R C Stahl

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, MD, United States

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Publications (40)187.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have shown that tetraspanins play important role in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. The repertoire and functions of tetraspanins in Schwann cells, glial cells of the peripheral nervous system have remained largely uncharacterized. This study was undertaken to identify Schwann cell tetraspanins and to elucidate their possible functions. Microarray analysis revealed the expression of numerous tetraspanins in primary culture of Schwann cells. Expression of five of them, CD9, CD63, CD81, CD82, and CD151, and of tetraspanin-associated protein EWI-2 was also confirmed by immunofluorescence. Localization of CD9, CD63, CD81, and EWI-2 was largely confined to paranodes and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, regions of noncompact myelin. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that these four proteins form a complex in Schwann cells. siRNA silencing of individual components of the complex did not affect Schwann cell adhesion to ECM proteins or attachment to and alignment with axons. However, suppression of both CD63 and CD81 expression together significantly inhibited extension of Schwann cell processes along axons, without affecting initial attachment of the cells to the axonal surface. Adhesion, spreading, and migration of Schwann cells on ECM proteins also were not affected by double silencing of CD63 and CD81. Suppression of CD63 and CD81 expression did not affect the ability of Schwann cells to myelinate dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. These findings strongly suggest that CD63 and CD81 play an important role in Schwann cell spreading along axons but seem to be dispensable for Schwann cell myelination. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 08/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix of peripheral nerve is formed from a diverse set of macromolecules, including glycoproteins, collagens and proteoglycans. Recent studies using knockout animal models have demonstrated that individual components of the extracellular matrix play a vital role in peripheral nerve development and regeneration. In this study we identified fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2, large modular structural glycoproteins, as components of the extracellular matrix of peripheral nerve. Previously it was found that fibrillin-2 null mice display joint contractures, suggesting a possible defect of the peripheral nervous system in these animals. Close examination of the peripheral nerves of fibrillin-2 deficient animals described here revealed some structural abnormalities in the perineurium, while general structure of the nerve and molecular composition of nerve extracellular matrix remained unchanged. We also found that in spite of the obvious motor function impairment, fibrillin-2 null mice failed to display changes of nerve conduction properties or nerve regeneration capacity. Based on the data obtained we can conclude that peripheral neuropathy should be excluded as the cause of the impairment of locomotory function and joint contractures observed in fibrillin-2 deficient animals.
    Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 02/2010; 29(5):357-68. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Schwann cell basal lamina acts as an organizer of peripheral nerve tissue and influences many aspects of cell behavior during development and regeneration. A principal component of the Schwann cell basal lamina is laminin-2. This study was undertaken to identify Schwann cell receptors for laminin-2. We found that among several Schwann cell integrins that can potentially interact with laminin-2, only alpha7beta1 bound to laminin-2-Sepharose. Dystroglycan, a non-integrin Schwann cell receptor for laminin-2 identified previously, was also found to bind to laminin-2-Sepharose. Antibody to the alpha7 integrin subunit partially inhibited Schwann cell adhesion to laminin-2. Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of either alpha7 integrin or dystroglycan expression decreased adhesion and spreading of Schwann cells on laminin-2, whereas knocking down both proteins together inhibited adhesion and spreading on laminin-2 almost completely. alpha7 integrin and dystroglycan both colocalized with laminin-2 containing basal lamina tubes in differentiating neuron-Schwann cell cocultures. The alpha7beta1 integrin also coprecipitates with focal adhesion kinase in differentiating cocultures. These findings strongly suggest that alpha7beta1 integrin is a Schwann cell receptor for laminin-2 that provides transmembrane linkage between the Schwann cell basal lamina and cytoskeleton.
    Glia 09/2007; 55(11):1134-44. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of small ion transport regulators, inhibits cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1). NCX1 is made up of N-terminal domain consisting of the first five transmembrane segments (residues 1-217), a large intracellular loop (residues 218-764), and a C-terminal domain comprising the last four transmembrane segments (residues 765-938). Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay, we demonstrated that the intracellular loop, but not the N- or C-terminal transmembrane domains of NCX1, was associated with PLM. Further analysis using protein constructs of GST fused to various segments of the intracellular loop of NCX1 suggest that PLM bound to residues 218-371 and 508-764 but not 371-508. Split Na+/Ca2+ exchangers consisting of N- or C-terminal domains with different lengths of the intracellular loop were co-expressed with PLM in HEK293 cells that are devoid of endogenous PLM and NCX1. Although expression of N-terminal but not C-terminal domain alone resulted in correct membrane targeting, co-expression of both N- and C-terminal domains was required for correct membrane targeting and functional exchange activity. NCX1 current measurements indicate that PLM decreased NCX1 current only when the split exchangers contained residues 218-358 of the intracellular loop. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with PLM and split exchangers suggest that PLM associated with the N-terminal domain of NCX1 when it contained intracellular loop residues 218-358. TM43, a PLM mutant with its cytoplasmic tail truncated, did not co-immunoprecipitate with wild-type NCX1 when co-expressed in HEK293 cells, confirming little to no interaction between the transmembrane domains of PLM and NCX1. We conclude that PLM interacted with the intracellular loop of NCX1, most likely at residues 218-358.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2006; 281(42):32004-14. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embryonic sensory neurons express membrane-anchored growth factors that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of Schwann cells. The most important of these are members of the neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) family that activate the erbB2/erbB3 receptor kinase on Schwann cells. Nrg-1 growth factors display a complex pattern of alternative mRNA splicing. We investigated the expression of the Nrg-1 type I in rat embryo dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Nrg-1 type I mRNA was abundantly expressed in DRG neurons; molecular cloning identified three distinct isoforms. The most prominent structural difference produced by alternative splicing was truncation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. In sensory neurons and other cells, Nrg-1 type I proteins with the full-length 374-amino-acid cytoplasmic domain were expressed on the cell surface. In contrast, an isoform with a partially truncated cytoplasmic domain was retained in an intracellular compartment. Deletion studies demonstrated the presence of a cryptic intracellular retention signal that was exposed in the truncated cytoplasmic domain. Cell surface Nrg-1 type I molecules were subject to protease-dependent release of the biologically active ectodomain. As a consequence of their intracellular localization, the Nrg-1 type I isoform with a truncated cytoplasmic domain was not subject to membrane shedding. Nrg-1 type I ectodomain release was accelerated by factors present in Schwann cell-conditioned medium. In cells with active Nrg-1 type I ectodomain, shedding products corresponding to the cytoplasmic domain were not detected, because of rapid gamma-secretase- and proteasome-dependent degradation. These results demonstrate that sensory neurons express alternatively spliced neuregulin polypeptides with distinct subcellular localizations and processing.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 08/2006; 84(1):1-12. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TRPM2 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated by oxidative stress or TNF-alpha, and TRPM2 activation confers susceptibility to cell death. The mechanisms were examined here in human monocytic U937-ecoR cells. This cell line expresses full-length TRPM2 (TRPM2-L) and several isoforms including a short splice variant lacking the Ca(2+)-permeable pore region (TRPM2-S), which functions as a dominant negative. Treatment with H(2)O(2), a model of oxidative stress, or TNF-alpha results in reduced cell viability. Expression of TRPM2-L and TRPM2-S was modulated by retroviral infection. U937-ecoR cells expressing increased levels of TRPM2-L were treated with H(2)O(2) or TNF-alpha, and these cells exhibited significantly increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), decreased viability, and increased apoptosis. A dramatic increase in cleavage of caspases-8, -9, -3, and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) was observed, demonstrating a downstream mechanism through which cell death is mediated. Bcl-2 levels were unchanged. Inhibition of the [Ca(2+)](i) rise with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA blocked caspase/PARP cleavage and cell death induced after activation of TRPM2-L, demonstrating the critical role of [Ca(2+)](i) in mediating these effects. Downregulation of endogenous TRPM2 by RNA interference or increased expression of TRPM2-S inhibited the rise in [Ca(2+)](i), enhanced cell viability, and reduced numbers of apoptotic cells after exposure to oxidative stress or TNF-alpha, demonstrating the physiological importance of TRPM2. Our data show that one mechanism through which oxidative stress or TNF-alpha mediates cell death is activation of TRPM2, resulting in increased [Ca(2+)](i), followed by caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Inhibition of TRPM2-L function by reduction in TRPM2 levels, interaction with TRPM2-S, or Ca(2+) chelation antagonizes this important cell death pathway.
    AJP Cell Physiology 05/2006; 290(4):C1146-59. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schwann cell myelination requires interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) mediated by cell surface receptors. Previously, we identified a type V collagen family member, alpha4(V) collagen, which is expressed by Schwann cells during peripheral nerve differentiation. This collagen binds with high affinity to heparan sulfate through a unique binding motif in the noncollagenous N-terminal domain (NTD). The principal alpha4(V) collagen-binding protein on the Schwann cell surface is the heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1. We investigated the role of alpha4(V) collagen and glypican-1 in Schwann cell terminal differentiation in cultures of Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of glypican-1 expression decreased binding of alpha4(V)-NTD to Schwann cells, adhesion and spreading of Schwann cells on alpha4(V)-NTD, and incorporation of alpha4(V) collagen into Schwann cell ECM. In cocultures, alpha4(V) collagen coassembles with laminin on the surface of polarized Schwann cells to form tube-like ECM structures that are sites of myelination. Suppression of glypican-1 or alpha4(V) collagen expression significantly inhibited myelination. These results demonstrate an important role for these proteins in peripheral nerve terminal differentiation.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2006; 26(2):508-17. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Messenger RNA levels of phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of small single-span membrane proteins with putative ion-transport regulatory properties, were increased in postmyocardial infarction (MI) rat myocytes. We tested the hypothesis that the previously observed reduction in Na+-K+-ATPase activity in MI rat myocytes was due to PLM overexpression. In rat hearts harvested 3 and 7 days post-MI, PLM protein expression was increased by two- and fourfold, respectively. To simulate increased PLM expression post-MI, PLM was overexpressed in normal adult rat myocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. PLM overexpression did not affect the relative level of phosphorylation on serine68 of PLM. Na+-K+-ATPase activity was measured as ouabain-sensitive Na+-K+ pump current (Ip). Compared with control myocytes overexpressing green fluorescent protein alone, Ip measured in myocytes overexpressing PLM was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower at similar membrane voltages, pipette Na+ ([Na+]pip) and extracellular K+ ([K+]o) concentrations. From -70 to +60 mV, neither [Na+]pip nor [K+]o required to attain half-maximal Ip was significantly different between control and PLM myocytes. This phenotype of decreased V(max) without appreciable changes in K(m) for Na+ and K+ in PLM-overexpressed myocytes was similar to that observed in MI rat myocytes. Inhibition of Ip by PLM overexpression was not due to decreased Na+-K+-ATPase expression because there were no changes in either protein or messenger RNA levels of either alpha1- or alpha2-isoforms of Na+-K+-ATPase. In native rat cardiac myocytes, PLM coimmunoprecipitated with alpha-subunits of Na+-K+-ATPase. Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase by PLM overexpression, in addition to previously reported decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase expression, may explain altered V(max) but not K(m) of Na+-K+-ATPase in postinfarction rat myocytes.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2006; 100(1):212-20. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Overexpression of phospholemman (PLM) in normal adult rat cardiac myocytes altered contractile function and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis and inhibited Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1). In addition, PLM coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with NCX1 in cardiac myocyte lysates. In this study, we evaluated whether the cytoplasmic domain of PLM is crucial in mediating its effects on contractility, [Ca2+]i transients, and NCX1 activity. Canine PLM or its derived mutants were overexpressed in adult rat myocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Confocal immunofluorescence images using canine-specific PLM antibodies demonstrated that the exogenous PLM or its mutants were correctly targeted to sarcolemma, t-tubules, and intercalated discs, with little to none detected in intracellular compartments. Overexpression of canine PLM or its mutants did not affect expression of NCX1, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and calsequestrin in adult rat myocytes. A COOH-terminal deletion mutant in which all four potential phosphorylation sites (Ser62, Ser63, Ser68, and Thr69) were deleted, a partial COOH-terminal deletion mutant in which Ser68 and Thr69 were deleted, and a mutant in which all four potential phosphorylation sites were changed to alanine all lost wild-type PLM's ability to modulate cardiac myocyte contractility. These observations suggest the importance of Ser68 or Thr69 in mediating PLM's effect on cardiac contractility. Focusing on Ser68, the Ser68 to Glu mutant was fully effective, the Ser63 to Ala (leaving Ser68 intact) mutant was partially effective, and the Ser68 to Ala mutant was completely ineffective in modulating cardiac contractility, [Ca2+]i transients, and NCX1 currents. Both the Ser63 to Ala and Ser68 to Ala mutants, as well as PLM, were able to coimmunoprecipitate NCX1. It is known that Ser68 in PLM is phosphorylated by both protein kinases A and C. We conclude that regulation of cardiac contractility, [Ca2+]i transients, and NCX1 activity by PLM is critically dependent on Ser68. We suggest that PLM phosphorylation at Ser68 may be involved in cAMP- and/or protein kinase C-dependent regulation of cardiac contractility.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 06/2005; 288(5):H2342-54. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TRPC2 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of Ca2+-permeable channels expressed in nonexcitable cells. TRPC2 is involved in a number of physiological processes including sensory activation of the vomeronasal organ, sustained Ca2+ entry in sperm, and regulation of calcium influx by erythropoietin. Here, a new splice variant of TRPC2, called "Similar to mouse TRPC2" (smTRPC2), was identified consisting of 213 amino acids, largely coincident with the N-terminus of TRPC2 clone 17. This splice variant lacks all six TRPC2 transmembrane domains and the calcium pore. Expression of smTRPC2 was found in all tissues examined by RT-PCR and in primary erythroid cells by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Confocal microscopy of CHO-S cells transfected with TRPC2 clone 14 and smTRPC2 demonstrated that TRPC2 clone 14 and smTRPC2 both localize at or near the plasma membrane and in the perinuclear region. Cell surface localization of TRPC2 was confirmed with biotinylation, and was not substantially affected by smTRPC2 expression. Coassociation of TRPC2 c14 and alpha with smTRPC2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. To examine the functional significance of smTRPC2 expression, a CHO-S model was used to study its effect on calcium influx stimulated by Epo through TRPC2. Single CHO-S cells which express transfected Epo-R were identified by detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Cells that express transfected TRPC2 c14 or alpha were identified by detection of blue fluorescent protein (BFP). [Ca]i was quantitiated with Fura Red fluorescence using digital video imaging. Epo stimulated calcium influx through TRPC2 isoforms c14 and alpha, which was inhibited by coexpression of smTRPC2. These data demonstrate that a short splice variant of TRPC2 exists in many cell types, which associates with and modifies the activity of functional TRPC2 splice variants.
    Cell Calcium 03/2005; 37(2):173-82. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the mechanisms through which erythropoietin (Epo) activates the calcium-permeable transient receptor potential protein channel (TRPC)2. Erythroblasts were isolated from the spleens of phenylhydrazine-treated mice, and Epo stimulation resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). This increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited by pretreatment with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 but not by the inactive analog U-73343, demonstrating the requirement for PLC activity in Epo-modulated Ca(2+) influx in primary erythroid cells. To determine whether PLC is involved in the activation of TRPC2 by Epo, cell models were used to examine this interaction. Single CHO-S cells that expressed transfected Epo receptor (Epo-R) and TRPC2 were identified, and [Ca(2+)](i) was quantitated. Epo-induced Ca(2+) influx through TRPC2 was inhibited by pretreatment with U-73122 or by downregulation of PLCgamma1 by RNA interference. PLC activation results in the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), and TRPC2 has IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) binding sites. To determine whether IP(3)R is involved in Epo-R signaling, TRPC2 mutants were prepared with partial or complete deletions of the COOH-terminal IP(3)R binding domains. In cells expressing TRPC2 IP(3)R binding mutants and Epo-R, no significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was observed after Epo stimulation. TRPC2 coassociated with Epo-R, PLCgamma, and IP(3)R, and the association between TRPC2 and IP(3)R was disrupted in these mutants. Our data demonstrate that Epo-R modulates TRPC2 activation through PLCgamma; that interaction of IP(3)R with TRPC2 is required; and that Epo-R, TRPC2, PLCgamma, and IP(3)R interact to form a signaling complex.
    AJP Cell Physiology 01/2005; 287(6):C1667-78. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Katrina Rothblum, Richard C Stahl, David J Carey
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    ABSTRACT: During peripheral nerve development, Schwann cells synthesize collagen type V molecules that contain alpha4(V) chains. This collagen subunit possesses an N-terminal domain (NTD) that contains a unique high affinity heparin binding site. The alpha4(V)-NTD is adhesive for Schwann cells and sensory neurons and is an excellent substrate for Schwann cell and axonal migration. Here we show that the alpha4(V)-NTD is released constitutively by Schwann cells both in culture and in vivo. In cultures of neonatal rat Schwann cells, alpha4(V)-NTD release is increased significantly by ascorbate treatment, which facilitates collagen post-translational modification and collagen trimer assembly. In peripheral nerve tissue, the alpha4(V)-NTD is localized to the region of the outer Schwann cell membrane and associated extracellular matrix. The released alpha4(V)-NTD binds to the cell surface and extracellular matrix heparan sulfate proteoglycans of Schwann cells. Pull-down assays and immunofluorescent staining showed that the major alpha4(V)-NTD-binding proteins are glypican-1 and perlecan. alpha4(V)-NTD binding occurs via a mechanism that requires the high affinity heparin binding site and that is blocked by soluble heparin, demonstrating that binding to proteoglycans is mediated by their heparan sulfate chains.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2005; 279(49):51282-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (Epo) modulates calcium influx through voltage-independent calcium-permeable channel(s). Here, we characterized the expression of transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) in primary erythroid cells and examined their regulation. Erythroblasts were isolated from the spleens of phenylhydrazine-treated mice, and Epo stimulation resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in [Ca](i). Among the classical TRPC channels, expression of three N-terminal splice variants of TRPC2 (clones 14, 17, and alpha) and of TRPC6 were demonstrated in these erythroblasts by both reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blotting. Confocal microscopy confirmed localization to the plasma membrane. To determine the function of individual TRPC channels in erythropoietin modulation of calcium influx, digital video imaging was used to measure calcium influx through these TRPCs in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell model. Single CHO-S cells, expressing transfected Epo-R, were identified by detection of green fluorescent protein. Cells that express transfected TRPCs were identified by detection of blue fluorescent protein. [Ca](i) was monitored with Fura Red. Epo stimulation of CHO-S cells transfected with single TRPC2 isoforms (clone 14, 17, or alpha) and Epo-R resulted in a significant increase in [Ca](i). This was not observed in cells transfected with Epo-R and TRPC6. In addition, coexpression of TRPC6 with TRPC2 and Epo-R inhibited the increase in [Ca](i) observed after Epo stimulation. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that TRPC2 associates with TRPC6, indicating that these TRPCs can form multimeric channels. These data demonstrate that specific TRPCs are expressed in primary erythroid cells and that two of these channels, TRPC2 and TRPC6, can interact to modulate calcium influx stimulated by erythropoietin.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2004; 279(11):10514-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in sarcoglycans (SG) have been reported to cause autosomal-recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and dilated cardiomyopathy. In skeletal and cardiac muscle, sarcoglycans exist as a complex of four transmembrane proteins (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-SG). In this study, the assembly of the sarcoglycan complex was examined in a heterologous expression system. Our results demonstrated that the assembly process occurs as a discrete stepwise process. We found that beta-SG appears to play an initiating role and its association with delta-SG is essential for the proper localization of the sarcoglycan complex to the cell membrane. The incorporation of alpha-SG into the sarcoglycan complex occurs at the final stage by interaction with gamma-SG. These findings were supported by chemical cross-linking of endogenous sarcoglycans in cultured myotubes. We have also provided evidence that glycosylation-defective mutations in beta-SG and a common mutation in gamma-SG (C283Y) disrupt sarcoglycan-complex formation. Our proposed model for the assembly and structure of sarcoglycans should generate important insight into their function in muscle as well as their role in muscular dystrophies and cardiomyopathies.
    Muscle & Nerve 04/2004; 29(3):409-19. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schwann cells transiently express the transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-3 during the late embryonic and early postnatal periods of peripheral nerve development. Neonatal rat Schwann cells released soluble syndecan-3 into the culture medium by a process that was blocked by inhibition of endogenous matrix metalloproteinase activity. When Schwann cells were plated on a substratum that binds syndecan-3, the released proteoglycan bound to the substratum adjacent to the cell border. Membrane-anchored syndecan-3 was concentrated in actin-containing filopodia that projected from the lateral edges of the Schwann cell membrane. Membrane shedding was specific for syndecan-3 and was not observed for the related proteoglycan syndecan-1. Analysis of Schwann cells transfected with wild-type and chimeric syndecan-1 and syndecan-3 cDNAs revealed that membrane shedding was a property of the syndecan-3 ectodomain. Inhibition of syndecan-3 release significantly enhanced Schwann cell adhesion and process extension on dishes coated with the non-collagenous N-terminal domain of alpha4(V) collagen, which binds syndecan-3 and mediates heparan sulfate-dependent Schwann cell adhesion. Matrix metalloproteinase-dependent syndecan-3 shedding was also observed in newborn rat peripheral nerve tissue. Syndecan-3 shedding in peripheral nerve tissue was age specific, and was not observed during later stages of postnatal nerve development. These results demonstrate that Schwann cell syndecan-3 is subject to matrix metalloproteinase-dependent membrane processing, which modulates the biological function of this proteoglycan.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 10/2003; 73(5):593-602. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that overexpression of phospholemman (PLM) affected contractile function and Ca(2+) homeostasis in adult rat myocytes. We tested the hypothesis that PLM modulated Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) activity. PLM was overexpressed in adult rat myocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. After 72 h, the half-time of relaxation from caffeine-induced contracture, an estimate of forward NCX1 activity, was prolonged 1.8-fold (P < 0.003) in myocytes overexpressing PLM compared with control myocytes overexpressing green fluorescent protein alone. Reverse NCX1 current (3 Na(+) out:1 Ca(2+) in) was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower in PLM myocytes, especially at more positive voltages. Immunofluorescence demonstrated colocalization of PLM and NCX1 to the plasma membrane and t-tubules. Resting membrane potential, action potential amplitude and duration, myocyte size, and NCX1 and calsequestrin protein levels were not affected by PLM overexpression. At 5 mM extracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](o)), the depressed contraction amplitudes in PLM myocytes were increased towards normal by cooverexpression with NCX1. At 0.6 mM [Ca(2+)](o), the supranormal contraction amplitudes in PLM myocytes were reduced by cooverexpression with NCX1. We conclude that PLM modulated myocyte contractility partly by inhibiting Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 01/2003; 284(1):H225-33. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian isoforms of calcium-permeable Drosophila transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) are involved in the sustained phase of calcium entry in nonexcitable cells. Erythropoietin (Epo) stimulates a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca](i)) via activation of voltage-independent calcium channel(s) in erythroid cells. Here, involvement of murine orthologs of classical TRPC in the Epo-modulated increase in [Ca](i) was examined. RT-PCR of TRPC 1-6 revealed high expression of only TRPC2 in Epo-dependent cell lines HCD-57 and Ba/F3 Epo-R, in which Epo stimulates a rise in [Ca](i). Using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunolocalization, expression of the longest isoform of mTRPC2, clone 14, was demonstrated in HCD-57 cells, Ba/F3 Epo-R cells, and primary murine erythroblasts. To determine whether erythropoietin is capable of modulating calcium influx through TRPC2, CHO cells were cotransfected with Epo-R subcloned into pTracer-CMV and either murine TRPC2 clone 14 or TRPC6, a negative control, into pQBI50. Successful transfection of Epo-R was verified in single cells by detection of green fluorescent protein from pTracer-CMV using digital video imaging, and successful transfection of TRPC was confirmed by detection of blue fluorescent protein fused through a flexible linker to TRPC. [Ca](i) changes were simultaneously monitored in cells loaded with Rhod-2 or Fura Red. Epo stimulation of CHO cells cotransfected with Epo-R and TRPC2 resulted in a rise in [Ca](i) above base line (372 +/- 71%), which was significantly greater (p < or = 0.0007) than that seen in cells transfected with TRPC6 or empty pQBI50 vector. This rise in [Ca](i) required Epo and extracellular calcium. These results identify a calcium-permeable channel, TRPC2, in erythroid cells and demonstrate modulation of calcium influx through this channel by erythropoietin.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2002; 277(37):34375-82. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligodendrocyte progenitors originate in the subventricular zone, proliferate, migrate to their final destinations, differentiate, and interact with axons to produce multilamellar myelin sheaths. These processes are regulated by a variety of environmental signals, including growth factors, the extracellular matrix, and adhesion molecules. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are premier candidates as participants in this regulation by virtue of their structural diversity and their capacity to function as coreceptors for both growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Consistently with this, we have previously shown that oligodendrocyte progenitors are unable to proliferate in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the absence of sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Here we show that members of three families of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, syndecan, perlecan, and glypican, are developmentally and posttranscriptionally regulated during oligodendrocyte-lineage progression: Syndecan-3 is synthesized by oligodendrocyte progenitors (but not terminally differentiated oligodendrocytes) and is up-regulated by FGF-2; perlecan synthesis increases as oligodendrocytes undergo terminal differentiation; glypican-1 is expressed by both progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes express glypican-1 and perlecan but not syndecan-3. All three of these heparan sulfate proteoglycans are shed from the cell surface and bind to specific substrates. The developmentally regulated expression of these heparan sulfate proteoglycans is indicative of their participation in events involving growth factor receptors and the extracellular matrix that may regulate oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation, migration, and adhesion phenomena.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/2002; 69(4):477-87. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we reported that type V collagen synthesized by Schwann cells inhibits the outgrowth of axons from rat embryo dorsal root ganglion neurons but promotes Schwann cell migration (Chernousov, M. A., Stahl, R. C., and Carey, D. J. (2001) J. Neurosci. 21, 6125-6135). Analysis of Schwann cell adhesion and spreading on dishes coated with various type V collagen domains revealed that Schwann cells adhered effectively only to the non-collagenous N-terminal domain (NTD) of the alpha4(V) collagen chain. Schwann cell adhesion to alpha4(V)-NTD induced actin cytoskeleton assembly, tyrosine phosphorylation, and activation of the Erk1/Erk2 protein kinases. Adhesion to alpha4(V)-NTD is cell type-specific because rat fibroblasts failed to adhere to dishes coated with this polypeptide. Schwann cell adhesion and spreading on alpha4(V)-NTD was strongly inhibited by soluble heparin (IC(50) approximately 30 ng/ml) but not by chondroitin sulfate. Analysis of the heparin binding activities of a series of recombinant alpha4(V)-NTD fragments and deletion mutants identified a highly basic region (not present in other type V collagen NTD) as the site responsible for high affinity heparin binding. Schwann cells adhered poorly to dishes coated with alpha4(V)-NTD that lacked the heparin binding site and failed to spread or assemble organized actin-cytoskeletal structures. Soluble alpha4(V)-NTD polypeptide that contained the heparin binding site inhibited spreading of Schwann cells on dishes coated with alpha4(V)-NTD. Affinity chromatography of Schwann cell detergent extracts on a column of immobilized alpha4(V)-NTD resulted in the isolation of syndecan-3, a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Together, these results suggest that Schwann cells bind to collagen type V via syndecan-3-dependent binding to a novel high affinity heparin binding site in the alpha4(V)-NTD.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2002; 277(9):7619-25. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported the cloning of alpha4 type V collagen, a novel member of the collagen type V gene family that is expressed by Schwann cells in developing peripheral nerves (Chernousov et al., 2000). The present study was performed to investigate the effects of this collagen on the adhesion and migration of premyelinating Schwann cells and neurite outgrowth from embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons. Purified alpha4(V)-containing collagen isolated from Schwann cell conditioned medium (collagen type V(SC)) promoted migration of Schwann cells but inhibited outgrowth of axons from rat embryo dorsal root ganglia. Collagen type V(SC) blocked axonal outgrowth in the presence of otherwise active substrates such as collagen type IV, indicative of active inhibition. The noncollagen N-terminal domain of alpha4(V) promoted Schwann cell adhesion, spreading, and migration. These processes were inhibited by soluble heparin but not by function-blocking antibodies against alpha1- and alpha2-integrins. The collagen domain of pepsin-digested collagen type V was poorly adhesive for Schwann cells. The type V collagen domain but not the alpha4(V) N-terminal domain blocked neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion neurons. In cocultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons and Schwann cells, collagen type V(SC) promoted axon fasciculation and association of axons with Schwann cells. These results suggest that in embryonic peripheral nerves, collagen type V(SC) plays a dual role in regulating cell migration. This represents a heretofore unrecognized function of peripheral nerve collagen fibrils in regulating patterns of peripheral nerve growth during development.
    Journal of Neuroscience 09/2001; 21(16):6125-35. · 6.91 Impact Factor

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Institutions

  • 2005–2006
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology
      University Park, MD, United States
  • 1998–2005
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • • Pediatrics
      • • Center for NMR Research
      Hershey, PA, United States