R W Hilwig

The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

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Publications (19)162.29 Total impact

  • Resuscitation 05/2008; 77. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Resuscitation 05/2008; 77. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care recommend that for adult cardiac arrest the single rescuer performs "two quick breaths followed by 15 chest compressions." This cycle is continued until additional help arrives. Previous studies have shown that lay persons and medical students take 16 +/- 1 and 14 +/- 1 s, respectively, to perform these "two quick breaths." The purpose of this study was to determine the time required for trained professional paramedic firefighters to deliver these two breaths and the effects that any increase in the time it takes to perform rescue breathing would have on the number of chest compressions delivered during single rescuer BLS CPR. We hypothesized that trained professional rescuers would also take substantially longer then the Guidelines recommendation for delivering the two rescue breaths before every 15 compressions during simulated single rescuer BLS CPR. Twenty-four paramedic firefighters currently certified to perform BLS CPR were evaluated for their ability to deliver the two recommended breaths within 4 s according to the AHA 2000 CPR Guidelines. Alternatively, a simplified technique of continuous chest compression BLS CPR (CCC) was also taught and compared with standard BLS CPR (STD). Without revealing the purpose of the study the paramedics were asked to perform single rescuer BLS CPR on a recording Resusci Anne while being videotaped. The mean length of time needed to provide the "two quick breaths" during STD-CPR was 10 +/- 1 s. The mean number of chest compressions/min delivered with AHA BLS CPR was only 44 +/- 2. Continuous chest compression CPR resulted in 88 +/- 5 compressions delivered per minute (STD versus CCC; p < 0.0001). Trained professional emergency rescue workers perform rescue breathing somewhat faster than lay rescuers or medical students, but still require two and one half times longer than recommended. The time required to perform these breaths significantly decreases the number of chest compressions delivered per minute. This may affect outcome as experimental studies have shown that more than 80 compressions delivered per minute are necessary for survival from prolonged cardiac arrest.
    Resuscitation 10/2006; 71(1):34-9. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest continue to be low despite periodic updates in the Guidelines for Emergency Medical Services and periodic improvements such as the addition of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs). The low incidence of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), substantial time without chest compressions throughout the resuscitation effort, and a lack of response to initial defibrillation after prolonged ventricular fibrillation contribute to these unacceptably poor results. Resuscitation guidelines are only revised every 5 to 7 years and can be difficult to change because of the lack of randomized controlled trials in humans. Such trials are rare because of a number of logistical difficulties, including the problem of obtaining informed consent. An alternative approach to advancing resuscitation science is for evidence-based demonstration projects in areas that have adequate records, so that one may determine whether the new approach improves survival. This is reasonable because the current guidelines make provisions for deviations under certain local circumstances or as directed by the emergency medical services medical director. A wealth of experimental evidence indicates that interruption of chest compressions for any reason in patients with cardiac arrest is deleterious. Accordingly, a new approach to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest called cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR) was developed that places more emphasis on chest compressions for witnessed cardiac arrest in adults and de-emphasizes ventilation. There is also emphasis on chest compressions before defibrillation in circulatory phase of cardiac arrest. CCR was initiated in Tucson, Arizona, in November 2003, and in two rural Wisconsin counties in early 2004.
    The American journal of medicine 02/2006; 119(1):6-9. · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • Der Anaesthesist 01/2002; 51(8):659-660. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite improving arterial oxygen saturation and pH, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with chest compressions plus rescue breathing (CC+RB) has not improved survival from ventricular fibrillation (VF) compared with chest compressions alone (CC) in numerous animal models and 2 clinical investigations. After 3 minutes of untreated VF, 14 swine (32+/-1 kg) were randomly assigned to receive CC+RB or CC for 12 minutes, followed by advanced cardiac life support. All 14 animals survived 24 hours, 13 with good neurological outcome. For the CC+RB group, the aortic relaxation pressures routinely decreased during the 2 rescue breaths. Therefore, the mean coronary perfusion pressure of the first 2 compressions in each compression cycle was lower than those of the final 2 compressions (14+/-1 versus 21+/-2 mm Hg, P<0.001). During each minute of CPR, the number of chest compressions was also lower in the CC+RB group (62+/-1 versus 92+/-1 compressions, P<0.001). Consequently, the integrated coronary perfusion pressure was lower with CC+RB during each minute of CPR (P<0.05 for the first 8 minutes). Moreover, at 2 to 5 minutes of CPR, the median left ventricular blood flow by fluorescent microsphere technique was 60 mL. 100 g(-1). min(-1) with CC+RB versus 96 mL. 100 g(-1). min(-1) with CC, P<0.05. Because the arterial oxygen saturation was higher with CC+RB, the left ventricular myocardial oxygen delivery did not differ. Interrupting chest compressions for rescue breathing can adversely affect hemodynamics during CPR for VF.
    Circulation 12/2001; 104(20):2465-70. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    R W Hilwig, R A Berg, K B Kern, G A Ewy
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    ABSTRACT: Vasoconstriction during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and thereby outcome. The combination of endothelin-1 (ET-1) plus epinephrine improved CPP during CPR compared with epinephrine alone in a canine cardiac arrest model. The effect of the combination on outcome variables, such as successful resuscitation and survival, has not been investigated. Twenty-seven swine were randomly provided with 1 mg epinephrine (Epi group) or 1 mg epinephrine plus 0.1 mg ET-1 (ET-1 group) during a prolonged ventricular fibrillatory cardiac arrest. ET-1 resulted in substantially superior aortic relaxation pressure and CPP during CPR. These hemodynamic improvements tended to increase initial rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation (8 of 10 versus 8 of 17, P=0.12). However, continued intense vasoconstriction from ET-1 led to higher aortic diastolic pressure and very narrow pulse pressure after resuscitation. The mean pulse pressure 1 hour after resuscitation was 7+/-8 mm Hg with ET-1 versus 24+/-1 mm Hg with Epi, P<0.01. Most importantly, the postresuscitation mortality was dramatically higher in the ET-1 group (6 of 8 versus 0 of 8 in the Epi group, P<0.01). These data establish that administration of ET-1 during CPR can result in worse postresuscitation outcome. The intense vasoconstriction from ET-1 improved CPP during CPR but had detrimental effects in the postresuscitation period.
    Circulation 05/2000; 101(17):2097-102. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    R A Berg, R W Hilwig, K B Kern, G A Ewy
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    ABSTRACT: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) without assisted ventilation may be as effective as CPR with assisted ventilation for ventricular fibrillatory cardiac arrests. However, chest compressions alone or ventilation alone is not effective for complete asphyxial cardiac arrests (loss of aortic pulsations). The objective of this investigation was to determine whether these techniques can independently improve outcome at an earlier stage of the asphyxial process. After induction of anesthesia, 40 piglets (11.5+/-0.3 kg) underwent endotracheal tube clamping (6.8+/-0.3 minutes) until simulated pulselessness, defined as aortic systolic pressure <50 mm Hg. For the 8-minute "bystander CPR" period, animals were randomly assigned to chest compressions and assisted ventilation (CC+V), chest compressions only (CC), assisted ventilation only (V), or no bystander CPR (control group). Return of spontaneous circulation occurred during the first 2 minutes of bystander CPR in 10 of 10 CC+V piglets, 6 of 10 V piglets, 4 of 10 CC piglets, and none of the controls (CC+V or V versus controls, P<0.01; CC+V versus CC and V combined, P=0.01). During the first minute of CPR, arterial and mixed venous blood gases were superior in the 3 experimental groups compared with the controls. Twenty-four-hour survival was similarly superior in the 3 experimental groups compared with the controls (8 of 10, 6 of 10, 5 of 10, and 0 of 10, P<0.05 each). Bystander CPR with CC+V improves outcome in the early stages of apparent pulseless asphyxial cardiac arrest. In addition, this study establishes that bystander CPR with CC or V can independently improve outcome.
    Circulation 04/2000; 101(14):1743-8. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reluctance of the lay public to perform bystander CPR is becoming an increasingly worrisome problem in the USA. Most bystanders who admit such reluctance concede that fear of contagious disease from mouth-to-mouth contact is what keeps them from performing basic life support. Animal models of prehospital cardiac arrest indicates that 24-h survival is essentially as good with chest compression-only CPR as with chest compressions and assisted ventilation. This simpler technique is an attractive alternative strategy for encouraging more bystander participation. Such experimental studies have been criticized as irrelevant however secondary to differences between human and porcine airway mechanics. This study examined the effect of chest compression-only CPR under the worst possible circumstances where the airway was totally occluded. After 6 min of either standard CPR including ventilation with a patent airway or chest compressions-only with a totally occluded airway, no difference in 24 h survival was found (10/10 vs. 9/10). As anticipated arterial blood gases were not as good, but hemodynamics produced were better with chest compression-only CPR (P < 0.05). Chest compression-only CPR, even with a totally occluded airway, is as good as standard CPR for successful outcome following 6.5 min of cardiac arrest. Such a strategy for the first minutes of cardiac arrest, particularly before professional help arrives, has several advantages including increased acceptability to the lay public.
    Resuscitation 12/1998; 39(3):179-88. · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • R A Berg, K B Kern, R W Hilwig, G A Ewy
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    ABSTRACT: Mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing is a barrier to the performance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We evaluated the need for assisted ventilation during simulated single-rescuer bystander CPR in a swine myocardial infarction model of prehospital cardiac arrest. Steel cylinders were placed in the mid left anterior descending coronary arteries of 43 swine. Two minutes after ventricular fibrillation, animals were randomly assigned to 10 minutes of hand-bag-valve ventilation with 17% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide plus chest compressions (CC+V), chest compressions only (CC), or no CPR (control group). Standard advanced life support was then provided. Animals successfully resuscitated received 1 hour of intensive care support and were observed for 24 hours. Five of 14 CC animals, 3 of 15 CC+V animals, and 1 of 14 controls survived for 24 hours (CC versus controls, P=.07). Myocardial oxygen delivery and consumption were greater among surviving animals than nonsurvivors but did not differ between CC and CC+V animals. In this acute myocardial infarction model of prehospital single-rescuer bystander CPR, assisted ventilation did not improve outcome.
    Circulation 01/1998; 96(12):4364-71. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global left ventricular dysfunction after successful resuscitation is well documented and appears to be a major contributing factor in limiting long-term survival after initial recovery from out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death. Treatment of such postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction has not been examined previously. Systolic and diastolic parameters of left ventricular function were measured in 27 swine before and after successful resuscitation from prolonged ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Dobutamine infusions (10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 in 14 animals or 5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 in 5 animals) begun 15 minutes after resuscitation were compared with controls receiving no treatment (8 animals). The marked deterioration in systolic and diastolic left ventricular function seen in the control group after resuscitation was ameliorated in the dobutamine-treated animals. Left ventricular ejection fraction fell from a prearrest 58 +/- 3% to 25 +/- 3% at 5 hours after resuscitation in the control group but remained unchanged in the dobutamine (10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) group (52 +/- 1% prearrest and 55 +/- 3% at 5 hours after resuscitation). Measurement of the constant of isovolumic relaxation of the left ventricle (tau) demonstrated a similar benefit of the dobutamine infusion for overcoming postresuscitation diastolic dysfunction. The tau rose in the controls from 28 +/- 1 milliseconds (ms) prearrest to 41 +/- 3 ms at 5 hours after resuscitation whereas it remained constant in the dobutamine-treated animals (31 +/- 1 ms prearrest and 31 +/- 5 ms at 5 hours after resuscitation). Dobutamine begun within 15 minutes of successful resuscitation can successfully overcome the global systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction resulting from prolonged cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
    Circulation 07/1997; 95(12):2610-3. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing is a barrier to the performance of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We evaluated the need for assisted ventilation during simulated single-rescuer bystander CPR in a swine model of prehospital cardiac arrest. Five minutes after ventricular fibrillation, swine were randomly assigned to 8 minutes of hand-bag-valve ventilation with 17% oxygen and 4% carbon dioxide plus chest compressions (CC + V), chest compressions only (CC), or no CPR (control group). Standard advanced life support was then provided. Animals successfully resuscitated received 1 hour of intensive care support and were observed for 24 hours. All 10 CC animals, 9 of the 10 CC + V animals, and 4 of the 6 control animals attained return of spontaneous circulation. Five of the 10 CC animals, 6 of the 10 CC + V animals, and none of the 6 control animals survived for 24 hours (CC versus controls, P = .058; CC + V versus controls, P < .03). All 24-hour survivors were normal or nearly normal neurologically. In this model of prehospital single-rescuer bystander CPR, successful initial resuscitation, 24-hour survival, and neurological outcome were similar after chest compressions only or chest compressions plus assisted ventilation. Both techniques tended to improve outcome compared with no bystander CPR.
    Circulation 03/1997; 95(6):1635-41. · 14.95 Impact Factor
  • Resuscitation 02/1996; 31(1):87. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prompt initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival. Basic life support with mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compressions is intimidating, difficult to remember, and difficult to perform. Chest compressions alone can be easily taught, easily remembered, easily performed, adequately taught by dispatcher-delivered telephone instruction, and more readily accepted by the public. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the need for ventilation during CPR in a clinically relevant swine model of prehospital witnessed cardiac arrest. Thirty seconds after ventricular fibrillation, swine were randomly assigned to 12 minutes of chest compressions plus mechanical ventilation (group A), chest compressions only (group B), or no CPR (group C). Standard advanced cardiac life support was then provided. Animals successfully resuscitated were supported for 2 hours in an intensive care setting, and then observed for 24 hours. All 16 swine in groups A and B were successfully resuscitated and neurologically normal at 24 hours, whereas only 2 of 8 group C animals survived for 24 hours (P < .001, Fisher's exact test). One of the 2 group C survivors was comatose and unresponsive. In this swine model of witnessed prehospital cardiac arrest, the survival and neurological outcome data establish that prompt initiation of chest compressions alone appears to be as effective as chest compressions plus ventilation and that both techniques of bystander CPR markedly improve outcome compared with no bystander CPR.
    Circulation 10/1993; 88(4 Pt 1):1907-15. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Use of continuous transtracheal oxygen delivery systems combined with rhythmic chest compressions can provide excellent oxygenation and ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, occasional displacement of the transtracheal catheter results in life-threatening pneumomediastinal complications. We investigated using the pharyngeal lumen of a pharyngeal-tracheal lumened airway (PtL) as an alternative delivery system for continuous oxygen flow in 21 large mongrel dogs. Excellent ventilation was possible in anesthetized, apneic, and paralyzed dogs in normal sinus rhythm from the "bellows" effect of chest compressions. The hypercapnia and respiratory acidemia resulting from 5 min of complete apnea in ten dogs during normal sinus rhythm was readily corrected (p less than 0.01). In an additional 11 dogs, external chest compressions were performed and oxygen was delivered continuously via the PtL during 20 min of ventricular fibrillation. During this period of cardiac arrest, pH declined (7.38 +/- 0.01 vs 7.19 +/- 0.02; p less than 0.01), but PaCO2 (35 +/- 1 vs 38 +/- 3 mm Hg) and PaO2 (67 +/- 2 vs 68 +/- 3 mm Hg) were not significantly different from prearrest values. Successful resuscitation was achieved in 8 of 11 (73 percent) animals, which is similar to the results in historical controls with endotracheal intubation. No pneumomediastinal complications were seen with use of the PtL. We conclude that using the pharyngeal lumen of the PtL for continuous delivery of oxygen combined with external chest compressions can provide a safe and effective mode of oxygenation and ventilation during cardiac arrest.
    Chest 03/1992; 101(2):522-9. · 7.13 Impact Factor
  • R C Cork, J A DiNardo, R W Hilwig, K B Kern
    Anesthesiology 01/1991; 75. · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • R C Cork, J A DiNardo, R W Hilwig, K B Kern
    Anesthesiology 01/1991; 75. · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • Anesthesiology 01/1990; 73. · 6.17 Impact Factor
  • Anesthesiology 01/1990; 73. · 6.17 Impact Factor