Richard I. Evans

University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (15)27.33 Total impact

  • Richard I Evans
    Applied Psychology 01/2008; 32(1):71 - 83. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-0597.1983.tb01187.x · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Entering seventh grade, most children believe that smoking endangers their long-term health. Nevertheless, three sources of social pressure were found to often have an overriding influence to begin smoking: peers, models of smoking parents, and media. Interventions were developed to train children to cope with these pressures. Also stressed were immediate rather than long-term physiological effects of smoking. A dependent measure was utilized that generates increased validity of self-reports of smoking. A 10-week investigation was completed with 750 male and female students entering the seventh grade. Rates of onset of smoking in treatment groups were significantly lower than in a pretest-single posttest control group.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 07/2006; 8(2):126 - 135. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1978.tb00771.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Richard I. Evans · Bettye E. Raines · Larry Hanselka
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper deals with how pre-intervention data were gathered from a sample of junior high school students to whom a smoking prevention program was addressed and how these data were used in the creation of trigger films which were an important element in the prevention program. The coping techniques used by students who are successfully able to withstand social pressures to smoke were determined from pre-intervention group interview-role-playing sessions with samples of students from two schools representative of the intended target population of the smoking prevention program. These data were used in the production and editing of ten-minute, sound, color films which reflected simulations of the student responses in the interview-role-playing sessions. Assessment of the impact of these filmed social-inoculation coping strategies indicates that they appear to be a promising component of smoking deterrent programs for adolescents.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 07/2006; 14(3):289 - 295. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1984.tb02237.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Scott C. Carvajal · Randall L. Garner · Richard I. Evans
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    ABSTRACT: Recent investigations have explored dispositional optimism as a determinant of various health-related behaviors, though such research has been infrequently conducted in populations where pessimism would be expected to be prevalent. The present study examines optimism and unsafe sexual behavior in 230 sexually active inner-city minority adolescents. Findings suggest that dispositional optimism is a protective factor regarding adolescents' intentions to avoid engaging in unsafe sex. Further, the benefits of optimism appear to be explained by those who are more optimistic having higher levels of perceived condom use self-efficacy and stronger negative expectancies toward unsafe sex. Future interventions may need to address optimism in concert with behavioral-specific determinants to increase the probability of reducing unsafe sexual behavior in high-risk populations.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 07/2006; 28(23):2196 - 2211. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01367.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined determinants of substance use derived from the theory of planned behavior as influenced by acculturation. Latino adolescents (n= 448) completed measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions toward substance use, and 2 acculturation components. The degree to which Latino adolescents were exposed to as well as use Spanish was unrelated to determinants of future substance use, whereas the degree to which they interact with non-Latino peers exerted a protective effect regarding future substance use. However, both acculturation components influenced the extent social influence determinants predicted future substance use. Intervention strategies may need to consider acculturation in order to effectively direct resources toward those psychosocial determinants of substance use of greatest relevance to Latino populations.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 07/2006; 27(18):1617 - 1628. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb01616.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Social psychologists have become increasingly involved in undertaking process analyses concerning health threatening behaviors such as smoking. Certain problems in conducting such process analyses have been identified. Among these are those problems which stem from the failure to distinguish descriptive (e.g., number of smoking peers) from mediating process (e.g., perceived peer pressure) variables. For instructional purposes, the present paper examines this distinction within the context of the process underlying smoking initiation. After presenting these issues conceptually, data obtained from a sample of junior and senior high school students (n= 395) is used in an attempt to illustrate this distinction and the problems in interpretation that may follow from the failure to make it. Recommendations are made regarding possible solutions.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 07/2006; 18(11):925 - 943. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb01184.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Richard I. Evans · Steven H. Turner · Kenneth L. Ghee · J. Greg Getz
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    ABSTRACT: The initiation of potentially health-threatening behaviors by adolescents, despite their realization of the dangers of such behavior, has been attributed to various social influences (e.g., peer pressure). It appears that some adolescents may be more likely to resist such influences than others. The present exploratory investigation tests the hypothesis that adolescents characterized as androgynous in “sex role” terms would be less vulnerable to social influences to engage in one such health-threatening behavior, smoking. Within a sample of seventh graders (n= 3,317), sex role identity was measured by relevant items from the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) as was frequency of cigarette smoking. Results indicate that “androgynous” subjects, as hypothesized, may smoke less than those characterized by other sex roles. Results are discussed in the context of our recommendations for more comprehensive testing of the relation between sex role and smoking.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 07/2006; 20(6):494 - 505. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1990.tb00424.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reacting to the failure of most persuasive communications to maintain behavior changes once they are established, in the context of junior high school dental hygiene programs, the present investigation explores the effects of behavioral measurement itself (as an unplanned treatment effect) in maintaining a specific behavior once it is established. Using a modified time-series extension of a basic pretest-treatment-posttest design with a variety of treatment conditions and a novel behavior measure as the dependent variable, it was established that the process of measuring behavior itself was possibly as effective as treatment conditions. All conditions effected behavior changes and maintained them for a 10-week period.
    Journal of Applied Social Psychology 07/2006; 5(2):150 - 156. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1975.tb01304.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • Richard I Evans
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    ABSTRACT: For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.
    Journal of Gambling Studies 02/2003; 19(3):287-302. DOI:10.1023/A:1024207504890 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    Scott C Carvajal · Richard I Evans · Susan G Nash · J Greg Getz
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    ABSTRACT: Grounded in theories of global positive expectancies and social influences of behavior, this investigation posited a model in which global positive expectancies are related to substance use as mediated by attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and intentions. Using a cohort sample (n = 525), structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypothesized predictions of future substance use. The findings suggest that, relative to adolescents with lower global positive expectancies, adolescents with higher global positive expectancies use substances less frequently over time because of their protective attitudinal and control-oriented perceptions towards that behavior. Additionally, results from the current investigation also extend prior findings on the factor structure of global positive expectancies, suggesting these expectancies can be viewed as a second-order factor representing optimism and two components of hope-agency and pathways.
    Journal of Personality 07/2002; 70(3):421-42. DOI:10.1111/1467-6494.05010 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate a broad range of social influence-related and global determinants of smoking to aid in the design of comprehensive multiethnic interventions by testing the most important factors of initiation and escalation of smoking across various subgroups. Cross-sectional (N = 2546) and cohort (N = 736) samples of multiethnic middle school students near a large Southwestern metropolis were surveyed through self-report questionnaires. The confidential questionnaires included information on demographics, risk factors, and smoking behavior and were administered in class by trained data collectors. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the statistical significance and strength of the factors. Those lower in self-esteem and higher in social assertiveness appeared to be most at risk for the onset of smoking, whereas those low in optimism appeared to be the most at risk for the escalation of smoking. Attitudes, friends' norms, parents' norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived prevalence were consistent predictors of all smoking status outcomes. The behavioral-specific determinants of smoking appear to be important predictors of smoking status outcomes in all demographic subgroups. The relationships of the global determinants were more dependent on the smoking outcome variable and subgroup examined. The findings may serve to help facilitate the targeting of comprehensive interventions aimed at reducing adolescent smoking in multiethnic and ethnic group-specific populations.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 11/2000; 27(4):255-65. DOI:10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00124-5 · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Scott C. Carvajal · Scott D. Clair · Susan G. Nash · Richard I. Evans
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is a long history of research examining relationships between intrapersonal factors and adolescent substance use, such relationships have not always been clearly delineated. The present study focused on three factors generally associated with physical and mental well being: dispositional optimism, hope, and self-esteem. These constructs were examined in relation to a social influence model as applied to the deterrence of substance use. A cross-sectional study was undertaken employing adolescents (n = 1,985) representative of a multi-racial/ethnic population. The results suggest that optimism, hope, and self-esteem are determinants of avoiding substance use, with the effects of these variables being mediated by attitudes, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control. Additionally, the structural equation modeling analysis suggests a more general protective dimension predominantly accounts for the relationships between the personality factors and the mediators of avoiding substance use. These findings suggest efforts to prevent substance use may be more effective if they address more global intrapersonal factors in conjunction with the more immediate determinants of substance use.
    Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 12/1998; 17(4):443-465. DOI:10.1521/jscp.1998.17.4.443 · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Richard I. Evans · Bettye E. Raines · Ann E. Owen
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    ABSTRACT: This article is intended for behavioral and biomedical researchers who have become involved increasingly in health promotion research in social settings. It describes how researchers may more precisely plan and profit from employing formative evaluation, which is too frequently more casually undertaken than is summative evaluation. Formative evaluation includes responses from the student subjects of such programs and school administrative and instructional staff, as well as other elements unique to the school setting such as existing curricula and the logistics of time and space. In order to tailor such programs to the unique properties of the school setting, a continual feedback loop should be in place. Such loops can channel both quantitative and qualitative data to the researcher to assist in adapting projects to changing conditions during the course of their implementation. This article presents a case history of the application of formative evaluation drawn from a health promotion project conducted by the authors. It includes as background for this case history, definitions of formative evaluation and an analysis of its costs.
    Preventive Medicine 04/1989; 18(2):229-34. DOI:10.1016/0091-7435(89)90070-4 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Richard I. Evans
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    ABSTRACT: One of the keynote addresses presented at the National Working Conference on Research in Health and Behavior. This address is a historical review of current challenges to researchers in health psychology. Current challenges discussed include (a) creation of physical pathology, (b) physical symptoms of physical pathology in the absence of true pathology, (c) increased or decreased vulnerability to infectious disease, (d) intensify, prolong, or diminish existing pathology, (e) individuals' preoccupation with illness or disease, (f) voluntarily engaging in health-threatening behavior (e.g., allowing toxic agents to enter the body or engaging in accident-prone behavior or high-risk sexual practices), (g) engaging in health-enhancing life-style behaviors, and (h) involuntarily becoming the victim of toxic agents. The shift in public health policy as related to psychological research--from mental health to physical illness--reflects societal support for such areas of research by health psychologists.
    Health Psychology 02/1989; 8(6):631-9. DOI:10.1037//0278-6133.8.6.631 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • Richard I. Evans
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    ABSTRACT: This article is the author's American Psychological Association Division 38 Presidential Address, which was delivered at the 1987 APA meetings. It challenges health psychologists to be wary of becoming zealots in health promotion activities without continuing to recognize that health promotion programs should be anchored in sound science. This is discussed in terms of the biomedical research support for a recommended health practice or in terms of the psycho-socio-behavioral research support for techniques applied or advocated in intervention programs. To illustrate this problem in health promotion, the research foundations for recommendations of cholesterol control programs and the "Say No to Drugs" campaigns are explored. Other concerns relating to the appropriate role for the health psychologist in health promotion activities are also discussed.
    Health Psychology 02/1988; 7(3):203-19. DOI:10.1037//0278-6133.7.3.203 · 3.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

485 Citations
27.33 Total Impact Points


  • 1988–2008
    • University of Houston
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Political Science
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      • School of Public Health
      Houston, Texas, United States