[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The implementation of the Korean diagnosis-related groups (DRG) payment system has been recently introduced in selected several diseases including appendectomy in Korea. Here, we report the early outcomes with regard to clinical aspects and medical costs of the Korean DRG system for appendectomies in Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center throughout comparing before and after introduction of DRG system.
The DRG system was applied since January 2013 at our institute. After the DRG system, we strategically designed and applied our algorithm for the treatment of probable appendicitis. We reviewed the patients who were treated with a procedure of appendectomy for probable appendicitis between July 2012 and June 2013, divided two groups based on before and after the application of DRG system, and compared clinical outcomes and medical costs.
Total 416 patients were included (204 patients vs. 212 patients in the group before vs. after DRG). Shorter hospital stays (2.98 ± 1.77 days vs. 3.82 ± 1.84 days, P < 0.001) were found in the group after DRG. Otherwise, there were no significant differences in the perioperative outcomes and medical costs including costs for first hospitalization and operation, costs for follow-up after discharge, frequency of visits of out-patient's clinic or Emergency Department or rehospitalization.
In the Korean DRG system for appendectomy, there were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes and medical costs, except shorter hospital stay. Further studies should be continued to evaluate the current Korean DRG system for appendectomy and further modifications and supplementations are needed in the future.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research 03/2015; 88(3):126-32. DOI:10.4174/astr.2015.88.3.126
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The survival paradox between stage IIB/C (T4N0) and stage IIIA (T1-2N1) colon cancer remains in the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. This multicenter study aimed to compare the oncologic outcomes of T4N0 and T1-2N1 colon cancers and to investigate the presumptive prognostic factors that might influence the survival paradox.
Patients who underwent curative surgery for pT4N0 (n = 224) and pT1-2N1 (n = 135) primary colon cancer between January 1999 and December 2010 at five tertiary referral cancer centers were included for analysis. The clinicopathologic, treatment-related factors, and oncologic outcomes in terms of the 5-year overall survival (5-OS) and 5-year disease-free survival (5-DFS) were compared.
The T4N0 group had significantly worse 5-OS and 5-DFS rates than the T1-2N1 group (5-OS: 84.0 vs. 92.3 %, p = 0.012; 5-DFS: 73.6 vs. 88.0 %, p = 0.001). T4N0 cancers more frequently showed elevated preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, lower grade of differentiation, larger tumor size, and higher proportions of perineural invasion, microsatellite instability, obstruction, and perforation than T1-2N1 cancers. Peritoneal seeding and liver metastasis were the predominant recurrence pattern in the T4N0 and T1-2N1 groups, respectively (p = 0.042). The T4N0 group showed inferior survival to the T1-2N1 group in postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (5-OS: 87.1 vs. 93.2 %, p = 0.045; 5-DFS: 76.1 vs. 89.0 %, p = 0.001).
T4N0 colon cancer had significantly worse oncologic outcomes than T1-2N1 cancer regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy. The survival paradox may result from the biologic aggressiveness of T4N0 colon carcinomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
This prospective study was performed to investigate whether postoperative ileus (POI) or early postoperative small bowel obstruction (EPSBO) affects the development of adhesive small bowel obstruction (SBO) in patients undergoing colectomy.
We prospectively enrolled 1,002 patients who underwent open colectomy by a single surgeon. POI was defined as the absence of bowel function for more than 5 days or as a delay in oral intake beyond 7 days postoperatively. EPSBO was defined as the clinical and radiologic identification of SBO after resuming oral intake between postoperative days 7 and 30. Adhesive SBO was defined as SBO developing after 30 days because of intraperitoneal adhesion. The associations between POI, EPSBO, patient- and surgery-related variables, and the development of adhesive SBO were analyzed.
A total of 85 (8.5 %) patients developed POI, and 42 patients (4.2 %) developed EPSBO, with seven patients experiencing both POI and EPSBO. During the follow-up period (median 51 months), 70 patients (7.0 %) developed adhesive SBO, six (8.6 %) of whom needed laparotomy. The occurrence of adhesive SBO was significantly higher in patients with EPSBO than in those without EPSBO (26.5 vs. 7.5 % at 5 years, P
World Journal of Surgery 08/2014; 38(11). DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2711-z · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, in some stages, it does not work. We performed this study to find a way in which preoperative CEA could be used as a constant prognostic marker in harmony with the TNM staging system.
Preoperative CEA levels and recurrences in CRC were surveyed. The distribution of CEA levels and the recurrences in each TNM stage of CRC were analyzed. An optimal cutoff value for each TNM stage was calculated and tested for validity as a prognostic marker within the TNM staging system.
The conventional cutoff value of CEA (5 ng/mL) was an independent prognostic factor on the whole. However, when evaluated in subgroups, it was not a prognostic factor in stage I or stage III of N2. A subgroup analysis according to TNM stage revealed different CEA distributions and recurrence rates corresponding to different CEA ranges. The mean CEA levels were higher in advanced stages. In addition, the recurrence rates of corresponding CEA ranges were higher in advanced stages. Optimal cutoff values from the receiver operating characteristic curves were 7.4, 5.5, and 4.5 ng/mL for TNM stage I, II, and III, respectively. Those for N0, N1, and N2 stages were 5.5, 4.8, and 3.5 ng/mL, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survivals were significantly different according to these cutoff values for each TNM and N stage. The multivariate analysis confirmed the new cutoff values to be more efficient in discriminating the prognosis in the subgroups of the TNM stages.
Individualized cutoff values of the preoperative CEA level are a more practical prognostic marker following and in harmony with the TNM staging system.
Annals of Coloproctology 06/2013; 29(3):106-14. DOI:10.3393/ac.2013.29.3.106
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : More than half of all rectal cancers are T3 lesions, but they are classified as a single-stage category.
: The aim of this study was to validate prognostic significance of mesorectal extension depth in T3 rectal cancer.
: This study is a retrospective analysis of oncologic outcomes of patients with T3 rectal cancer grouped by mesorectal extension depth (T3a, <1 mm; T3b, 1-5 mm; T3c, 5-15 mm; T3d, >15 mm).
: This study was conducted at a tertiary referral cancer hospital.
: From 2003 to 2009, 291 patients who underwent a curative surgery were included.
: Oncologic outcomes in terms of disease-free survival were analyzed.
: The 5-year disease-free survival rate according to T3 subclassification was 86.5% for T3a, 74.2% for T3b, 58.3% for T3c, and 29.0% for T3d. It was significantly higher in T3a,b tumors than that in T3c,d tumors (77.6% vs 55.2%, p < 0.001). On univariate and multivariate analysis, prognostic factors affecting recurrence were preoperative CEA level ≥5ng/mL (HR 2.617, 95% CI 1.620-4.226), lymph node metastasis (HR 3.347, 95% CI 1.834-6.566), and mesorectal extension depth >5 mm (HR 1.661, 95% CI 1.013-2.725). In subgroup analysis, independent prognostic factors were preoperative CEA level and mesorectal extension depth >5 mm for 200 patients with ypT3 rectal cancer and preoperative CEA level and lymph node metastasis for 91 patients with pT3 rectal cancer.
: This study lacks quality of surgery plane evaluation because of its retrospective nature. Moreover, pathologic examination was not done with a whole-mount section.
: Depth of mesorectal extension >5 mm is a significant prognostic factor in patients with T3 rectal cancer. Depth of mesorectal extension especially may be more important than the nodal status in predicting the oncologic outcome for patients who had received preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 12/2012; 55(12):1220-8. DOI:10.1097/DCR.0b013e31826fea6a · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backgrounds/Aims
We aimed to to evaluate the feasibility of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) in patients with previous upper abdominal surgery.
Retrospective analysis was performed on data from the attempted laparoscopic common bile duct exploration in 44 patients. Among them, 5 patients with previous lower abdominal operation were excluded. 39 patients were divided into two groups according to presence of previous upper abdominal operation; Group A: patients without history of abdominal operation. (n=27), Group B: patients with history of upper abdominal operation. Both groups (n=12) were compared to each other, with respect to clinical characteristics, operation time, postoperative hospital stay, open conversion rate, postoperative complication, duct clearance and mortality.
All of the 39 patients received laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and choledochotomy with T-tube drainage (n=38 [97.4%]) or with primary closure (n=1). These two groups were not statistically different in gender, mean age and presence of co-morbidity, mean operation time (164.5±63.1 min in group A and 134.8±45.2 min in group B, p=0.18) and postoperative hospital stay (12.6±5.7 days in group A and 9.8±2.9 days in group B, p=0.158). Duct clearance and complication rates were comparable (p>0.05). 4 cases were converted to open in group A and 1 case in group B respectively. In group A (4 of 27 (14.8%) and 1 of 12 (8.3%) in group B, p=0.312) Trocar or Veress needle related complication did not occur in either group.
LCBDE appears to be a safe and effective treatment even in the patients with previous upper abdominal operation if performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeon, and it can be the best alternative to failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for difficult cholelithiasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the initial experience of 24 cases of laparoscopic liver resection by a single surgeon to determine its feasibility and report perioperative complications associated with this technique.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We designed this study to evaluate the efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen in draining venous blood (vCEA) as a predictor of recurrence.
Draining venous and supplying arterial bloods were collected separately during the operation of 82 colorectal cancer patients without distant metastasis from September 2004 to December 2006. Carcinoembryonic antigen was measured and assessed for the efficacy as a prognostic factor of recurrence using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Kaplan-Meier curves.
vCEA is a statistically significant factor that predicts recurrence (P = 0.032) and the optimal cut-off value for vCEA from ROC curve is 8.0 ng/mL. The recurrence-free survival between patients with vCEA levels >8 ng/mL and ≤8 ng/mL significantly differed (P < 0.001). The significance of vCEA as a predictor of recurrence gets higher when limited to patients without lymph node metastasis. The proper cut-off value for vCEA is 4.0 ng/mL if confined to patients without lymph node metastasis. The recurrence-free survival between the patients of vCEA levels >4 ng/mL and ≤4 ng/mL significantly differed (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed vCEA is an independent prognostic factor in patients without lymph node metastasis.
vCEA is an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in colorectal cancer patients especially in patients without lymph node metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parastomal hernia is a major complication of an intestinal stoma. This study was performed to compare the results of various operative methods to treat parastomal hernias.
Results of surgical treatment for parastomal hernias (postoperative recurrence, complications and postoperative hospital stays) were surveyed in 39 patients over an 11-year period. The patients enrolled in this study underwent surgery by a single surgeon to exclude surgeon bias.
Seventeen patients were male, and twenty-two patients were female. The mean age was 65.9 years (range, 36 to 86 years). The stomas were 35 sigmoid-end-colostomies (90%), 2 loop-colostomies (5%), and 2 double-barrel-colostomies. Over half of the hernias developed within two years after initial formation. Stoma relocation was performed in 8 patients, suture repair in 14 patients and mesh repair in 17 patients. Seven patients had recurrence of the hernia, and ten patients suffered from complications. Postoperative complications and recurrence were more frequent in stoma relocation than in suture repair and mesh repair. Emergency operations were performed in four patients (10.3%) with higher incidence of complications but not with increased risk of recurrence. Excluding emergency operations, complications of relocations were not higher than those of mesh repairs. Postoperative hospital stays were shortest in mesh repair patients.
In this study, mesh repair showed low recurrence and a low complication rate with shorter hospital stay than relocation methods, though these differences were not statistically significant. Further studies, including randomized trials, are necessary if more reliable data on the surgical treatment of parastomal hernias are to be obtained.
Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology 08/2011; 27(4):174-9. DOI:10.3393/jksc.2011.27.4.174
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognostic significance of apical-node metastasis around the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) remains unclear. We investigated the oncological relevance of apical-node metastasis detected after high ligation of the IMA in stage III sigmoid colon or rectal cancer.
Between May 2003 and December 2007, 229 consecutive patients with stage III sigmoid colon or rectal cancer, who had undergone curative resection with high ligation, were analyzed. Cox proportional regression model was used to identify the prognostic factors for disease-free survival.
Thirty-one patients (13.5%) had apical-node metastases: 0% with T0-1, 3.8% with T2, 11.5% with T3, and 29.3% with T4 disease (p = 0.017). Additionally, the factors related to apical-node metastasis were tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, lymph-node ratio, and N-stage. Multivariate analysis showed that the lymph-node ratio (odds ratio (OR) = 40.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.41-195.22, p < 0.001) was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival but that apical-node metastasis was not a factor that predicted a poor outcome (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.81-2.91, p = 0.192). Apical-node metastasis was not a prognostic factor for disease-free survival on multivariate analysis of the subgroups based on tumor location (sigmoid colon cancer: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.42-1.82, p = 0.577; rectal cancer: OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 0.82-4.06, p = 0.141).
This study suggests that apical-node metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor for stage III sigmoid colon or rectal cancer after high ligation.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 07/2011; 27(1):81-7. DOI:10.1007/s00384-011-1271-z · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the notion that preoperative anal incontinence might be a potent predictive factor for anal incontinence (AI) after restorative proctectomy in rectal cancer patients. The principal objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for persistent anal incontinence following restorative proctectomy.
This study was designed as a single-center, prospective cohort study of a single group of 93 patients who had AI before restorative proctectomy for rectal cancer. The study group was re-evaluated for the presence of AI 12 months after restorative proctectomy or ileostomy takedown. Incontinence severity was determined using the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the clinicopathologic factors associated with persistent AI.
Fifteen patients were excluded from analysis due to death within the 12 months after surgery (n = 7), no ileostomy repair (n = 5), loss to follow-up (n = 2), or previous treatment for anal incontinence (n = 1). At 12 months, 53 of 78 patients (67.9%) had persistent AI and 25 patients (32.1 %) had recovered. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative FISI scores higher than 30 (OR = 11.61, 95% CI 1.43-94.01, p = 0.022) and lower tumor location 5 cm or less from the anal verge (OR = 84.46, 95% CI 3.91-1822.85, p = 0.005) were independent factors for persistent AI.
Anal incontinence may persist after restorative proctectomy in rectal cancer patients with high preoperative incontinence scores and lower tumor location. Therefore, this information should be provided when restorative proctectomy is offered for rectal cancer patients.
World Journal of Surgery 04/2011; 35(8):1918-24. DOI:10.1007/s00268-011-1116-5 · 2.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although laparoscopic surgery may permit earlier recovery compared with open surgery, no published randomized controlled trial has investigated the benefit of a multimodal rehabilitation program after laparoscopic colonic resection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a rehabilitation program after laparoscopic colon surgery in the context of a randomized controlled trial.
Between September 2007 and October 2009, 100 patients who had received laparoscopic colon surgery were selected for the study and randomly assigned on a 1:1 basis to a rehabilitation program group with early mobilization and diet (n = 46) or conventional care group (n = 54). The rehabilitation program group received early oral feeding, early ambulation, and regular laxative. The primary outcome was recovery time, measured with criteria of tolerable diet for 24 hours, safe ambulation, analgesic-free, and afebrile status without major complications. Secondary outcomes were postoperative hospital stay, complications, quality of life by Short Form 36, pain by visual analog scale, and readmission. This study was registered (ID number NCT00606944, http://register.clinicaltrials.gov).
Recovery time was shorter in the rehabilitation program group than in the conventional care group (median (interquartile range), 4 (3-5) d vs 6 (5-7) d, respectively; P < .0001). There was no difference in postoperative hospital stay between the 2 groups (rehabilitation program group, 7 (6-8) d vs conventional care group, 8 (7-9) d; P = .065). There was no difference in complication rates between the rehabilitation program group and conventional care group (10.9% vs 20.4%, respectively; P = .136). Quality of life and pain were similar in both groups. There were no readmissions or mortality.
A rehabilitation program with early mobilization and diet after laparoscopic colon surgery results in reduced recovery time without increased complications. These results suggest that a multimodal rehabilitation program may increase the short-term benefits after laparoscopic colon surgery.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 01/2011; 54(1):21-8. DOI:10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181fcdb3e · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a rare tumor that occurs in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue of the trunk or extremities in relatively young adults. There are few reports of Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans associated with pregnancy. We experienced a 28-year-old pregnant female patient with an abdominal wall mass, which grew rapidly during pregnancy. Excisional biopsy was performed and the pathologic diagnosis was fibrosarcoma transformed from Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans showed a positive CD34 immunostaining while fibrosarcoma showed a negative CD34. There was no recurrence or metastasis with the follow up period of 2 years. We report here a rare case of Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans aggravated during pregnancy with a review of the literature.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society 12/2010; 79(6):503. DOI:10.4174/jkss.2010.79.6.503 · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This comparative study analyzed the relationship between the preoperative diagnostic tumor size and the postoperative pathologic tumor size for breast cancer patients and benign breast tumor patients.
Journal of Breast Cancer 06/2010; 13(2). DOI:10.4048/jbc.2010.13.2.187 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosquamous carcinoma arising in congenital choledochal cyst is very rare and herein we report a case thereof. A 37-year-old woman was referred for further evaluation of pancreas head mass and a hepatic nodule on CT. She had been diagnosed with congenital choledochal cyst at 22-years-old and received Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy at that time. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biopsy proved the pancreas head mass as a squamous cell carcinoma and liver biopsy also proved the liver mass as a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. We performed pancreaticoduodenectomy and tumorectomy of metastatic liver nodule. Grossly, the primary lesion was located at intrapancreatic portion of choledochal cyst. Histologically, the primary lesion and hepatic nodule was metastatic adenosquamous carcinoma. So far, there have been only three cases of adenosquamous carcinoma arising in congenital choledochal cyst reported in English-language literature. This is another case and the first case reported in Korea.
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society 05/2010; 78(5). DOI:10.4174/jkss.2010.78.5.325 · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We tried to select and validate the candidate gene for the prognostic marker of breast cancer by comparing the analysis of copy number variation (CNV) between normal breast tissues and breast cancer tissues by performing array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) Methods: Array CGH was performed with using the fresh frozen tissues of 77 breast cancer patients. We selected the clones with more than a 20% frequency of gain or loss, and the clones with gain or loss in more than 2 consecutive clones We finally selected the clones that were statistically significant on the survival analysis. We searched for the candidate gene that belonged to the candidate clones and we selected the final candidate gene that is assumed to be most related to the carcinogenesis of breast cancer by searching for information of the individual gene. We performed RT-PCR to validate the RNA expression of the final candidate gene with using the breast tissues of another 20 breast cancer patients. Results: Eleven (10 in the gain group and 1 in the loss group) clones were finally selected as candidate clones. The significant CNVs with gain were found in the regions of 1q23 1, 1q41, 1q44, 5p15.33, 8q21 3, 15q26.3, 17q12 and 21q22 3 and the significant CNV with loss was found in 14q32 33. COL18A1 (21q22.3) was selected as the final candidate gene and the RT-PCR results revealed that the expression of COL18A1 was up-regulated in the cancer tissues of 18 of the other 20 (90%) breast cancer patients. Conclusion: We selected COL18A1 (21q22 3) as the candidate gene for the prognostic marker of breast cancer by comparing the analysis of CNVs from the array CGH. The RNA of COL18A1 was over-expressed in breast cancer tissue, as determined by RT-PCR.
Journal of Breast Cancer 03/2010; 13(1). DOI:10.4048/jbc.2010.13.1.37 · 1.58 Impact Factor