[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large alterations in transcription accompany neurodegeneration in polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases. These pathologies manifest both general polyQ toxicity and mutant protein-specific effects. In this study, we report that the fat tumour suppressor gene mediates neurodegeneration induced by the polyQ protein Atrophin. We have monitored early transcriptional alterations in a Drosophila model of Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian Atrophy and found that polyQ Atrophins downregulate fat. Fat protects from neurodegeneration and Atrophin toxicity through the Hippo kinase cascade. Fat/Hippo signalling does not provoke neurodegeneration by stimulating overgrowth; rather, it alters the autophagic flux in photoreceptor neurons, thereby affecting cell homeostasis. Our data thus provide a crucial insight into the specific mechanism of a polyQ disease and reveal an unexpected neuroprotective role of the Fat/Hippo pathway.
The EMBO Journal 01/2011; 30(5):945-58. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schwann cells integrate signals deriving from the axon and the basal lamina to myelinate peripheral nerves. Integrin alpha6beta4 is a laminin receptor synthesized by Schwann cells and displayed apposed to the basal lamina. alpha6beta4 integrin expression in Schwann cells is induced by axons at the onset of myelination, and rises in adulthood. The beta4 chain has a uniquely long cytoplasmic domain that interacts with intermediate filaments such as dystonin, important in peripheral myelination. Furthermore, alpha6beta4 integrin binds peripheral myelin protein 22, whose alteration causes the most common demyelinating hereditary neuropathy. All these data suggest a role for alpha6beta4 integrin in peripheral nerve myelination. Here we show that ablating alpha6beta4 integrin specifically in Schwann cells of transgenic mice does not affect peripheral nerve development, myelin formation, maturation, or regeneration. However, consistent with maximal expression in adult nerves, alpha6beta4 integrin-null myelin is more prone to abnormal folding with aging. When the laminin receptor dystroglycan is also ablated, major folding abnormalities occur, associated with acute demyelination in some peripheral nervous system districts. These data indicate that, similar to its role in skin, alpha6beta4 integrin confers stability to myelin in peripheral nerves.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2008; 28(26):6714-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nodes of Ranvier are specialized axonal domains, at which voltage-gated sodium channels cluster. How axons cluster molecules in discrete domains is mostly unknown. Both axons and glia probably provide constraining mechanisms that contribute to domain formation. Proper sodium channel clustering in peripheral nerves depends on contact from Schwann cell microvilli, where at least one molecule, gliomedin, binds the sodium channel complex and induces its clustering. Furthermore, mice lacking Schwann cell dystroglycan have aberrant microvilli and poorly clustered sodium channels. Dystroglycan could interact at the basal lamina or at the axonglial surface. Because dystroglycan is a laminin receptor, and laminin 2 mutations [merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A)] cause reduced nerve conduction velocity, we asked whether laminins are involved. Here, we show that the composition of both laminins and the dystroglycan complex at nodes differs from that of internodes. Mice defective in laminin 2 have poorly formed microvilli and abnormal sodium clusters. These abnormalities are similar, albeit less severe, than those of mice lacking dystroglycan. However, mice lacking all Schwann cell laminins show severe nodal abnormalities, suggesting that other laminins compensate for the lack of laminin 2. Thus, although laminins are located at a distance from the axoglial junction, they are required for proper clustering of sodium channels. Laminins, through their specific nodal receptors and cytoskeletal linkages, may participate in the formation of mechanisms that constrain clusters at nodes. Finally, abnormal sodium channel clusters are present in a patient with MDC1A, providing a molecular basis for the reduced nerve conduction velocity in this disorder.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2005; 25(41):9418-27. · 6.91 Impact Factor