[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophil activation plays integral roles in host tissue damage and resistance to infectious diseases. As glucose uptake and NADPH availability are required for reactive oxygen metabolite production by neutrophils, we tested the hypothesis that pathological glucose levels (>or=12 mM) are sufficient to activate metabolism and reactive oxygen metabolite production in normal adherent neutrophils. We demonstrate that elevated glucose concentrations increase the neutrophil's metabolic oscillation frequency and hexose monophosphate shunt activity. In parallel, substantially increased rates of NO and superoxide formation were observed. However, these changes were not observed for sorbitol, a nonmetabolizable carbohydrate. Glucose transport appears to be important in this process as phloretin interferes with the glucose-specific receptor-independent activation of neutrophils. However, LY83583, an activator of glucose flux, promoted these changes at 1 mM glucose. The data suggest that at pathophysiologic concentrations, glucose uptake by mass action is sufficient to activate neutrophils, thus circumventing the normal receptor transduction mechanism. To enable us to mechanistically understand these dynamic metabolic changes, mathematical simulations were performed. A model for glycolysis in neutrophils was created. The results indicated that the frequency change in NAD(P)H oscillations can result from the activation of the hexose monophosphate shunt, which competes with glycolysis for glucose-6-phosphate. Experimental confirmation of these simulations was performed by measuring the effect of glucose concentrations on flavoprotein autofluorescence, an indicator of the rate of mitochondrial electron transport. Moreover, after prolonged exposure to elevated glucose levels, neutrophils return to a "nonactivated" phenotype and are refractile to immunologic stimulation. Our findings suggest that pathologic glucose levels promote the transient activation of neutrophils followed by the suppression of cell activity, which may contribute to nonspecific tissue damage and increased susceptibility to infections, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is associated with changes in host susceptibility to infections and inflammatory disease. We hypothesize that metabolic enzyme trafficking affects maternal neutrophil activation. Specifically, immunofluorescence microscopy has shown that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDase), the rate-controlling step of the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS), is located near the cell periphery in control neutrophils but is found near the microtubule-organizing centers in cells from pregnant women. Cytochemical studies confirmed that the distribution of the G-6-PDase antigen is coincident with functional G-6-PDase activity. Metabolic oscillations within activated pregnancy neutrophils are higher in amplitude, though lower in frequency, than activated control neutrophils, suggesting limited HMS activity. Analysis of radioisotope-labeled carbon flux from glucose to CO(2) indicates that the HMS is intact in leukocytes from pregnant women, but its level is not enhanced by cell stimulation. Using extracellular fluorescent markers, activated pregnancy neutrophils were found to release reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) at a lower rate than activated control neutrophils. However, basal levels of ROM production in polarized pregnancy neutrophils were greater than in control neutrophils. Microtubule-disrupting agents reversed the observed changes in G-6-PDase trafficking, metabolic oscillations, and ROM production by maternal neutrophils. G-6-PDase trafficking appears to be one mechanism regulating ROM production by maternal neutrophils.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2003; 110(12):1801-11. · 12.81 Impact Factor