[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a new coronavirus strain, SARS-CoV. Specific proteomic patterns might be present in serum in response to the infection and could be useful for early detection of the disease.
Using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) ProteinChip technology, we profiled and compared serum proteins of 39 patients with early-stage SARS infection and 39 non-SARS patients who were suspected cases during the SARS outbreak period. Proteomic patterns associated with SARS were identified by bioinformatic and biostatistical analyses. Features of interest were then purified and identified by tandem mass spectrometry.
Twenty proteomic features were significantly different between the 2 groups. Fifteen were increased in the SARS group, and 5 were decreased. Their concentrations were correlated with 2 or more clinical and/or biochemical variables. Two were correlated with the SARS-CoV viral load. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that a majority of the SARS patients (95%) had similar serum proteomic profiles and identified 2 subgroups with poor prognosis. ROC curve analysis identified individual features as potential biomarkers for SARS diagnosis (areas under ROC curves, 0.733-0.995). ROC curve areas were largest for an N-terminal fragment of complement C3c alpha chain (m/z 28 119) and an internal fragment of fibrinogen alpha-E chain (m/z 5908). Immunoglobulin kappa light chain (m/z 24 505) positively correlated with viral load.
Specific proteomic fingerprints in the sera of adult SARS patients could be used to identify SARS cases early during onset with high specificity and sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents commonly are used to treat patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Data on the safety of the use of these drugs before colonoscopic polypectomy are scanty.
An audit was conducted for a 2-year period of consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy and polypectomy. Patient demographics, site and size of polyps, and the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents were documented from a hospital on-line database. Bleeding episodes were classified as immediate or delayed and were graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Risk factors associated with postendoscopy bleeding were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
A total of 5593 cases were reviewed. Polypectomy was performed in 1657 patients. There were 37 cases of polypectomy-associated bleeding (2.2%); bleeding was immediate in 32 and delayed in 5. Multivariate analysis showed that warfarin use, after adjustment for the effects of each of the other factors, was an independent risk factor for bleeding, with an odds ratio 13.37: 95% CI[4.10, 43.65]. Age; the location and size of polyp; and the use of aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and other antiplatelet agents were not associated with a higher risk of polypectomy-associated bleeding.
The use of antiplatelet agents during polypectomy was not associated with an increase in post-polypectomy bleeding. In contrast, treatment with warfarin should be discontinued, because this was associated with a significant increase in post-polypectomy bleeding.