[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prevalent T helper type 1 (Th1) subset of lymphocytes has been described in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but whether a similar polarization may characterize HT when associated with non-endocrine autoimmune disorders (NEAD) is not known. The aim of the present study was to analyse the intracellular Th1 and Th2 distinctive cytokines in patients with isolated HT or associated with non-endocrine autoimmune disorders. Intracellular cytokine expression was assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 68 out-patients (females = 55; males = 13; median age = 6 years) with HT : 33 had isolated HT and 35 had a concurrent NEAD. The percentage of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 Th1- and IL-4 Th2-positive cells was measured by flow cytometric analysis. We found an increased percentage of IL-2-positive cells in all patients, without differences between patients with isolated HT or associated with NEAD. IFN-γ(+) cells were also increased in both groups, but the median percentage of those with isolated HT was lower than in patients with HT+NEAD (19·0 versus 29·9%; P = 0·0082). An increased number of IL-4-positive cells was observed in three of 33 (9·1%) patients with isolated HT and in 25 of 35 patients with NEAD [71%; P < 0·0001; relative risk (RR) = 3·18]. The median values of IL-4(+) cells (HT = 5·0% versus HT + NEAD = 16·8%) confirmed this large difference (P < 0·0001). A clear-cut increase of IL-4(+) lymphocytes characterizes patients with autoimmune thyroiditis who have associated non-endocrine autoimmune disorders. These findings may represent an initial tool to detect patients with autoimmune thyroiditis in which additional non-endocrine autoimmune disorders may be awaited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of chronic unexplained anaemia was analysed in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD).
The presence of chronic unexplained anaemia, defined as anaemia not related to evident or occult bleeding and/or to erythropoietic disorders, was retrospectively assessed and compared in patients with nonautoimmune thyroid disease (NATD) and in patients with ATD.
Biochemical and morphological parameters of anaemia were investigated and characterized in 1643 consecutive Caucasian outpatients with thyroid disease. In 991 patients, thyroid disease had a nonautoimmune origin. ATD was diagnosed in 652 patients (71 had Graves' disease and 581 had Hashimoto's thyroiditis and its variants). In 145 patients ATD was associated with other autoimmune disorders.
The presence of chronic unexplained anaemia was diagnosed in 123 patients (7.5%). Forty-eight had a thalassaemic trait, representing 2.9% of the whole sample. A true chronic unexplained anaemia was recorded in 75/1643 (4.6%). The occurrence of unexplained anaemia was similar in patients with NATD (1.9%) and in those with isolated ATD (2.96%; P = NS) but increased in patients with ATD and autoimmune related disorders (ARD) compared to patients with isolated ATD and/or with NATD (28.3%; both P < 0.0001; RR = 9.56 and 14.75, respectively). Chronic unexplained anaemia was virtually absent in hyperthyroid patients and was more prevalent in hypothyroid than in euthyroid patients with ATD (P = 0.0047; RR = 2.104).
These results indicate that the increased frequency of chronic anaemia in patients with ATD is essentially due to the presence of concomitant autoimmune gastrointestinal diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sodium levothyroxine is one of the most prescribed drugs all over the world. Oral thyroxine treatment is often used lifelong and the search for optimal daily dose may be a challenge for the physician. Patient age and compliance to prescribed regimen are in fact relevant features to achieve therapeutic goal. Also, the absorption of thyroxine is not a linear function of the ingested dose being sensitive to several interferences. Inaccurate administration modality, thyroxine interaction with different drugs, pregnancy, and malabsorption are all possible causes of increased need for thyroxine. Important and simple evidences are now available to improve the accuracy of drug administration and optimize the treatment. In fact, recent evidence pointed out the role of gastric acid secretion on the subsequent intestinal absorption of thyroxine in relation with the timing of food ingestion as well as with pH impairment associated to frequent gastric disorders like Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy.
Recenti progressi in medicina 10/2007; 98(9):445-51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyper- and hypothyroidism have significant effects on the female reproductive system. However, little in the way of data is available on the relationship between ovarian paracrine control and thyroid function. This study was aimed at characterising the serum levels of inhibin B in relation to altered thyroid function. Serum inhibin B and FSH levels were measured in 91 women (51 regularly cycling and 40 postmenopausal). The mean serum concentration of inhibin B in euthyroid cycling women (0.025 +/- 0.018 microg/l) was similar to that observed in hyper- and hypothyroid patients (0.022 +/- 0.015 and 0.018 +/- 0.014 microg/l, respectively, p=ns). Inhibin B levels were obviously reduced (-72%) in euthyroid postmenopausal women. In contrast, in hyper- and hypothyroid postmenopausal women, inhibin B levels remained substantially at the premenopausal level. So far, serum inhibin B appeared to be significantly increased in both hyperthyroid patients (0.025 +/- 0.014 microg/l; p<0.0001) and in hypothyroid patients (0.016 +/- 0.006 microg/l; p=0.0006). Altered thyroid function did not affect FSH levels at fertile age. However, a significant decrease of FSH levels was observed in hyper- and hypothyroid (-52% and -43%, respectively) postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, these FSH levels remained in the postmenopausal range. These results indicate that an altered thyroid function affects serum inhibin B levels in postmenopausal women.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 08/2003; 35(8):498-501. DOI:10.1055/s-2003-41808 · 2.04 Impact Factor