[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A family of plant kinases containing ankyrin-repeats, the Ankyrin-Protein Kinases (APKs), shows structural resemblance to mammalian Integrin-Linked Kinases (ILKs), key regulators of mammalian cell adhesion. MsAPK1 expression is induced by osmotic stress in roots of Medicago sativa (L.) plants. The Escherichia coli-purified MsAPK1 could only phosphorylate tubulin among a variety of substrates and the enzymatic activity was strictly dependent on Mn 2+ . MsAPK1 is highly related to two APK genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.), AtAPK1 and AtAPK2. Promoter-GUS fusions assays revealed that the Arabidopsis APK genes show distinct expression patterns in roots and hypocotyls. Although Medicago truncatula (L.) plants affected in MsAPK1 expression could not be obtained using in vitro regeneration, A. thaliana plants expressing MsAPK1 or a mutant MsAPK1 protein, in which the conserved aspartate 315 of the kinase catalytic domain was replaced by asparagines (DN-lines), developed normally. The DN mutant lines showed increased capacity to develop adventitious roots when compared with control or MsAPK1-expressing plants. APK-mediated signalling may therefore link perception of external abiotic signals and the microtubule cytoskeleton, and influence adventitious root development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medicago spp. are able to develop root nodules via symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in various signalling pathways in plants, and we found that expression of MtCPK3, a CDPK isoform present in roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula, is regulated during the nodulation process. Early inductions were detected 15 min and 3-4 days post-inoculation (dpi). The very early induction of CPK3 messengers was also present in inoculated M. truncatula dmi mutants and in wild-type roots subjected to salt stress, indicating that this rapid response is probably stress-related. In contrast, the later response was concomitant with cortical cell division and the formation of nodule primordia, and was not observed in wild-type roots inoculated with nod (-) strains. This late induction correlated with a change in the subcellular distribution of CDPK activities. Accordingly, an anti-MtCPK3 antibody detected two bands in soluble root extracts and one in the particulate fraction. CPK3::GFP fusions are targeted to the plasma membrane in epidermal onion cells, a localization that depends on myristoylation and palmitoylation sites of the protein, suggesting a dual subcellular localization. MtCPK3 mRNA and protein were also up-regulated by cytokinin treatment, a hormone linked to the regulation of cortical cell division and other nodulation-related responses. An RNAi-CDPK construction was used to silence CPK3 in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots. Although no major phenotype was detected in these roots, when infected with rhizobia, the total number of nodules was, on average, twofold higher than in controls. This correlates with the lack of MtCPK3 induction in the inoculated super-nodulator sunn mutant. Our results suggest that CPK3 participates in the regulation of the symbiotic interaction.
The Plant Journal 01/2007; 48(6):843-56. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Legumes develop different types of lateral organs from their primary root, lateral roots and nodules, the latter depending on a symbiotic interaction with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Phytohormones have been shown to function in the control of these organogeneses. However, related signaling pathways have not been identified in legumes. We cloned and characterized the expression of Medicago truncatula genes encoding members of cytokinin signaling pathways. RNA interference of the cytokinin receptor homolog Cytokinin Response1 (Mt CRE1) led to cytokinin-insensitive roots, which showed an increased number of lateral roots and a strong reduction in nodulation. Both the progression of S. meliloti infection and nodule primordia formation were affected. We also identified two cytokinin signaling response regulator genes, Mt RR1 and Mt RR4, which are induced early during the symbiotic interaction. Induction of these genes by S. meliloti infection is altered in mutants affected in the Nod factor signaling pathway; conversely, cytokinin regulation of the early nodulin Nodule Inception1 (Mt NIN) depends on Mt CRE1. Hence, cytokinin signaling mediated by a single receptor, Mt CRE1, leads to an opposite control of symbiotic nodule and lateral root organogenesis. Mt NIN, Mt RR1, and Mt RR4 define a common pathway activated during early S. meliloti interaction, allowing crosstalk between plant cytokinins and bacterial Nod factors signals.
The Plant Cell 11/2006; 18(10):2680-93. · 9.25 Impact Factor