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Publications (2)6.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Apparent intrinsic clearance (CL(int,app)) of 7-ethoxycoumarin, phenacetin, propranolol, and midazolam was measured using rat and human liver microsomes and freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes to determine factors responsible for differences in rates of metabolism in these systems. The cryopreserved and freshly isolated hepatocytes generally provided similar results, although there was greater variability using the latter system. The CL(int,app) values in hepatocytes are observed to be lower than that in microsomes, and this difference becomes greater for compounds with high CL(int,app). This could partly be attributed to the differences in the free fraction (fu). The fu in hepatocyte incubations (fu,hep-inc) was influenced not only by the free fraction of compounds in the incubation buffer (fu,buffer) but also by the rate constants of uptake (k(up)) and metabolism (k(met)). This report provides a new derivation for fu,hep-inc, which can be expressed as fu,hep-inc = [k(up)/(k(met) + k(up))]/[1 + (C(hep)/C(buffer)) x (V(hep)/V(buffer))], where the C(hep), C(buffer), V(hep), and V(buffer) represent the concentrations of a compound in hepatocytes and buffer and volumes of hepatocytes and buffer, respectively. For midazolam, the fu,hep-inc was calculated, and the maximum metabolism rate in hepatocytes was shown to be limited by the uptake rate.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 10/2006; 34(9):1600-5. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a dipeptidyl boronic acid, is a first-in-class proteasome inhibitor approved in 2003 for the treatment of multiple myeloma. In a preclinical toxicology study, bortezomib-treated rats resulted in liver enlargement (35%). Ex vivo analyses of the liver samples showed an 18% decrease in cytochrome P450 (P450) content, a 60% increase in palmitoyl coenzyme A beta-oxidation activity, and a 41 and 23% decrease in CYP3A protein expression and activity, respectively. Furthermore, liver samples of bortezomib-treated rats had little change in CYP2B and CYP4A protein levels and activities. To address the likelihood of clinical drug-drug interactions, the P450 inhibition potential of bortezomib and its major deboronated metabolites M1 and M2 and their dealkylated metabolites M3 and M4 was evaluated in human liver microsomes for the major P450 isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4/5. Bortezomib, M1, and M2 were found to be mild inhibitors of CYP2C19 (IC(50) approximately 18.0, 10.0, and 13.2 microM, respectively), and M1 was also a mild inhibitor of CYP2C9 (IC(50) approximately 11.5 microM). However, bortezomib, M1, M2, M3, and M4 did not inhibit other P450s (IC(50) values > 30 microM). There also was no time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4/5 by bortezomib or its major metabolites. Based on these results, no major P450-mediated clinical drug-drug interactions are anticipated for bortezomib or its major metabolites. To our knowledge, this is the first report on P450-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of proteasome inhibitors or boronic acid containing therapeutics.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 04/2006; 34(4):702-8. · 3.36 Impact Factor