[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of interferon (IFN)-gamma-modulated dendritic cells (DC) in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). We induced EAMG in Lewis rats by immunization with Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and adjuvant. On day 33 post-immunization (p.i.), splenic DC were prepared, exposed to IFN-gamma alone (IFN-gamma-DC) or to IFN-gamma in combination with 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (1-MT), the specific inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) (IFN-gamma + 1-MT-DC), and injected subcutaneously into rats with incipient EAMG on day 5 p.i. A control group of EAMG rats received naive DC on day 5 p.i., while another group received 1-MT every other day, intraperitoneally (p.i.), from days 5 to 41 p.i. The severity of clinical signs of EAMG was reduced dramatically in IFN-gamma-DC-treated rats compared to rats receiving naive DC, IFN-gamma + 1-MT-DC or 1-MT alone. The number of plasma cells secreting nAChR antibodies was reduced and the expression of B cell activation factor (BAFF) on splenic and lymph node mononuclear cells (MNC) was down-regulated in rats treated with IFN-gamma-DC. In vitro co-culture of MNC derived from EAMG rats with IFN-gamma-DC produced relatively few cells secreting nAChR antibodies. Addition of 1-MT to the co-culture significantly increased the number of cells secreting nAChR antibodies. We conclude that IFN-gamma-DC reduced the number of plasma cells secreting nAChR antibodies in an IDO-dependent manner and ameliorated the development of EAMG in Lewis rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system considered to be mediated by autoreactive T cells. Dendritic cells (DC), being professional antigen-presenting cells, play a pivotal role in the decision between T-cell activation and anergy. It has been suggested that mature DC (mDC) induce immunity, whereas immature DC (imDC) have the potential to induce tolerance. In this study, we investigated the effects of autologous imDC versus autologous mDC on lymphocytes with respect to the expression of functionally important cell-surface molecules and production of cytokines. Our aims were to investigate whether the maturation status of DC differs between MS and healthy controls (HC) and to explore whether the effects of DC on T-cell responses differ between MS and HC. DC were generated from adherent blood mononuclear cells from patients with MS and HC. imDC were obtained by culture with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) + interleukin-4 (IL-4) or GM-CSF + IL-4 + IL-10. mDC were obtained by adding lipopolysaccharide to DC cultures. Upon coculture with autologous lymphocytes, mDC activated the autologous T cells as reflected by increased CD25 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 expression on CD4(+) T cells together with the increased production of both T helper 1 (Th1) (IL-2 and interferon-gamma) and Th2 (IL-10 and IL-4) cytokines. Unmodulated naïve imDC induced the production of only IL-4. An exposure of imDC to IL-10 induced the production of IL-4 as well as IL-10 by autologous lymphocytes. We hypothesize that such imDC are important in controlling the proinflammatory environment in vivo in patients with MS.
Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 07/2004; 59(6):600-6. · 2.20 Impact Factor