[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of active dehydration by exercise in a hot, humid environment on anaerobic muscular power using a test-retest (euhydrated and dehydrated) design. Seven subjects (age, 27.1 +/- 4.6 years; mass, 86.4 +/- 9.5 kg) performed upper and lower body Wingate anaerobic tests prior to and after a 1.5-hour recovery from a heat stress trial of treadmill exercise in a hot, humid environment (33.1 +/- 3.1C = 55.1 +/- 8.9% relative humidity) until a 3.1 +/- 0.3% body mass loss was achieved. Dehydration was confirmed by a significant body mass loss (P < 0.001), urine color increase (P = 0.004), and urine specific gravity increase (P = 0.041). Motivation ratings were not significantly different (P = 0.059), and fatigue severity was significantly (P = 0.009) increased 70% in the dehydrated compared to the euhydrated condition. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition mean power was significantly (P = 0.014) decreased 7.17% in the upper body and 19.20% in the lower body. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition peak power was significantly (P = 0.013) decreased 14.48% in the upper body and 18.36% in the lower body. No significant differences between the euhydrated and dehydrated conditions were found for decrease in power output (P = 0.219, power = 0.213). Our findings suggest that dehydration of 2.9% body mass decreases the ability to generate upper and lower body anaerobic power. Coaches and athletes must understand that sports performance requiring anaerobic strength and power can be impaired by inadequate hydration and may contribute to increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 03/2008; 22(2):455-63. DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181635ba5 · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Athletic trainers must have sound evidence for the best practices in treating and preventing heat-related emergencies and potentially catastrophic events.
To examine the effectiveness of a superficial cooling vest on core body temperature (T(c)) and skin temperature (T(sk)) in hypohydrated hyperthermic male participants.
A randomized control design with 2 experimental groups.
Participants exercised by completing the heat-stress trial in a hot, humid environment (ambient temperature = 33.1 +/- 3.1 degrees C, relative humidity = 55.1 +/- 8.9%, wind speed = 2.1 +/- 1.1 km/hr) until a T(c) of 38.7 +/- 0.3 degrees C and a body mass loss of 3.27 +/- 0.1% were achieved.
Ten healthy males (age = 25.6 +/- 1.6 years, mass = 80.3 +/- 13.7 kg).
Recovery in a thermoneutral environment wearing a cooling vest or without wearing a cooling vest until T(c) returned to baseline.
Rectal T(c), arm T(sk), time to return to baseline T(c), and cooling rate.
During the heat-stress trial, T(c) significantly increased (3.6%) and, at 30 minutes of recovery, T(c) had decreased significantly (2.6%) for both groups. Although not significant, the time for return to baseline T(c) was 22.6% faster for the vest group (43.8 +/- 15.1 minutes) than for the no-vest group (56.6 +/- 18.0 minutes), and the cooling rate for the vest group (0.0298 +/- 0.0072 degrees C/min) was not significantly different from the cooling rate for the no-vest group (0.0280 +/- 0.0074 degrees C/min). The T(sk) during recovery was significantly higher (2.1%) in the vest group than in the no-vest group and was significantly lower (7.1%) at 30 minutes than at 0 minutes for both groups.
We do not recommend using the cooling vest to rapidly reduce elevated T(c). Ice-water immersion should remain the standard of care for rapidly cooling severely hyperthermic individuals.
Journal of athletic training 01/2008; 43(1):55-61. DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-43.1.55 · 2.02 Impact Factor