.PerspectivesEFL detection with MCA may be clinically useful since EFL is a determinant of dyspnoea, affects ventilatory response to exercise as well as maximum exercise capacity.ConclusionsMCA is a reliable technique for the detection of EFL in different positions, during resting breathing or exercise, requiring neither special equipment nor patient cooperation.
    Revue des Maladies Respiratoires. 01/2005; 22(1):93-101.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac surgery for congenital heart defects is commonly complicated by shunt-induced chronic pulmonary hypertension and associated acute hypertensive crises. To investigate the effects of vasodilators in chronic and acute pulmonary hypertension, we used the innominate artery to create a growing aortopulmonary shunt in young piglets. Pulmonary hemodynamics and right ventricular function and their responses to hypoxia, intravenous prostacyclin, and inhaled nitric oxide were investigated after closure of the shunt by using pulmonary flow-pressure relationships, pulmonary vascular resistance partitioning, pulmonary vascular impedance, and ventriculoarterial coupling expressed as the ratio of right ventricular end-systolic elastance to effective pulmonary arterial elastance. Shunt-induced pulmonary hypertension was associated with medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries, increased resistance, increased elastance, increased wave reflection, and preserved ventriculoarterial coupling. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was blunted in the shunt group. Compared with prostacyclin, inhaled nitric oxide was a more effective vasodilator in the shunt group and in hypoxia. Effective pulmonary arterial elastance and right ventricular end-systolic elastance increased in chronic (shunt) and acute (hypoxic) hypertension and decreased with vasodilators, preserving a normal coupling. A growing aortopulmonary shunt in the young pig is a reliable model of chronic pulmonary hypertension, with medial hypertrophy, increased resistance, and increased elastance. In this model inhaled nitric oxide is a better pulmonary vasodilator than intravenous prostacyclin, with neither drug having a specific inotropic effect, and normal coupling is preserved in chronic and acute pulmonary hypertension.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 12/2003; 126(5):1434-41. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of endogenous endothelins on pulmonary haemodynamics and gas exchange in oleic acid lung injury. Prospective experimental study in dogs. Animal research laboratory in a university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS. Seventeen anaesthetised and ventilated mongrel dogs. Nine pretreated dogs received an infusion of the endothelin A and B receptor antagonist bosentan (10 mg/kg) started before oleic acid. Eight treated dogs received bosentan started 90 min after oleic acid. Cardiac index (CI) was manipulated by inflating an inferior vena caval balloon or by opening a femoral arterio-venous bypass. Pulmonary vascular resistance was defined by measuring the gradient between mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and occluded PAP (PAOP) at five levels of CI. Intrapulmonary shunt was measured using the inert gas SF(6). Pretreatment with bosentan prevented the oleic acid-induced shift of (MPAP-PAOP)/CI plots to higher pressures, but did not affect the increase in intrapulmonary shunt. Treatment of established oleic acid lung injury with bosentan had no effect. Pretreatment, but not treatment, with bosentan, in the dose used, blunted the oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, suggesting that endothelins contribute to the increase in pulmonary vascular tone in the early stages of oleic acid lung injury.
    Intensive Care Medicine 07/2003; 29(6):1003-6. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the site of increased resistance using the arterial occlusion technique in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary vascular resistance was partitioned in arterial and venous components based on double exponential fitting analysis of the pulmonary artery pressure decay curve: after balloon occlusion in 36 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); at baseline and during the inhalation of 20 parts per million of nitric oxide (NO); in four patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; and in two patients with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. In the patients with PAH, at baseline, mean pulmonary artery pressure was 56+/-2 mmHg (mean+/-SE), with an arterial component of resistance of 63+/-1%. Inhaled NO did not change the partition of resistance. The arterial component of resistance amounted on average to 42% and 77% in the patients with veno-occlusive disease and the patients with thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, respectively. However, the partitioning of resistance did not discriminate between these three diagnostic categories. The occlusion technique may help to locate the predominant site of increased resistance in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension, but does not allow for a satisfactory differential diagnosis on an individual basis.
    European Respiratory Journal 02/2003; 21(1):31-6. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of endothelin receptor blockade on the pulmonary circulation have been reported variably, possibly in relation to a more or less important associated release of endogenous nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to test whether endothelin antagonism would inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and if it would not, then would it do so after NO synthase inhibition. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) was evaluated in anesthetised dogs by the increase in the mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) minus occluded Ppa (Ppao) gradient in response to hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction of 0.1) at constant pulmonary blood flow. Bosentan, an endothelin A and B receptor antagonist, did not affect baseline Ppa, Ppao or systemic arterial pressure (Psa) and did not alter HPV (n=8). The NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) did not affect baseline Ppa and Ppao, but increased Psa and enhanced HPV (n=12). The addition of bosentan in these dogs did not affect baseline Ppa or Ppao, but decreased Psa and inhibited HPV. Exhaled NO was decreased by L-NA and by bosentan and abolished by L-NA+bosentan (n=9). The authors conclude that endogenous nitric oxide is released by, and opposes the vasoconstricting effects of, endothelins in vivo, reducing systemic blood pressure and limiting hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
    European Respiratory Journal 02/2003; 21(1):19-24. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent components of abnormal pulmonary vascular tone in canine oleic acid lung injury. Prospective, interventional study. University laboratory. Twenty anesthetized mongrel dogs. Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary vascular resistance before and after induction of oleic acid lung injury in ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs. Pulmonary and internal mammary artery rings were sampled in these ten dogs with oleic acid injury and in ten anesthetized healthy control dogs. We also studied the responses to acetylcholine, to phenylephrine, and to hypoxia of the intact or endothelium-denuded rings mounted in organ baths. Oleic acid lung injury was associated with an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance from 118 +/- 11 to 245 +/- 47 dyne.sec.cm-5.m-2 and a decrease in the Pao2/Fio2 ratio from 451 +/- 42 to 139 +/- 26 mm Hg (mean +/- se, p <.05 and p <.01, respectively). Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was decreased in the oleic acid pulmonary artery rings compared with the controls (85 +/- 3% vs. 99 +/- 6% of precontraction level, p <.05). Phenylephrine-induced contraction was decreased in denuded oleic acid pulmonary artery rings compared with the controls (81 +/- 8% vs. 102 +/- 10% of contraction to KCl 120 mM, p <.05). In vitro hypoxia induced a small endothelium-dependent contraction followed by an endothelium-independent relaxation. These responses were not different in oleic acid lung artery rings and in controls, except for a decrease in hypoxic contraction in the oleic acid pulmonary artery rings. In vitro hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and relaxation were, respectively, directly (r =.48) and inversely (r = -.67) correlated with oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. There was no correlation between in vitro internal mammary artery reactivity and oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Oleic acid-induced lung injury slightly impairs pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation and endothelium-independent contraction. In vitro hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity is related to in vivo oleic acid-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance.
    Critical Care Medicine 07/2002; 30(7):1565-9. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Manual compression of the abdomen (MCA) during spontaneous expiration is a simple method for the detection of flow limitation in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during resting breathing, based on comparison of flow/volume curves obtained during MCA with that of the preceding control breath. It was assessed whether this nonstandardized technique is also feasible during exercise. MCA was performed during resting breathing and constant-exercise work at one- and two-thirds maximal mechanical power output (W'max) in six normal subjects and 12 COPD patients. Changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) were also studied. With the aid of inspection, abdominal palpation and lung auscultation, MCA could always be applied during expiration. Flow limitation was never detected in the six normal subjects, whereas four of the COPD patients were flow limited at rest, seven during exercise at one-third W'max and nine during exercise at two-thirds W'max. Expiratory flow limitation detected by MCA was always associated with an increase in EELV during exercise, indicating dynamic hyperinflation occurrence or increase. It is concluded that manual compression of the abdomen is a very simple and reliable method for the detection of flow limitation during exercise.
    European Respiratory Journal 06/2002; 19(5):919-27. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To validate lung attenuation measurements for quantifying extravascular lung water in oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema, compare subjective assessment with attenuation measurements, and compare this permeability-type pulmonary edema with hydrostatic-type pulmonary edema. Thin-section computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary hemodynamic examinations were performed sequentially in six dogs before and after intravenous administration of 0.08 mg of oleic acid per kilogram of body weight. Extravascular lung water and pulmonary capillary pressure were measured. Results were compared with those reported in a canine model of hydrostatic edema. Oleic acid induced a progressive increase in extravascular lung water without a change in capillary pressure, which indicated pure permeability-type edema. Ground-glass opacification was detected as soon as extravascular lung water increased. Lung attenuation was highly correlated to extravascular lung water (r = 0.76, P<.001), as in hydrostatic edema, but was characterized by an almost absent gravitational gradient. Thin-section CT is sensitive for early detection and quantification of oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema in a canine model. Different from early canine hydrostatic edema, which is characterized by a gravitational gradient, early oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema in a supine dog is characterized by nearly homogeneous distribution, except for ventral sparing.
    Radiology 06/2001; 219(3):724-31. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have assessed a new method, manual compression of the abdominal wall (MCA) during expiration, in the detection of expiratory flow limitation. Twelve stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and five normal subjects were studied during spontaneous breathing in the supine and seated posture. MCA was performed during expiration with one hand at the umbilical level and we measured flow, volume, pleural (Ppl) and gastric (Pga) pressures and abdominal anteroposterior (AP) diameter at the umbilical level with magnetometers. No increase in expiratory flow during MCA relative to the preceding breath despite associated increases in pressures was considered as indicating expiratory flow limitation. In seven additional patients with increased upper airway collapsibility (obstructive sleep apnea syndrome [OSAS]), MCA was compared with negative expiratory pressure (NEP). In normal seated subjects, MCA was associated with a decrease in abdominal AP dimension (mean +/- SD: -27 +/- 6%), an increase in Pga (14.7 +/- 7.4 cm H(2)O) and Ppl (6.2 +/- 2.2 cm H(2)O), and an increase in expiratory flow. MCA caused similar changes in abdominal AP dimension and pressures in seated patients with COPD but six of them (50%), including four patients with FEV(1) less than 1 L, had no increase in expiratory flow. In the supine posture, MCA always increased expiratory flow in normal subjects but four additional patients with COPD showed evidence of flow limitation. MCA invariably increased expiratory flow in patients with OSAS whereas the NEP method suggested flow limitation in some cases. We conclude that MCA is a very simple method that allows detection of flow limitation in different positions.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2001; 163(6):1326-30. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to determine the site of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in primary pulmonary hypertension by standard bedside hemodynamic evaluation. The measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures at several levels of flow (Q) allows the discrimination between active and passive, flow-dependent changes in mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), and may detect the presence of an increased pulmonary vascular closing pressure. The determination of a capillary pressure (Pc') from the analysis of a Ppa decay curve after balloon occlusion allows the partitioning of PVR in an arterial and a (capillary + venous) segment. These approaches have not been reported in primary pulmonary hypertension. Ppa and Pc' were measured at baseline and after an increase in Q induced either by exercise or by an infusion of dobutamine, at a dosage up to 8 microg/kg body weight per min, in 11 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Reversibility of pulmonary hypertension was assessed by the inhalation of 20 ppm nitric oxide (NO), and, in 6 patients, by an infusion of prostacyclin. At baseline, Ppa was 52+/-3 mm Hg (mean value+/-SE), Q 2.2+/-0.2 liters/min per m2, and Pc' 29+/-3 mm Hg. Dobutamine did not affect Pc' and allowed the calculation of an averaged extrapolated pressure intercept of Ppa/Q plots of 34 mm Hg. Inhaled NO had no effect. Prostacyclin decreased Pc' and PVR. Exercise increased Pc' to 40+/-3 mm Hg but did not affect PVR. ns. These findings are compatible with a major increase of resistance and reactivity at the periphery of the pulmonary arterial tree.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/1998; 31(6):1372-6. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study sought to determine the site of increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in primary pulmonary hypertension by standard bedside hemodynamic evaluation.Background. The measurement of pulmonary vascular pressures at several levels of flow (Q) allows the discrimination between active and passive, flow-dependent changes in mean pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa), and may detect the presence of an increased pulmonary vascular closing pressure. The determination of a capillary pressure (Pc′) from the analysis of a Ppa decay curve after balloon occlusion allows the partitioning of PVR in an arterial and a (capillary + venous) segment. These approaches have not been reported in primary pulmonary hypertension.Methods. Ppa and Pc′ were measured at baseline and after an increase in Q induced either by exercise or by an infusion of dobutamine, at a dosage up to 8 μg/kg body weight per min, in 11 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Reversibility of pulmonary hypertension was assessed by the inhalation of 20 ppm nitric oxide (NO), and, in 6 patients, by an infusion of prostacyclin.Results. At baseline, Ppa was 52 ± 3 mm Hg (mean value ± SE), Q 2.2 ± 0.2 liters/min per m2, and Pc′ 29 ± 3 mm Hg. Dobutamine did not affect Pc′ and allowed the calculation of an averaged extrapolated pressure intercept of Ppa/Q plots of 34 mm Hg. Inhaled NO had no effect. Prostacyclin decreased Pc′ and PVR. Exercise increased Pc′ to 40 ± 3 mm Hg but did not affect PVR.Conclusions. These findings are compatible with a major increase of resistance and reactivity at the periphery of the pulmonary arterial tree.
    Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/1998; 31(6):1372-1376.