[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loss of Gimap5 (GTPase of the immune-associated protein 5) gene function is the underlying cause of lymphopenia and autoimmune diabetes in the BioBreeding (BB) rat. The in vivo function of murine gimap5 is largely unknown. We show that selective gene ablation of the mouse gimap5 gene impairs the final intrathymic maturation of CD8 and CD4 T cells and compromises the survival of postthymic CD4 and CD8 cells, replicating findings in the BB rat model. In addition, gimap5 deficiency imposes a block of natural killer (NK)- and NKT-cell differentiation. Development of NK/NKT cells is restored on transfer of gimap5(-/-) bone marrow into a wild-type environment. Mice lacking gimap5 have a median survival of 15 weeks, exhibit chronic hepatic hematopoiesis, and in later stages show pronounced hepatocyte apoptosis, leading to liver failure. This pathology persists in a Rag2-deficient background in the absence of mature B, T, or NK cells and cannot be adoptively transferred by transplanting gimap5(-/-) bone marrow into wild-type recipients. We conclude that mouse gimap5 is necessary for the survival of peripheral T cells, NK/NKT-cell development, and the maintenance of normal liver function. These functions involve cell-intrinsic as well as cell-extrinsic mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells play a critical role in normal tissue maintenance, and mutations in these stem cells may give rise to cancer. We hypothesize that melanoma develops from a mutated stem cell and therefore residual stem cell characteristics should be able to be identified in melanoma cell lines. We studied three metastatic melanoma cell lines that exhibited multiple morphologic forms in culture and demonstrated the capacity to pigment. We used the ability to efflux Hoechst 33342 dye, a technique known to enrich for stem cells in many tissues, to segregate cell populations. The cells with the greatest ability to efflux the dye were (1) small in size, (2) had the capacity to give rise to larger cell forms, and (3) had the greatest ability to expand in culture. The small cells were found to have a decreased proliferative rate and were less melanized. Large dendritic cells that appeared to be nonproliferative were identified in cultures. Treatment with cytosine beta-D-arabinofuranoside hydrochloride (Ara-C) expanded the large cell population but the residual proliferative capacity, both in vitro and in vivo, remained concentrated in the smaller cell fraction. Antigenic staining patterns were variable and heterogeneous. Nestin (a neural stem cell marker) and gp100 (premelanosomal marker) favored the smaller cell population, while nerve growth factor receptor often labeled larger cells. Morphologic and antigenic heterogeneity remained intact after clonal purification. These findings are consistent with the behavior expected for a tumor based on stem cell biology; this finding has diagnostic and therapeutic implications for melanocytic neoplasias.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 02/2006; 126(1):142-53. · 6.19 Impact Factor