Stephen J Sawiak

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (34)90.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be seriously impaired by patient motion. The purpose of this study was to characterise the typical motion in a clinical population of patients in disorders of consciousness and compare the performance of retrospective correction with rigid-body realignment as implemented in widely used software packages. 63 subjects were scanned with an fMRI visual checkerboard paradigm using a 3T scanner. Time series were corrected for motion and the resulting transformations were used to calculate a motion score. SPM, FSL, AFNI and AIR were evaluated by comparing the motion obtained by re-running the tool on the corrected data. A publicly available sample fMRI dataset was modified with the motion detected in each patient with each tool. The performance of each tool was measured by comparing the number of supra-threshold voxels after standard fMRI analysis, both in the sample dataset and in simulated fMRI data. We assessed the effect of user-changeable parameters on motion correction in SPM. We found the equivalent motion in the patient population to be 1.4mm on average. There was no significant difference in performance between SPM, FSL and AFNI. AIR was considerably worse, and took more time to run. We found that in SPM the quality factor and interpolation method have no effect on the cluster size, while higher separation and smoothing reduce it. We showed that the main packages SPM, FSL and AFNI are equally suitable for retrospective motion correction of fMRI time series. We show that typically only 80% of activated voxels are recovered by retrospective motion correction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Magnetic resonance imaging. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is associated with upregulation of dopamine (DA) release in the caudate nucleus. The caudate has dense connections with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) via the frontostriatal loops, and both areas exhibit pathophysiological change in schizophrenia. Despite evidence that abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and prefrontal cortex function co-occur in schizophrenia, the influence of OFC DA on caudate DA and reinforcement processing is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that OFC dopaminergic dysfunction disrupts caudate dopamine function, we selectively depleted dopamine from the OFC of marmoset monkeys and measured striatal extracellular dopamine levels (using microdialysis) and dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding (using positron emission tomography), while modeling reinforcement-related behavior in a discrimination learning paradigm. OFC dopamine depletion caused an increase in tonic dopamine levels in the caudate nucleus and a corresponding reduction in D2/D3 receptor binding. Computational modeling of behavior showed that the lesion increased response exploration, reducing the tendency to persist with a recently chosen response side. This effect is akin to increased response switching previously seen in schizophrenia and was correlated with striatal but not OFC D2/D3 receptor binding. These results demonstrate that OFC dopamine depletion is sufficient to induce striatal hyperdopaminergia and changes in reinforcement learning relevant to schizophrenia.
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 05/2014; 34(22):7663-76.
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    ABSTRACT: AimsRecently it has been shown that the mitochondria-targeted S-nitrosothiol MitoSNO protects against acute ischaemia/reperfusion (IR) injury by inhibiting the reactivation of mitochondrial complex I in the first minutes of reperfusion of ischaemic tissue, thereby preventing free radical formation that underlies IR injury. However, it remains unclear how this transient inhibition of mitochondrial complex I-mediated free radicals at reperfusion affects the long-term recovery of the heart following IR injury. Here we determined whether the acute protection by MitoSNO at reperfusion prevented the subsequent development of post-myocardial infarction heart failure.Methods and resultsMice were subjected to 30 min left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion and recovery over 28 days. MitoSNO (100 ng/kg) was applied 5 min before the onset of reperfusion followed by 20 min infusion (1 ng/kg/min). Infarct size and cardiac function were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 24 h after infarction. MitoSNO-treated mice exhibited reduced infarct size and preserved function. In addition, MitoSNO at reperfusion improved outcome measures 28 days post-IR, including preserved systolic function (63.7 ±1.8% LVEF vs. 53.7 ± 2.1% in controls, P = 0.01) and tissue fibrosis.Conclusions MitoSNO action acutely at reperfusion reduces infarct size and protects from post-myocardial infarction heart failure. Therefore, targeted inhibition of mitochondrial complex I in the first minutes of reperfusion by MitoSNO is a rational therapeutic strategy for preventing subsequent heart failure in patients undergoing IR injury.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 05/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo assessment of heart function in mice is important for basic and translational research in cardiology. MRI is an accurate tool for the investigation of the anatomy and function in the preclinical setting; however, the long scan duration limits its usage. We aimed to reduce the acquisition time of cine MRI to 1 min. We employed spatiotemporal compressed sensing and parallel imaging to accelerate retrospectively gated cine MRI. We compared the functional parameters derived from full and undersampled data in Cartesian and radial MRI by means of Bland–Altman plots. We found that the scan time for the whole heart could be reduced to 2 min with Cartesian sampling and to 1 min with radial sampling. Despite a reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio, the accuracy in the estimation of left and right ventricular volumes was preserved for all tested subjects. This method can be used to perform accurate functional MRI examinations in mice for high-throughput phenotyping or translational studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    NMR in Biomedicine 04/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the full-length human huntingtin protein with an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the juvenile range. Young HD sheep with no other symptoms exhibited circadian behavioural abnormalities that worsened with age. The most obvious change was a disturbed evening behaviour reminiscent of 'sundowning' that is seen in some patients with dementia. There were no structural abnormalities seen with MRI, even in 5-year-old HD sheep. Interestingly, detection of the circadian abnormalities depended upon their social grouping. Abnormalities emerged in sheep kept in an 'HD-only' flock, whereas the behaviour of HD sheep kept mixed with normal sheep was relatively normal. Sleep-wake abnormalities in HD patients are also likely to be hidden, and may precede overt symptoms by many years. Sleep disruption has deleterious effects, even in normal people. The knock-on effects of sleep-wake disturbance may exacerbate, or even cause symptoms such as irritability and depression that are common in early stage HD patients. HD sheep will be useful models for probing the mechanisms underlying circadian behavioural disorder in HD.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, evidence from studies in both animal models and patients suggests that cardiovascular dysfunction is important in HD. Previous studies measuring function of the left ventricle (LV) in the R6/2 model have found a clear cardiac abnormality, albeit with preserved LV systolic function. It was hypothesized that an impairment of RV function might play a role in this condition via mechanisms of ventricular interdependence. To investigate RV function in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). Cardiac cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine functional parameters in R6/2 mice. In a first experiment, these parameters were derived longitudinally to determine deterioration of cardiac function with disease progression. A second experiment compared the response to a stress test (using dobutamine) of wildtype and early-symptomatic R6/2 mice. There was progressive deterioration of RV systolic function with age in R6/2 mice. Furthermore, beta-adrenergic stimulation with dobutamine revealed RV dysfunction in R6/2 mice before any overt symptoms of the disease were apparent. This work adds to accumulating evidence of cardiovascular dysfunction in R6/2 mice, describing for the first time the involvement of the right ventricle. Cardiovascular dysfunction should be considered, both when treatment strategies are being designed, and when searching for biomarkers for HD.
    Journal of Huntington's disease. 01/2014; 3(1):25-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate kinetic modelling of in vivo physiological function using positron emission tomography (PET) requires determination of the tracer time-activity curve in plasma, known as the arterial input function (AIF). The AIF is usually determined by invasive blood sampling methods, which are prohibitive in murine studies due to low total blood volumes. Extracting AIFs from PET images is also challenging due to large partial volume effects (PVE). We hypothesise that in combined PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR), a co-injected bolus of MR contrast agent and PET ligand can be tracked using fast MR acquisitions. This protocol would allow extraction of a MR AIF from MR contrast agent concentration-time curves, at higher spatial and temporal resolution than an image-derived PET AIF. A conversion factor could then be applied to the MR AIF for use in PET kinetic analysis. This work has compared AIFs obtained from sequential DSC-MRI and PET with separate injections of gadolinium contrast agent and 18F-FDG respectively to ascertain the technique‧s validity. An automated voxel selection algorithm was employed to improve MR AIF reproducibility. We found that MR and PET AIFs displayed similar character in the first pass, confirmed by gamma variate fits (p<0.02). MR AIFs displayed reduced PVE compared to PET AIFs, indicating their potential use in PET/MR studies.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2014; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial complex I, the primary entry point for electrons into the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is both critical for aerobic respiration and a major source of reactive oxygen species. In the heart, chronic dysfunction driving cardiomyopathy is frequently associated with decreased complex I activity, from both genetic and environmental causes. To examine the functional relationship between complex I disruption and cardiac dysfunction we used an established mouse model of mild and chronic complex I inhibition through heart-specific Ndufs4 gene ablation. Heart-specific Ndufs4-null mice had a decrease of ∼50% in complex I activity within the heart, and developed severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The decrease in complex I activity, and associated cardiac dysfunction, occurred absent an increase in mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide levels in vivo, accumulation of markers of oxidative damage, induction of apoptosis, or tissue fibrosis. Taken together, these results indicate that diminished complex I activity in the heart alone is sufficient to drive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy independently of alterations in levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide or oxidative damage.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e94157. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radial acquisitions can suffer from trajectory errors leading to reduced image quality. Here we present a new method of trajectory correction that uses all spokes of a radial acquisition and compare it to an existing method that uses a two-spoke pre-scan calibration. For both methods, estimates of the necessary shifts were made using magnitude or phase data and the performances were compared. The additional effect of B0 correction was considered in all cases. Mouse cardiac scans were used for the comparisons and we also compared the quality of navigator signals obtained from the radial data with each technique. The proposed method gave improved image quality over the existing method, as assessed by visual inspection and quantitative evaluation of artifacts. The typical shading artifacts seen in radial scans were significantly reduced with both approaches, with phase-based corrections generally outperforming magnitude-based methods. B0 correction gave further improvements in each case. Furthermore, modulation of navigator signals due to the acquisition angle was significantly reduced with the new technique. We show that our proposed method works well to reduce artifacts seen in mouse cardiac imaging that can make faster imaging feasible.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 01/2014;
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    Stephen J Sawiak, Jean-Luc Picq, Marc Dhenain
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first non-human primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI). These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum). Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal), nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2014; 6:82. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathological forms of impulsivity are manifest in a number of psychiatric disorders listed in DSM-5, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorder. However, the molecular and cellular substrates of impulsivity are poorly understood. Here, we investigated a specific form of motor impulsivity in rats, namely premature responding, on a five-choice serial reaction time task. We used in vivo voxel-based magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo Western blot analyses to investigate putative structural, neuronal, and glial protein markers in low-impulsive (LI) and high-impulsive rats. We also investigated whether messenger RNA interference targeting glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD65/67) gene expression in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcbC) is sufficient to increase impulsivity in LI rats. We identified structural and molecular abnormalities in the NAcbC associated with motor impulsivity in rats. We report a reduction in gray matter density in the left NAcbC of high-impulsive rats, with corresponding reductions in this region of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65/67) and markers of dendritic spines and microtubules. We further demonstrate that the experimental reduction of de novo of GAD65/67 expression bilaterally in the NAcbC is sufficient to increase impulsivity in LI rats. These results reveal a novel mechanism of impulsivity in rats involving gamma aminobutyric acidergic and structural abnormalities in the NAcbC with potential relevance to the etiology and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related disorders.
    Biological psychiatry 08/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite widespread application to human imaging, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), where images are compared following grey matter (GM) segmentation, is seldom used in mice. Here VBM is performed for the R6/2 model of Huntington's disease, a progressive neurological disorder. This article discusses issues in translating the methods to mice and shows that its statistical basis is sound in mice as it is in human studies. Whole brain images from live transgenic and control mice are segmented into GM maps after processing and compared to produce statistical parametric maps of likely differences. To assess whether false positives were likely to occur, a large cohort of ex vivo magnetic resonance brain images were sampled with permutation testing. Differences were seen particularly in the striatum and cortex, in line with studies performed ex vivo and as seen in human patients. In validation, the rate of false positives is as expected and these have no discernible distribution through the brain. The study shows that VBM successfully detects differences in the Huntington's disease mouse brain. The method is rapid compared to manual delineation and reliable. The templates created here for the mouse brain are freely released for other users in addition to an open-source software toolbox for performing mouse VBM.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging 07/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder that insidiously affects the motivational and cognitive control systems of susceptible individuals. Clinical research over the last two decades has profited from the technique of positron emission tomography (PET), a non-invasive imaging technique that allows the longitudinal assessment of addiction-relevant biomarkers in current and former drug users. The vast majority of this research has unsurprisingly focused on the brain dopamine (DA) systems given their pivotal role in primary drug reinforcement and the rich abundance of dopaminergic PET tracers. However, the provocative failure of dopaminergic medications in addiction has fuelled the search for alternative treatments. This article considers current controversies in this field as well as prospects for elucidating neurotransmitter mechanisms in addiction beyond DA.
    Current opinion in neurobiology 05/2013; · 7.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that impulsivity in rats predicts the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking and taking, and is coupled to decreased D(2/3) receptor availability in the ventral striatum. Since withdrawal from cocaine normalises high impulsivity in rats, we investigated, using positron emission tomography (PET), the effects of response-contingent cocaine administration on D(2/3) receptor availability in the striatum. Rats were screened for impulsive behavior on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. After a baseline PET scan with the D(2/3) ligand [(18)F]fallypride, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine for 15 days under a long-access schedule. As a follow up, rats were assessed for impulsivity and underwent a second [(18)F]fallypride PET scan. At baseline, we found that D(2/3) receptor availability was significantly lower in the left, but not right, ventral striatum of high-impulsive rats compared with low-impulsive rats. While the number of self-administered cocaine infusions was not different between the two impulsivity groups, impulsivity selectively decreased in high-impulsive rats withdrawn from cocaine. This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in D(2/3) receptor availability in the left, but not right, ventral striatum. We further report that D(2/3) receptor availability was inversely related to baseline D(2/3) receptor availability in the ventral striatum of high-impulsive rats, as well as to the left and right dorsal striatum of both low-impulsive and high-impulsive rats. These findings indicate that the reduction in impulsivity in high-impulsive rats by prior cocaine exposure may be mediated by a selective correction of deficient D(2/3) receptor availability in the ventral striatum. A similar baseline-dependent mechanism may account for the therapeutic effects of stimulant drugs in clinical disorders such as ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 11 February 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.44.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2013; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 02/2013; 702:47–49. · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Eleanor Evans, Stephen J. Sawiak, T. Adrian Carpenter
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous PET–MR acquisition provides the high temporal and spatial resolution of MRI with the specificity of PET. In PET, accurate modelling of physiological function in vivo requires the time-activity curve of tracer in blood plasma, known as the arterial input function (AIF). As the gold standard method of blood sampling is inherently prohibitive in the small animal case, here we discuss how we prepare to rapidly sample MRI signals from gadolinium-doped tracer to obtain the tracer input functions from a simultaneous PET-MR measurement. ΔR2⁎ measurements taken from EPI images were used to obtain first pass bolus AIFs in the rat brain from DSC-MRI datasets of 5 rats. AIFs obtained using our automatic algorithm were found to be consistent between animals and compared well with manual methods without need for a priori voxel selection. A variable flip angle FLASH sequence used for T1 mapping was successfully tested in a phantom study, providing accurate measurements of Gd concentration.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 02/2013; 702:126–128. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To demonstrate and validate a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging protocol, optimized for tissue viability assessment in interventional mouse models of myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The method uses an efficient sampling scheme using multiple slices in a single heartbeat interleaving slice packages between alternate TRs. Sampling multiple slices instead of multiple echoes or multiple k-lines achieves higher SNR efficiency, and images covering the whole heart can be obtained in 3 min. Saturation effects are exploited for an optimum compromise between contrast and speed. RESULTS: The images obtained show high hyperenhancement with good contrast-to-noise. It is shown that inversion time optimization can be reliably omitted with this scheme, and that measured infarct sizes correlate well with histological measures. CONCLUSION: Our protocol offers a new efficient tool for the measurement of infarct size in mouse models of heart disease. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012;. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 01/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Severe brain hypoxia in the territory of the occluded artery is a key feature of ischemic stroke. This region can be imaged using positron emission tomography (PET) and the standard hypoxia radiotracer (18)F-fluoromisonidazole ((18)F-FMISO). However, the utility of (18)F-FMISO is limited by its slow accumulation in the lesion. Therefore, this study investigated three hypoxia-sensitive radiotracers, namely the nitroimidazole (18)F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside ((18)F-FAZA) and two (64)Cu bis(thiosemicarbazone) complexes ((64)Cu-ATSM and (64)Cu-ATSE), expected to have improved pharmacokinetic profiles relative to (18)F-FMISO, in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. METHODS: In anaesthetised Wistar rats, the distal middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded by electrocoagulation, the radiotracers administered intravenously and animals PET scanned for up to 3hours, followed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to map the infarct. RESULTS: As expected, late and prominent (18)F-FMISO retention was observed despite lower tracer delivery into the affected region. Time-activity curves revealed that both (64)Cu-ATSM and (64)Cu-ATSE showed rapid entry and efflux from the brain, but did not show significant accumulation in the lesion. (18)F-FAZA showed limited brain penetration, and accumulation in the lesion was inconsistent, low and as slow as (18)F-FMISO. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests further development of these radiotracers as hypoxia markers for ischemic stroke may not be warranted.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 01/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure originating from myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Mouse models of ischaemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) are used to study the effects of novel treatment strategies targeting MI, however staging disease and treatment efficacy is a challenge. Damage and recovery can be assessed on the cellular, tissue or whole-organ scale but these are rarely measured in concert. Here, for the first time, we present data showing measures of injury in infarcted mice using complementary techniques for multi-modal characterisation of the heart. We use in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess heart function with cine-MRI, hindered perfusion with late gadolinium enhancement imaging and muscular function with displacement encoded with stimulated echoes (DENSE) MRI. These measures are followed by positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose to assess cellular metabolism. We demonstrate a protocol combining each of these measures for the same animal in the same imaging session and compare how the different markers can be used to quantify cardiac recovery on different scales following injury.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2013; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The similarity of the mouse heart to the human heart has made it an ideal model for testing novel therapeutic strategies. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent views of the heart noninvasively with clear anatomical detail, which can be used for accurate functional assessment. Contrast agents can provide basic measures of tissue viability but these are nonspecific. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a complementary technique that is highly specific for molecular imaging, but lacks the anatomical detail of MRI. Used together, these techniques offer a sensitive, specific and quantitative tool for the assessment of the heart in disease and recovery following treatment. In this paper we explain how these methods are carried out in mouse models of acute myocardial infarction. The procedures described here were designed for the assessment of putative protective drug treatments. We used MRI to measure systolic function and infarct size with late gadolinium enhancement, and PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess metabolic function in the infarcted region. The paper focuses on practical aspects such as slice planning, accurate gating, drug delivery, segmentation of images, and multimodal coregistration. The methods presented here achieve good repeatability and accuracy maintaining a high throughput.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2013;

Publication Stats

148 Citations
90.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Clinical Neurosciences
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States