ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic malignancy and the ninth most common malignancy for females overall in Hong Kong. Approximately 80% or more of these cancers are endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas. The aim of this study was to reveal genes contributing to the development of endometrioid endometrial cancer, which may impact diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the disease. Whole-genome gene expression analysis was completed for a set of 55 microdissected sporadic endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas and 29 microdissected normal endometrium specimens using the Affymetrix Human U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide microarray. Selected genes of interest were validated by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Pathway analysis was performed to reveal gene interactions involved in endometrial tumorigenesis. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering displayed a distinct separation between the endometrioid adenocarcinomas and normal endometrium samples. Supervised analysis identified 117 highly differentially regulated genes (>or=4.0-fold change), which distinguished the endometrial cancer specimens from normal endometrium. Twelve novel genes including DKK4, ZIC1, KIF1A, SAA2, LOC16378, ALPP2, CCL20, CXCL5, BST2, OLFM1, KLRC1 and MBC45780 were deregulated in the endometrial cancer, and further validated in an independent set of 56 cancer and 29 normal samples using qRT-PCR. In addition, 10 genes were differentially regulated in late-stage cancer, as compared to early-stage disease, and may be involved in tumor progression. Pathway analysis of the expression data from this tumor revealed an interconnected network consisting of 21 aberrantly regulated genes involved in angiogenesis, cell proliferation and chromosomal instability. The results of this study highlight the molecular features of endometrioid endometrial cancer and provide insight into the events underlying the development and progression of endometrioid endometrial cancer.
Oncogene 04/2007; 26(13):1971-82. · 6.37 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the medium-term results of uterine fibroid embolisation in Chinese women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.
Prospective case series study.
Gynaecology and Interventional Radiology units in a public hospital, Hong Kong.
Patients with symptomatic fibroids who underwent uterine fibroid embolisation in Queen Elizabeth Hospital from October 1998 to June 2004.
Fifty women (mean age, 42.9 years; median follow-up period, 27.5 months) were recruited. Most (82%) had menorrhagia as the chief presenting symptom. Embolisation was successful in 49 (98%) women. Complications occurred in 12 (24%) patients, but were all self-limiting. Significant decrease in the median clinical uterine size (14 weeks vs 10 weeks) and median volume of the largest fibroid on magnetic resonance imaging (157.9 mL vs 45 mL) were observed during the first year. The reduction seemed to be maintained till the last follow-up. Menorrhagia improved in 34 (84%) patients, dysmenorrhoea in 28 (88%), pelvic pain in 18 (82%) and abdominal mass in 15 (83%). Poor response was found for urinary symptoms (29% improvement). Eight (16%) patients underwent hysterectomies after uterine fibroid embolisation. On logistic regression analysis, the only significant predictive factor for symptomatic improvement was fibroid volume reduction at 6 months (P=0.03).
Uterine fibroid embolisation is an effective uterine-preserving therapy in patients with symptomatic fibroids; overall symptomatic improvement was estimated as 80%. Uterine or fibroid size reduction correlated well with clinical outcome. The impact of uterine fibroid embolisation on young women wishing to conceive is yet to be determined.
Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine 11/2006; 12(5):361-7.
ABSTRACT: Automatic interpretation and animation of human motion has become
an important research topic among researchers in virtual reality and
computer animation. One major problem encountered during hand motion
analysis is the large amount of data that need to be captured and
analyzed. Even for a human hand, although only a small part of the body
is involved, there are about 30 motion parameters for each hand posture.
The authors present an approach to hand motion animation using only
static images of the set of target gestures. We achieve naturalistic
hand motion animation by the use of an anatomy based hand model and a
hand gesture coding system, which we called Hand Action Coding System
(HACS). This allows complex sequences of hand gestures to be animated
based only on the static image of the hand gestures to be animated. This
approach greatly simplifies motion data acquisition and the process of
motion analysis and synthesis
Computer Graphics International, 2000. Proceedings; 02/2000
ABSTRACT: Previously (H.S. Horace et al., 1997), we presented an anatomy
based hierarchical model for hand motion simulation. We present a hand
gesture coding system which we called Hand Action Coding System (HACS).
It is an extension of our previous work. With HACS, the simulation
allows specification of hand motion in a high level manner. The
underlying computational complexities of motion simulation are separated
from the high level motion descriptions. When humans want to perform
some hand functions or hand gestures, the brain gives instructions and
activates the corresponding hand muscles. HACS codifies hand gestures in
terms of these hand muscle action units (HAU). When combined with our
anatomy based hand model, HACS eases the specification of complex hand
gestures/motion animation sequence
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1998. 1998 IEEE International Conference on; 11/1998