S O'Sullivan

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (17)99.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled corticosteroids are currently regarded as the gold standard in anti-inflammatory therapy, however, leukotriene receptor antagonists have been ascribed anti-inflammatory properties. We directly compared the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP, 100 microg Diskus, twice daily) and oral montelukast (MON 10 mg, nocte) in bronchial biopsies of patients with asthma in a double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group design. Bronchial biopsies, serum and urine samples were collected from 36 atopic asthmatics before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Activated T cells (CD25+), eosinophils (MBP+) and mast cells (tryptase+) were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and IL-5 were analysed by radio and enzyme immunoassay (EIA), respectively. Urinary 9alpha-11beta-PGF2 and leukotriene E4 (LTE4) were measured by EIA. A comparison of changes from baseline [FP/MON ratio (95% confidence interval)] of activated T cells was not different when subjects were treated with FP compared to treatment with MON [1.00 (0.18-4.86); P=0.924]. Following treatment, mast cells in the FP group were significantly lower than in the group treated with MON [0.39 (0.16-0.97); P=0.041]. There was no difference in the number of eosinophils in the lamina propria following either treatment [0.54 (0.05-2.57); P=0.263]. However, treatment with FP resulted in a significantly greater decrease in serum ECP, compared to treatment with MON [0.37 (0.25-0.71); P=0.002]. FP appears to be superior to MON as an anti-inflammatory therapy in mild asthmatics.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 10/2004; 34(9):1388-94. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    S O'Sullivan, L Cormican, C M Burke, L W Poulter
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokines which signal via the gamma chain of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor and the interferons (IFNs) have been shown to enhance T cell survival in vitro by rescuing cells from apoptosis. A study was undertaken to determine whether treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP; 250 microg twice daily) for 2 weeks could modulate production of IL-15 or IFN-beta and thereby affect T cell survival in bronchial tissue of 10 patients with mild/moderate asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens were taken before and on completion of treatment. The mean (95% CI) number of T cells per unit area decreased in the asthmatic group following 2 weeks of treatment with FP (from 7.0 (5.6 to 8.4) to 4.5 (4.0 to 5.1); p = 0.001). There was an increase in the percentage of T cells undergoing apoptosis following FP treatment as assessed by T cell/TUNEL staining (from 4.5 (2.6 to 6.4) to 8.7 (6.6 to 10.8); p = 0.0001). The percentage of cells staining for IL-15 and IFN-beta in the lamina propria, determined by an alkaline phosphatase biotin streptavidin technique, decreased significantly from baseline values of 31.6 (23.4 to 39.7) to 19.6 (12.5 to 26.7), p = 0.039 for IL-15 and from 18.9 (13.5 to 24.4) to 9.5 (5.9 to 13.1), p = 0.007 for IFN-beta following 2 weeks of treatment with FP. However, only the decrease in the percentage of cells staining for IL-15 was significantly correlated with an increased number of apoptotic T cells following treatment (p = 0.008). These findings support a novel mechanism for the ability of inhaled corticosteroids to decrease T cell numbers, possibly by downregulation of the cytokine IL-15.
    Thorax 09/2004; 59(8):657-61. · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Airway dehydration and subsequent hyperosmolarity of periciliary fluid are considered critical events in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). It has been shown that an in vitro hyperosmolar stimulation of basophils and mast cells with mannitol can induce the release of histamine and leukotrienes. The aim of this study was to establish if a hyperosmolar challenge could trigger activation of eosinophils to release chemokines and lipid mediators. Peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from seven asthmatic and six non-asthmatic subjects. Hyperosmolar stimulation of eosinophils with mannitol (0.7 M), resulted in a significant increase in LTC4 levels compared to baseline in both asthmatic (15.2+/-4.6 vs. 70.1+/-9.5; P = 0.0002) and control subjects (14.3+/-4.0 vs. 55.6+/-5.6; P = 0.0001). ECP levels did not increase significantly above baseline following mannitol stimulation in either group. This study shows that eosinophils can be activated by a hyperosmolar stimulus. Therefore it seems reasonable to suggest that eosinophils could contribute to EIB.
    Respiratory Medicine 09/2003; 97(8):928-32. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of addition of montelukast to inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) therapy, compared with FP therapy alone (100 microg twice a day) on airway immunopathology in individuals with mild asthma. Twenty-eight subjects received FP (100 microg twice a day) or FP (100 microg twice a day) plus montelukast (10 mg at night) for 8 weeks and were then crossed over to the alternate treatment for a further 8 weeks. Physiological measurements and bronchial biopsies were obtained at +/- 2 days before treatment and +/- 2 days at the end of each treatment period. A two-period crossover analysis was performed and the mean and SE were calculated. There was no significant difference in percent predicted FEV1 (p = 0.51) or PC20 mg/ml (p = 0.81) between the two treatment regimes after 8 weeks of therapy. There was no difference in the efficacy of either treatment in decreasing T cell (p = 0.97), CD45RO+ (p = 0.37), mast cell (p = 0.37), or activated eosinophils (p = 0.55) numbers in bronchial biopsies. There was no significant difference in the percentage area stained for IFN-gamma (p = 0.76) or interleukin-4 (p = 0.61) between treatments. Reduction of inflammatory cell numbers in the bronchial mucosa achieved with FP plus montelukast was not significantly different from the reduction observed with FP alone in individuals with mild asthma.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 04/2003; 167(5):745-50. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are typically associated with a flat dose-response curve when traditional efficacy values are examined (eg, FEV(1)). The aim of the present study was to investigate if a dose-response relationship exists for lung function and inflammatory cell numbers in bronchial biopsy specimens. Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from 36 patients randomized to receive 100 micro g, 500 microg, or 2,000 microg/d of fluticasone propionate (FP). Lung physiology and bronchial biopsies were performed at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Improvement in lung function and suppression of airway inflammation were optimal at a dose of 500 microg/d of FP. Significant changes from baseline following treatment were documented in FEV(1) (p = 0.02), forced expiratory flow (p = 0.002), FEV(1)/FVC (p = 0.007), provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) (PC(20)) [p = 0.02], T-cell numbers (p = 0.0005), activated eosinophils (p = 0.01), and numbers of macrophages (p = 0.01) in the group treated with 500 microg/d of FP. Comparison between groups administered different doses of FP failed to demonstrate a dose-response relationship for change from baseline in PC(20) (p = 0.43), any of the lung function parameters, T-cell numbers (p = 0.64), activated T cells (p = 0.46), eosinophils (p = 0.53), activated eosinophils (p = 0.48), or macrophage numbers (p = 0.68). The apparent lack of a dose-response for ICS treatment in patients with asthma further validates the preferential use of add-on therapy over increasing the dose of ICS.
    Chest 01/2003; 122(6):1966-72. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Airway dehydration triggers exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in virtually all patients with active asthma. We are not aware of any investigations of airway dehydration in patients with naturally occurring asthma exacerbations. We wish to investigate whether airway dehydration occurs in acute asthmatic patients in the emergency department, and its functional significance. In a pilot study on 10 asthmatic patients and 10 control subjects in the emergency department, respiratory rate was counted manually, and relative humidity of expired air was recorded using an air probe hygrometer. In parallel laboratory studies carried out over 2 consecutive days, 19 asthmatics and 10 control subjects were challenged initially with dry air, and on the second day with humidified air. FEV(1) and humidity measurements were made immediately before and after the tachypnea challenges. In the emergency department, the asthmatic group was more tachypneic (p < 0.0001) and their expired air was drier (p < 0.0001) than the control group. Following a dry-air tachypnea challenge in the laboratory, which caused dehydration of the expired air in all subjects, half of the asthmatics, but none of the control subjects, demonstrated a fall of > 10% in FEV(1) from baseline. This bronchoconstriction was prevented by humidifying the inspired air; tachypnea with no water loss did not affect lung function in asthmatic subjects. Dehydration of the expired air is present in asthmatic patients in the emergency department. The bronchoconstriction triggered by dry-air tachypnea challenge in the laboratory can be prevented by humidifying the inspired air. Airway rehydration merits further investigation as a potential adjunct to acute treatment of asthma exacerbations.
    Chest 06/2002; 121(6):1806-11. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the presence of CD8(+) T lymphocytes and their possible association with viral infection in bronchi of victims of fatal asthma. Postmortem samples from the peribronchial region of the lung were obtained from seven patients who died an asthma death (AD), seven asthmatic patients who died of unrelated causes (AUC), and seven postmortem cases with no history of lung disease (control subjects). Using immunohistochemical techniques, the CD8(+) cytotoxic T-cell population in peribronchial tissue was characterized in three patient groups. The percentage of CD8(+) cells expressing the activation marker CD25 was higher in the AD group than in both the AUC and control groups (11.91 +/- 1.92% versus 3.93 +/- 1.63% and 1.09 +/- 0.56%, respectively (p < 0.001). Perforin expression, a marker of cytotoxicity, was highest in the AD group (9.16 +/- 1.5%) compared with 1.39 +/- 0.9; 1.8 +/- 0.6% in the AUC and control groups respectively (p < 0.001). Expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) by CD8(+) T cells was higher in the AD group than the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the IFN-gamma/IL-4 ratio in the AD group was less than half that of the control group (1.46 +/- 0.2 versus 3.2 +/- 0.1; p = 0.02). Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), viral genome for rhinovirus (RV) was detected in lung tissue from three of the seven cases in the AD group. Two of these cases also had detectable respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Viral genome for RSV was detected in five of the AUC group and in one of these cases, RV was also detected. No viral genome was detected in the lungs of the control group. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence of an aberrant CD8(+) T-cell population, possibly in response to viral infection in subjects who die of acute asthma.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2001; 164(4):560-4. · 11.04 Impact Factor
  • L Cormican, S O'Sullivan, C M Burke, L W Poulter
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    ABSTRACT: Previous observations have established that IFN-gamma production is depressed in CD4+ T cells from atopic asthmatics compared with non-asthmatics. The aim of this study was to determine if decreased IFN-gamma production could be due to a dissociation between levels of apoptosis within the T cell subsets of the asthmatic bronchial wall. Twenty asthmatics (10 atopic and 10 non-atopic) and eight non-atopic non-asthmatics underwent bronchoscopy. Cryostat sections of these biopsies were investigated using immunohistological techniques to determine the relative number of CD4/FAS+ and CD4/Bcl-2+ cells. Detection of IFN-gamma+ and IL-4+ was combined with TUNEL staining to determine the proportions of the Th1 and Th2 cells undergoing apoptosis. Experiments revealed raised proportions of activated CD4+ T cells as assessed by expression of HLA-DR and CD25+ expression in the asthmatic samples. Expression of Bcl-2 by the CD4+ cell population was significantly reduced in the asthmatic compared with the control group (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the expression of CD4+ Fas-ligand or the number of CD4+ undergoing apoptosis in the asthmatic and non-asthmatic groups. However, the IFN-gamma+ (P = 0.04) but not IL-4+ T cells in the asthmatic biopsies had significantly higher proportions of apoptotic cells compared with the control group. The evidence supports the hypothesis that Th1/Th2 imbalance in asthmatic inflammation may be a result of premature apoptosis within the Th1 subset.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 06/2001; 31(5):731-9. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some patients with severe asthma cannot be controlled with high doses of inhaled steroids (ICS), which may be related to ongoing environmental allergen exposure. We investigated whether 10 weeks of high altitude allergen avoidance leads to sustained benefits regarding clinical and inflammatory markers of disease control in adolescents with persistent asthma despite treatment with high dose ICS. Eighteen atopic asthmatic adolescents (12-18 yr, 500-2000 microg ICS daily) with established house dust mite allergy, participated in a parallel-group study. Quality of life (PAQL), lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to adenosine and histamine, induced sputum and urine samples were collected repeatedly from 10 patients during a 10-week admission period to the Swiss Alps (alt. 1560 m) and at 6 weeks after return to sea level. Results were compared with those in eight patients, studied in their home environment at sea level for a similar time period. Throughout the study, asthma medication remained unchanged in both groups. During admission to high altitude, PAQL, lung function, BHR to adenosine and histamine, and urinary levels of eosinophil protein X (U-EPX), leukotriene E4 (U-LTE4) and 9alpha11beta prostaglandin F2 (U-9alpha11beta PGF2) improved significantly (P < 0.05), with a similar tendency for sputum eosinophils (P < 0.07). Furthermore, the changes in PAQL and BHR to adenosine and histamine were greater in the altitude than in the control group (P < 0.05). At 6 weeks after renewed allergen exposure at sea level, the improvements in PAQL (P < 0.05), BHR to adenosine (P < 0.07) and histamine (P < 0.05), as well as U-EPX (P < 0.05) and U-LTE4 (P < 0.05) were maintained. A short period of high altitude allergen avoidance, on top of regular treatment with ICS and long-acting beta2-agonists, results in improvement of asthma, as assessed by clinical and inflammatory markers of disease severity. These findings indicate that short-term, rigorous allergen avoidance can improve the long-term control of severe asthma over and above what can be achieved even by high doses of inhaled steroids.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 03/2001; 31(3):400-8. · 4.79 Impact Factor
  • S O'Sullivan, M Kumlin
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 12/1999; 29(11):1454-6. · 4.79 Impact Factor
  • S O'Sullivan, M J Mueller, S E Dahlén, M Kumlin
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    ABSTRACT: Measurements of the prostaglandin (PGD2) metabolite 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 in unextracted urine performed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were compared with values obtained by negative chemical ionisation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (NCI GC-MS). Values determined by NCI GC-MS were in the same range but consistently lower than those obtained by EIA, suggesting that other endogenous compounds could be contributing to the immunoreactivity. Isoprostanes were generated by autoxidation of arachidonic acid and the 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 antibody demonstrated less than 0.7% crossreactivity to the mix, making it unlikely that isoprostanes in urine interfere with quantification of 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 by EIA. This was further supported by the 70% reduction in immunoreactive material measured in urine after three days treatment in a healthy volunteer with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen. Purification of urine samples by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of two immunoreactive compounds in addition to 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2. The compounds were identified as dinor compounds by NCI GC-MS. One of the compounds was identical to 9 alpha, 11 beta-2,3-dinor-PGF2 which was generated by beta-oxidation of 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 and identified by electron impact (EI)-GC-MS. In conclusion, urinary 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 concentrations measured by EIA represent the sum of 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 and two isomers of its dinor metabolite. Thus, the direct EIA is fast, sensitive and sufficiently specific to monitor activation of the PGD2 pathway, thereby providing a valuable clinical tool to assess the status of mast cell activation in vivo.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 06/1999; 57(2-3):149-65. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • S O'Sullivan
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is the major cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid released after stimulation of mast cells. Quantification of metabolites of PGD2 can be used as an objective indices of PGD2 production and hence mast cell activation in vivo. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility of measuring the primary urinary metabolite of PGD2, 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Measurements of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 in urine made by EIA were compared with values obtained by negative ion chemical ionisation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (NCI GC-MS), the gold standard method. Levels of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2, in urine samples measured by NCI GC-MS were consistently lower than those obtained by EIA. NCI GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of two additional dinor compounds, shorter metabolites of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 in the urine. One of the compounds was identical to 9 alpha,11 beta-2,3-dinor-PGF2 which was generated by beta-oxidation of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 and identified by electron impact (EI GC-MS). Thus, urinary 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 concentrations measured by EIA represent the sum of three PGD2 metabolites. For convenience sake, the metabolites are collectively referred to as 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 in the subsequent studies. A 3-fold increase in the urinary excretion of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 was documented after allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in nine atopic asthmatics. This challenge was considered a positive control since it is unambiguous that mast cell activation occurs during the early phase of allergen-induced airway obstruction. Histamine-induced bronchoconstriction did not result in an increase in the levels of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 demonstrating that PGD2 was not formed as a consequence of the bronchoconstriction per se. Moreover, bronchial challenge with lysine-aspirin in eight aspirin-intolerant asthmatics elicited bronchoconstriction and was accompanied by a significant increase in the urinary excretion of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2. Challenge with a higher dose of aspirin produced an even greater increase in 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 levels, indicating a dose-dependent release of PGD2 during aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction. The pattern of mediator release during the early (EAR) and late asthmatic response (LAR) to allergen was investigated by subjecting twelve mild atopic asthmatics to allergen challenge. Within one hour of the maximal bronchoconstrictor response, there was a significant increase in the urinary concentrations of the mast cell markers, 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 and N tau-methylhistamine, urinary metabolite of histamine, and the end product of the cysteinyl-leukotrienes, leukotriene (LT)E4. Levels of all three mediators were also significantly elevated above baseline during the LAR. Urinary levels of eosinophil protein X (EPX), a marker of eosinophil activation, remained unaltered during both the EAR and LAR. Preliminary evidence suggests a diurnal variation in the urinary excretion of EPX. Increased airway fluid osmolarity in the lower airways as a result of exercise, has been suggested to trigger mast cell activation and subsequent bronchoconstriction in a subset of asthmatics. Twelve subjects with a history of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), exercised on a stationary bicycle ergometer for 5 minutes. Seven of the subjects (responders) experienced bronchoconstriction, whereas, the pulmonary function of the remaining five subjects (non-responders) remained stable. The urinary excretion of 9 alpha,11 beta-PGF2 in the responder group increased significantly compared to the non-responders at 30 and 90 minutes after exercise. The urinary excretion of LTE4 and N tau-methylhistamine was not significantly different between the two groups at either time point after exercise, although there was a tendency for elevated levels of N tau-methylhistamine in the responder group. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
    Acta physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 05/1999; 644:1-74.
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    ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that the early asthmatic response to inhaled allergen is a result of IgE-mediated mast cell activation. In contrast, the underlying mechanism of the late asthmatic response is much less clear. In order to investigate the pattern of mediator release during the early and late asthmatic responses to allergen, measurements of the urinary excretion of the mast cell markers 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 and Ntau-methylhistamine were made. In addition, urinary levels of eosinophil protein X (EPX) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4) were measured. Twelve mild atopic asthmatics participated in the study. On the study day, pulmonary function was recorded at baseline and for 12 h after inhalation of allergen. Urine was collected prior to challenge and thereafter at 1 h intervals. Measurements of 9alpha, 11beta-PGF2 and LTE4 were made with enzyme-immunoassay, and levels of Ntau-methylhistamine and EPX were analysed with radioimmunoassay. All subjects developed both an early and late phase airway response. Within 1 h of the early peak airway response, there was a significant increase in the urinary concentrations (AUC/h) of 9alpha, 11beta-PGF2 (49.3 +/- 9.2 to 142.5 +/- 49.2; P < 0.001) Ntau-methylhistamine (10.4 +/- 1.4 to 19.5 +/- 1.4; P < 0.001) and LTE4 (43.7 +/- 5.9 to 105.9 +/- 21.3; P < 0.001). Levels of all three mediators were also significantly increased above baseline during the LAR to 79.4 +/- 9.5 (P < 0.01), 19.8 +/- 1.9 (P < 0.001) and 85.6 +/- 10.4 (P < 0.001), respectively. Levels of EPX remained unchanged during the early and late responses (39.2 +/- 10.2 to 37.5 +/- 18.5, 33.9 +/- 6.8). These results indicate that mast cell activation is a feature not only of the early but also the late asthmatic response. Finally, increased LTE4 supports the contribution of the leukotrienes to airway obstruction during both phases of the asthmatic response to allergen.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 12/1998; 28(11):1332-9. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute exposure of healthy subjects to swine house dust causes increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine but no acute bronchoconstriction. The role of cysteinyl leukotrienes and mast cells in increased bronchial responsiveness is unclear. Ten non-asthmatic subjects were exposed to swine dust for three hours while weighing pigs in a piggery. Urine was collected prior to and for up to 12 hours after entering the piggery and at the same times five days before and the day after exposure. As indices of whole body leukotriene production and mast cell activation, urinary levels of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) and 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2, the earliest appearing urinary metabolite of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), were measured. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was determined five days before and the day after the exposure. Methacholine PD20FEV1 decreased from 1.32 mg (95% CI 0.22 to 10.25) before exposure to 0.38 mg (95% CI 0.11 to 1.3) after exposure (p < 0.01). Associated with the increase in bronchial responsiveness there was a significant mean difference between post- and prechallenge levels of LTE4 (difference 38.5 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 17.2 to 59.8); p < 0.01) and 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 (difference 69 ng/mmol creatinine (95% CI 3.7 to 134.3); p < 0.05) on the day of exposure to swine dust. Swine dust exposure induced a 24-fold increase in the total cell number and a 12-fold increase in IL-8 levels in the nasal lavage fluid. The levels of LTB4 and LTE4 in nasal lavage fluid following exposure also increased 5.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that cysteinyl leukotrienes and other mast cell mediators contribute to the development of increased bronchial responsiveness following inhalation of organic swine dust.
    Thorax 12/1998; 53(12):1041-6. · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controversy remains about the causative mediators in the bronchoconstrictive response to exercise in asthma. This study examined whether mast cell activation is a feature of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by measuring urinary metabolites of mast cell mediators. Twelve nonsmoking subjects with mild asthma and a history of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction exercised on a stationary bicycle ergometer for 5 min at 80% maximum work load. Pulmonary function was monitored and urine was collected before and 30 and 90 min after the provocation. The urinary concentrations of the mast cell markers 9alpha,11beta-prostaglandin (PG)F2 and Ntau-methylhistamine, as well as leukotriene E4 (LTE4) were determined by immunoassay. Seven of the 12 subjects (responders) experienced bronchoconstriction (>15% fall in the forced expiratory volume in one second) following exercise, whereas the pulmonary function of the remaining five subjects (nonresponders) remained stable. The urinary excretion (mean+/-SE) of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 in the responders increased significantly compared with the nonresponders at 30 (77.1+/-14.4 versus 37.2+/-5.6; p<0.05) and 90 min (79.3+/-8.6 versus 40.4+/-8.5, p<0.05) after exercise challenge. The urinary excretion of Ntau-methylhistamine and LTE4 was not significantly different between the two groups at 30 or 90 min after exercise. The findings represent the first documentation of increased urinary levels of 9alpha,11beta-prostaglandin F2 in adults following exercise challenge and provides clear evidence for mast cell activation during exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics.
    European Respiratory Journal 09/1998; 12(2):345-50. · 6.36 Impact Factor
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/1997; 433:159-62. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • S O'Sullivan, B Dahlén, S E Dahlén, M Kumlin
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is a major product of arachidonic acid metabolism in pulmonary mast cells. We therefore attempted to determine whether measurement of the stable urinary metabolite of PGD2, 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2, could serve as a marker of mast cell activation in the lungs. A commercially available enzyme immunoassay was validated and found to be specific and sensitive when applied to unpurified urine. There was no diurnal variation in the levels of 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 in healthy volunteers. Morning baseline values of urinary 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 were measured in three groups--healthy volunteers (n = 9), patients with atopic asthma (n = 14), and aspirin-intolerant patients with asthma (n = 12)--and found to be very similar, 54 +/- 9, 62 +/- 6, and 71 +/- 15 ng/mmol creatinine, respectively (means +/- SEM). Urinary excretion of 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 was increased threefold immediately after allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in nine patients with atopic asthma. Bronchial challenge with inhaled lysine aspirin in eight aspirin-intolerant patients with asthma produced bronchoconstriction without extrapulmonary symptoms and was also followed by a significant increase in the urinary excretion of 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2. In addition, challenge with a higher dose of aspirin produced an even greater increase in urinary 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2, supporting dose-dependent release of PGD2 during aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction. In contrast, the postchallenge levels of urinary 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 were not increased when bronchoconstriction was induced by histamine challenge in the aspirin-intolerant patients with asthma. The study confirms mast cell involvement in allergen-induced bronchoconstriction and provides novel data, which strongly support the hypothesis that pulmonary mast cells are activated during aspirin-induced airway obstruction. It is finally suggested that measurement of urinary 9 alpha, 11 beta-PGF2 with enzyme immunoassay may be used as a new noninvasive strategy to monitor mast cell activation in vivo.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 09/1996; 98(2):421-32. · 12.05 Impact Factor