Shymapada Pati

Medical College Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

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Publications (6)22.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE), Bangladesh first identified their groundwater arsenic contamination in 1993. But before the international arsenic conference in Dhaka in February 1998, the problem was not widely accepted. Even in the international arsenic conference in West-Bengal, India in February, 1995, representatives of international agencies in Bangladesh and Bangladesh government attended the conference but they denied the groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India first identified arsenic patient in Bangladesh in 1992 and informed WHO, UNICEF of Bangladesh and Govt. of Bangladesh from April 1994 to August 1995. British Geological Survey (BGS) dug hand tube-wells in Bangladesh in 1980s and early 1990s but they did not test the water for arsenic. Again BGS came back to Bangladesh in 1992 to assess the quality of the water of the tube-wells they installed but they still did not test for arsenic when groundwater arsenic contamination and its health effects in West Bengal in Bengal delta was already published in WHO Bulletin in 1988. From December 1996, SOES in collaboration with Dhaka Community Hospital (DCH), Bangladesh started analyzing hand tube-wells for arsenic from all 64 districts in four geomorphologic regions of Bangladesh. So far over 54,000 tube-well water samples had been analyzed by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS). From SOES water analysis data at present we could assess status of arsenic groundwater contamination in four geo-morphological regions of Bangladesh and location of possible arsenic safe groundwater. SOES and DCH also made some preliminary work with their medical team to identify patients suffering from arsenic related diseases. SOES further analyzed few thousands biological samples (hair, nail, urine and skin scales) and foodstuffs for arsenic to know arsenic body burden and people sub-clinically affected. SOES and DCH made a few follow-up studies in some districts to know their overall situations after 9 to 18 years of their first exposure. The overall conclusion from these follow-up studies is (a) villagers are now more aware about the danger of drinking arsenic contaminated water (b) villagers are currently drinking less arsenic contaminated water (c) many villagers in affected village died of cancer (d) arsenic contaminated water is in use for agricultural irrigation and arsenic exposure from food chain could be future danger. Since at present more information is coming about health effects from low arsenic exposure, Bangladesh Government should immediately focus on their huge surface water management and reduce their permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.01.003 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    Toxicology 04/2005; 208(1):165-9. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the magnitude of arsenic contamination in groundwater and its effects on human beings, a detailed study was carried out in Jalangi, one of the 85 arsenic affected blocks in West Bengal, India. Jalangi block is approximately 122 km2 in size and has a population of 215538. Of the 1916 water samples analyzed (about 31% of the total hand tubewells) from the Jalangi block, 77.8% were found to have arsenic above 10 microg l(-1) [the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended level of arsenic in drinking water], 51% had arsenic above 50 microg l(-1) (the Indian standard of permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water) and 17% had arsenic at above 300 microg l(-1) (the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions). From our preliminary medical screening, 1488 of the 7221 people examined in the 44 villages of Jalangi block exhibit definite arsenical skin lesions. An estimation of probable population that may suffer from arsenical skin lesions and cancer in the Jalangi block has been evaluated comparing along with international data. A total of 1600 biologic samples including hair, nail and urine have been analyzed from the affected villages of Jalangi block and on an average 88% of the biologic samples contain arsenic above the normal level. Thus, a vast population of the block may have arsenic body burden. Cases of Bowen's disease and cancer have been identified among adults who also show arsenical skin lesions and children in this block are also seriously affected. Obstetric examinations were also carried out in this block.
    Science of The Total Environment 03/2005; 338(3):189-200. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.06.022 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the severity of the arsenic crisis in West Bengal, India, a detailed, 3-year study was undertaken in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. The district covers an area of 5324 km2 with a population of 5.3 million. Hand tubewell water samples and biologic samples were collected from Murshidabad and analyzed for arsenic by FI-HG-AAS method. Inter laboratory analysis and analyses of standards were undertaken for quality assurance. During our survey we analyzed 29,612 hand tubewell water samples for arsenic from both contaminated and non-contaminated areas, and 26% of the tubewells were found to have arsenic above 50 microg/L while 53.8% had arsenic above 10 microg/L. Of the 26 blocks in Murshidabad, 24 were found to have arsenic above 50 microg/L. Based on our generated data we estimated that approximately 0.2 million hand tubewells are installed in all 26 blocks of Murshidabad and 1.8 million in nine arsenic-affected districts of West Bengal. It was estimated on the basis of our data that about 2.5 million and 1.2 million people were drinking arsenic-contaminated water with concentrations above 10 and 50 microg/L levels respectively in this district. The analysis of total 3800 biologic (nail, urine, and hair) samples from arsenic-affected villages revealed that 95% of the nail and 94% of the urine samples contained arsenic above the normal levels and 75% of the hair samples were found to have arsenic above the toxic level. Thus, many villagers in the affected areas of Murshidabad might be subclinically affected. Comparing our extrapolated data with international dose response results, we estimated how many people may suffer from arsenical skin lesions and cancer. Finally, if the exposed population is provided safe water, better nutrition, and proper awareness about the arsenic problem, lives can be saved and countless suffering of the affected population can be avoided.
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2005; 43(7):823-34. DOI:10.1080/15563650500357461 · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the severity of related health effects of chronic arsenic exposure in West Bengal, a detailed 3-year study was carried out in Murshidabad, one of the nine arsenic-affected districts in West Bengal. We screened 25,274 people from 139 arsenic-affected villages in Murshidabad to identify patients suffering from chronic arsenic toxicity for evidence of multisystemic features and collected biological samples such as head hair, nail, and spot urine from the patients along with the tubewell water they were consuming. Out of 25,274 people screened, 4813 (19%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions. A case series involving arsenical skin lesions resulting in cancer and gangrene were noted during this study. Representative histopathological pictures of skin biopsy of different types of lesions were also presented. Out of 2595 children we examined for arsenical skin lesions, 122 (4%) were registered with arsenical skin lesions, melanosis with or without keratosis. Different clinical and electrophysiological neurological features were noticed among the arsenic-affected villagers. Both the arsenic content in the drinking water and duration of exposure may be responsible in increasing the susceptibility of pregnant women to spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, preterm births, low birth weights, and neonatal deaths. Some additional multisystemic features such as weakness and lethargy, chronic respiratory problems, gastrointestinal symptoms, and anemia were also recorded in the affected population. The findings from this survey on different health effects of arsenic exposure were compared to those from previous studies carried out on arsenic-affected populations in India and Bangladesh as well as other affected countries. Multisystemic disorders, including dermal effects, neurological complications, and adverse obstetric outcomes, were observed to be associated with chronic arsenic exposure in the study population in Murshidabad, West Bengal. The magnitude of severity was related to the concentration of arsenic in water as well as duration of the exposure.
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2005; 43(7):835-48. DOI:10.1080/15563650500357495 · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2004; 112(1). DOI:10.1289/ehp.112-a20 · 7.03 Impact Factor