Shin-Ichi Gorogawa

Kansai Rosai Hospital, Itan, Hyōgo, Japan

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Publications (14)62.5 Total impact

  • Diabetes research and clinical practice 01/2011; 91(1):e24-5. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To reveal the influence of preoperative factors on the prognosis of patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for critical limb ischemia (CLI). We recruited 278 Japanese patients who underwent PTA for CLI between 2003 and 2009. The outcome measures were mortality and major amputation. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. The prevalence of diabetes was 71%, and A1C was 7.0 ± 1.4%. The follow-up period was 90 ± 72 weeks, and 48 patients underwent major amputations and 89 died. The presence of diabetes in the whole population and A1C level in the diabetic population had no influence on morality; rather, mortality was associated with age (P = 0.007), impaired activities of daily living (P < 0.001), hemodialysis (P < 0.001), and albumin level (P = 0.010). In contrast, the presence of diabetes and A1C level had significant association with major amputation (P = 0.012 and P = 0.007, respectively). The quartile analysis showed that diabetic subjects with an A1C ≥ 6.8%, but not <6.8%, had a significantly higher risk of major amputation than nondiabetic subjects. The adjusted hazard ratio of diabetes with A1C ≥ 6.8% was 2.907 (95% CI 1.606-5.264) (P < 0.001). Diabetes with poor glycemic control is associated with major amputation, but not mortality, in CLI patients undergoing PTA. Prognostic indicators seem somewhat different between survival and limb salvage in the population.
    Diabetes care 12/2010; 33(12):2538-42. · 7.74 Impact Factor
  • Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - DIABETES RES CLIN PRACT. 01/2008; 79.
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    Diabetologia 07/2006; 49(6):1449-51. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nateglinide, a rapid insulin secretagogue, is known to facilitate the early phase of insulin secretion and has been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients with postprandial hyperglycemia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of nateglinide on insulin resistance as well as insulin secretory defects in type 2 diabetic patients. Insulin secretion ability was evaluated by the hyperglycemic clamp test, and insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test, using an artificial pancreas. The hyperglycemic clamp test showed that a 7-day treatment with nateglinide significantly increased insulin secretion in response to high glucose. Interestingly, although nateglinide is known to facilitate insulin secretion, daily urinary C-peptide excretion was decreased after nateglinide treatment. Moreover, in the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test, glucose infusion rate was significantly increased by nateglinide treatment, indicating that nateglinide functions to decrease insulin resistance. Nateglinide ameliorates insulin resistance as well as insulin secretory defects in type 2 diabetic patients.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 04/2006; 71(3):251-5. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hallmark of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion, and appropriate therapy should be selected for each patient. In this study, to establish some index to select suitable therapy for each patient, we evaluated insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and hyperglycemic clamp tests, respectively, and found that specific GIR index (GIRxIRI (90)) could be a useful marker to select suitable therapy for each type 2 diabetic patient (GIR: glucose infusion rate in euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp test; IRI (90): plasma insulin level 90 min after starting the hyperglycemic clamp test).
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 08/2005; 69(1):1-4. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and alterations of their phenotype are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Arterial wall injury induces the expression of proto-oncogenes, leading to the proliferation of VSMCs. In particular, c-Myc and c-Myb play a central role in cell cycle progression and are essential for VSMC replication. The protooncogene Pim-1 cooperates with c-Myc and enhances the transcriptional activity of c-Myb in hematopoietic cells, suggesting that Pim-1 is involved in cell cycle regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the possible involvement of Pim-1 in VSMC proliferation. Pim-1 was substantially induced in neointimal VSMCs of balloon-injured rat carotid arteries, and in vivo infection with a dominant negative Pim-1-expressing adenovirus (Ad-DN-Pim-1) markedly suppressed neointima formation and cell cycle progression in the balloon-injured arteries. In cultured VSMCs, treatment with serum or H(2)O(2) induced Pim-1 expression, and H(2)O(2)- or serum-stimulated cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis were almost completely inhibited by DN-Pim-1 overexpression. Furthermore, we performed immunohisto-chemical staining for Pim-1 in human thoracic aortas and coronary arteries obtained from six individuals at autopsy and found that Pim-1-positive cells are observed predominantly in the thickened intima of the aortas and coronary arteries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing Pim-1 expression in rodent and human arterial walls. To summarize, Pim-1 expression was observed in the neointima of balloon-injured rat carotid arteries and in human thoracic aortas and coronary arteries showing intimal thickening, and the specific inhibition of Pim-1 function markedly suppressed neointima formation after balloon injury and the proliferation of cultured VSMCs, suggesting that Pim-1 plays a role in VSMC proliferation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(52):54742-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and is likely involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction found in diabetes. Possibly due to low levels of antioxidant enzyme expressions, beta-cells are vulnerable to oxidative stress. When beta-cell-derived cell lines or isolated rat islets were exposed to oxidative stress, insulin gene expression was markedly decreased. Furthermore, when diabetic C57BL/ KsJ-db/db mice were treated with antioxidants, glucose tolerance was ameliorated. Histological analyses of the pancreata revealed that the beta-cell mass is significantly larger in the mice treated with the antioxidants. The antioxidant treatment also preserved the amounts of insulin content and insulin mRNA. As a possible mechanism underlying the phenomena, expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1), an important transcription factor for the insulin gene, was more clearly visible in the nuclei of islet cells after the antioxidant treatment. Furthermore, oxidative stress induces nucleocytoplasmic translocation of PDX-1 through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, which leads to suppression of insulin gene expression. Taken together, oxidative stress and consequent activation of the JNK pathway are involved in progression of beta-cell dysfunction found in diabetes, and thus are a therapeutic target for diabetes.
    Drug News & Perspectives 10/2004; 17(7):447-53. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Normal islet formation and function depends on the action of various growth factors operating in pre- and postnatal development; however, the specific physiological function of each factor is largely unknown. Loss-of-function analyses in mice have provided little information so far, perhaps due to functional redundancies of the growth factors acting on the pancreas. The present study focuses on the role of the transcription factor STAT3 in insulin-producing cells. STAT3 is one of the potential downstream mediators for multiple growth factors acting on the pancreatic beta-cells, including betacellulin, hepatocyte growth factor, growth hormone, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. To elucidate its role in the beta-cells, the STAT3 gene was disrupted in insulin-producing cells in mice (STAT3-insKO), using a cre-mediated gene recombination approach. Unexpectedly, STAT3-insKO mice exhibited an increase in appetite and obesity at 8 weeks of age or older. The mice showed partial leptin resistance, suggesting that expression of the RIP (rat insulin promoter)-cre transgene in hypothalamus partially inhibited the appetite-regulating system. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, performed in non-obese 5-week-old mice, showed that the STAT3-insKO mice were glucose intolerant. Islet perifusion experiments further revealed a deficiency in early-phase insulin secretion. Whereas islet insulin content or islet mass was not affected, expression levels of GLUT2, SUR1, and VEGF-A were significantly reduced in STAT3-insKO islets. Interestingly, STAT3-insKO mice displayed impaired islet morphology: alpha-cells were frequently seen in central regions of islets. Our present observations demonstrate a unique role of STAT3 in maintaining glucose-mediated early-phase insulin secretion and normal islet morphology.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2004; 319(4):1159-70. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophins, has been reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in obese diabetic animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of BDNF on glucose metabolism, we determined the glucose turnover under basal and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (insulin infusion rate, 54 pmol. kg(-1). min(-1)) clamp conditions in obese insulin-resistant rats, male Zucker fatty rats, which had been acutely administered a subcutaneous injection of BDNF (20 mg/kg) (n = 9, BDNF) or vehicle (n = 8, vehicle). Under the basal condition, acute administration of BDNF did not affect the blood glucose level, plasma insulin level, rate of glucose disappearance (Rd), and endogenous glucose production (EGP). Under the clamp condition, the glucose infusion rate (GIR) was significantly higher in BDNF than in vehicle (mean +/- SD, 61.4 +/- 19.1 v 41.4 +/- 4.9 micromol. kg(-1). min(-1), P <.05). There was no significant difference in Rd and EGP between the 2 groups under the clamp condition, but the insulin-mediated suppression ratio of endogenous glucose production in BDNF was significantly greater than in vehicle (48.9 +/- 22.2 v 22.4% +/- 20.6%, P <.05). In BDNF, mRNA expressions of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were comparable to those of vehicle, while hepatic glucokinase (GK) mRNA expression was significantly higher (1.57 +/- 0.33 v 1.03 +/- 0.17, P <.05). We conclude that BDNF mainly improves hepatic insulin resistance in obese insulin-resistant rats, probably by affecting the hepatic GK flux.
    Metabolism 02/2003; 52(2):203-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase ( eNOS) gene polymorphisms affect eNOS activity and are associated with abnormal vasomotility and impaired local blood flow. A decrease in local blood flow has been reported to cause insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to examine a possible association of two eNOS polymorphisms, Glu298Asp (G894T) in exon 7 and (-)786T-C mutation with insulin resistance. Genotypes of both Glu298Asp and (-)786T-C mutation were examined by the PCR-RFLP method. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were also measured. The allele frequencies of both polymorphisms showed no considerable differences in 233 non-diabetic subjects and 301 patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Non-diabetic subjects with the (-)786C allele had (p<0.05) higher fasting plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance than those with the (-)786T/ (-)786T genotype. Diabetic subjects with (-)786C allele showed higher HbA(1c) than those with the (-)786T/(-)786T genotype. A euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study done on 71 of the 301 patients showed a lower glucose infusion rate in diabetic patients with the (-)786C allele than those without it. In diabetic patients with the (-)786C allele, plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were lower than in subjects without it (p=0.026). No differences were observed between mutant carriers of Glu298Asp and non-carriers among both non-diabetic subjects and Type II diabetic patients. The (-)786T-C mutation of the eNOS gene is associated with insulin resistance in both Japanese non-diabetic subjects and Type II diabetic patients.
    Diabetologia 11/2002; 45(11):1594-601. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether low-grade inflammation contributes to early-stage advanced carotid atherosclerosis in young subjects with type 1 diabetes. The mean and maximum (max) intima-media thicknesses (IMT) of the carotid artery were assessed using ultrasound B-mode imaging in 55 patients with type 1 diabetes (22 men and 33 women, aged 22.1 +/- 3.6 years (+/- SD), duration of diabetes 14.2 +/- 5.7 years) and 75 age-matched healthy nondiabetic subjects (28 men and 47 women). High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured with a latex-enhanced immunonephelometer. The patients with type 1 diabetes had significantly higher hs-CRP levels (median 0.35, range 0.05-1.47 mg/l vs. median 0.14, range 0.05-1.44 mg/l; P = 0.001) as well as significantly higher mean IMT and max IMT than the nondiabetic subjects (mean IMT 0.76 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.04 mm, P = 0.003; max IMT 0.84 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.06 mm, P < 0.0001). Hs-CRP levels were significantly correlated with the mean and max IMT of patients with type 1 diabetes and with the max IMT of nondiabetic patients. Multivariate regression analyses for both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects as a single group showed that hs-CRP levels are independently correlated with the mean IMT and max IMT levels (P = 0.002 and P = 0.023, respectively) as well as with diastolic blood pressure, sex, and duration of diabetes. Our data indicate that hs-CRP levels are elevated in young patients with type 1 diabetes, possibly corresponding with early-stage advanced carotid atherosclerosis.
    Diabetes Care 08/2002; 25(8):1432-8. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The possible involvement of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in transcriptional regulation of the human insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene has been suggested. In this study, we sought to determine whether a PKC-dependent pathway is implicated in the transcriptional control, and if it is, how this occurs. Treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) caused an increase in the activity of the human IGF-I gene major promoter in HepG2 cells. A CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) binding site located at +22 to +30 was bound by C/EBP beta in a TPA-dependent manner and was solely responsible for the TPA responsiveness. This increase in C/EBP beta activity occurs through transcriptional and posttranslational regulation, and the latter is mediated by activation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK): co-expression of dominant negative RSK abolished the TPA-responsive and C/EBP beta-dependent transactivation. Also, TPA-responsive activation of GAL4-C/EBP beta chimera required the Ser residue known as the RSK target. In SK-N-MC cells, which display constitutive, high expression of IGF-I on use of the major promoter, a large amount of C/EBP beta binding was observed with the C/EBP site in the basal state. Treatment with PKC inhibitors substantially reduced the promoter activity and mRNA amounts of IGF-I, with the binding of C/EBP beta to the C/EBP site also being reduced. When the C/EBP site was disrupted, the basal promoter activity was reduced, but the reduction by the PKC inhibitor was no longer observed. These observations suggest that the increase of C/EBP beta binding to the C/EBP site, which is in part mediated via activation of RSK, can primarily explain the TPA responsiveness of the IGF-I gene promoter. The intrinsic PKC activity in SK-N-MC cells should play a major role in the constitutive, high expression of IGF-I and may therefore contribute in part to the maintenance of the tumor phenotype of the cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2002; 277(18):15261-70. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A paired homeodomain transcription factor, PAX6, is a well-known regulator of eye development, and its heterozygous mutations in humans cause congenital eye anomalies such as aniridia. Because it was recently shown that PAX6 also plays an indispensable role in islet cell development, a PAX6 gene mutation in humans may lead to a defect of the endocrine pancreas. Whereas heterozygous mutations in islet-cell transcription factors such as IPF1/IDX-1/STF-1/PDX-1 and NEUROD1/BETA2 serve as a genetic cause of diabetes or glucose intolerance, we investigated the possibility of PAX6 gene mutations being a genetic factor common to aniridia and diabetes. In five aniridia and one Peters' anomaly patients, all of the coding exons and their flanking exon-intron junctions of the PAX6 gene were surveyed for mutations. The results of direct DNA sequencing revealed three different mutations in four aniridia patients: one previously reported type of mutation and two unreported types. In agreement with polypeptide truncation and a lack of the carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain in all of the mutated PAX6 proteins, no transcriptional activity was found in the reporter gene analyses. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that all of the patients with a PAX6 gene mutation had glucose intolerance characterized by impaired insulin secretion. Although we did not detect a mutation within the characterized portion of the PAX6 gene in one of the five aniridia patients, diabetes was cosegregated with aniridia in her family, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in intron 9 of the PAX6 gene was correlated with the disorders, suggesting that a mutation, possibly located in an uncharacterized portion of the PAX6 gene, can explain both diabetes and aniridia in this family. In contrast, the patient with Peters' anomaly, for which a PAX6 gene mutation is a relatively rare cause, showed normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and did not show a Pax6 gene mutation. Taken together, our present observations suggest that heterozygous mutations in the PAX6 gene can induce eye anomaly and glucose intolerance in individuals harboring these mutations.
    Diabetes 02/2002; 51(1):224-30. · 7.90 Impact Factor