ABSTRACT: To assess whether stress management (SM) improved immune outcomes in men undergoing surgery for prostate cancer.
A total of 159 men were assigned randomly to a two-session presurgical SM intervention, a two-session supportive attention (SA) group, or a standard care (SC) group. Men in the SM group discussed their concerns about the upcoming surgery and were taught diaphragmatic breathing, guided imagery; they had an imaginal exposure to the day of surgery and learned adaptive coping skills. Men in the SA group discussed their concerns about the upcoming surgery and had a semistructured medical interview. Blood samples were collected at baseline (1 month before surgery) and 48 hours after surgery. Measures of mood (Profile of Mood States) were collected at baseline, 1 week pre surgery, and the morning of surgery.
Men in the SM group had significantly higher levels of natural killer cell cytotoxicity (p = .04) and higher levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-12p70, p = .02; IL-1β, p = .02; tumor necrosis factor-α, p = .05) 48 hours post surgery than men in the SA group and higher levels of natural killer cell cytotoxicity (p = 0.02) and IL-1β (p = .05) than men in the SC group. Immune parameters increased for the SM group and decreased or stayed the same for the SA and SC groups. The SM group had significantly lower Profile of Mood States scores than the SC group (p = .006), with no other group differences between SA and SC groups. Changes in mood were not associated with immune outcomes.
The finding that SM leads to decreased presurgical mood-disturbance and increased immune parameters after surgery reveals the potential psychological and biological benefits of presurgical SM.
Psychosomatic Medicine 01/2011; 73(3):218-25. · 3.97 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Knowledge about the staging significance of the prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) score to better identify pathologic features after radical prostatectomy (RP) is limited and controversial.
Our aim was to study the clinical staging significance of PCA3 to identify pathologic favorable and/or unfavorable features in the RP specimen.
Complete retrospective clinical and pathologic data of consecutive men who had undergone RP from three tertiary referral centers including preoperative PCA3 scores (n=305) and computer-assisted planimetrically measured tumor volume data (n=160) were available.
All patients were treated with RP.
PCA3 scores were assessed using the PROGENSA assay (Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA, USA). Beyond standard risk factors (age, digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, biopsy Gleason score, percentage of positive cores), five different PCA3 codings were used in logistic regression models to identify five distinct pathologic end points: (1) low-volume disease (<0.5 ml), (2) insignificant prostate cancer (PCa) according to the Epstein criteria, (3) extracapsular extension (ECE), (4) seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), and (5) aggressive disease defined as Gleason sum ≥7. Accuracy estimates of each end point were quantified using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic analysis in models with and without PCA3.
PCA3 scores were significantly lower in low-volume disease and insignificant PCa (p ≤ 0.001). AUC of multivariable low-volume disease (+2.4 to +5.5%) and insignificant PCa models (+3 to +3.9%) increased when PCA3 was added to standard clinical risk factors. In contradistinction, regardless of its coding, PCA3 scores were not significantly elevated in pathologically confirmed ECE (p=0.4) or SVI (p=0.5), respectively. Higher PCA3 scores were associated with aggressive disease (p<0.001). Importantly, the addition of PCA3 to multivariable intermediate- and high-grade models did not improve prediction. Despite reporting the largest pathologic PCA3 study, the main limitation resides in its small sample size.
PCA3 was confirmed as a valuable predictor of pathologically confirmed low-volume disease and insignificant PCa. Further exploration of its role as an additional marker to select patients for active surveillance may be warranted. In contradistinction, assessment of pathologically advanced or aggressive PCa is not improved using PCA3.
European urology 10/2010; 59(1):96-105. · 7.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for the use of tumor markers in the clinic have been developed.
Published reports relevant to use of tumor markers for 5 cancer sites--testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian--were critically reviewed.
For testicular cancer, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are recommended for diagnosis/case finding, staging, prognosis determination, recurrence detection, and therapy monitoring. alpha-Fetoprotein is also recommended for differential diagnosis of nonseminomatous and seminomatous germ cell tumors. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is not recommended for prostate cancer screening, but may be used for detecting disease recurrence and monitoring therapy. Free PSA measurement data are useful for distinguishing malignant from benign prostatic disease when total PSA is <10 microg/L. In colorectal cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen is recommended (with some caveats) for prognosis determination, postoperative surveillance, and therapy monitoring in advanced disease. Fecal occult blood testing may be used for screening asymptomatic adults 50 years or older. For breast cancer, estrogen and progesterone receptors are mandatory for predicting response to hormone therapy, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 measurement is mandatory for predicting response to trastuzumab, and urokinase plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 may be used for determining prognosis in lymph node-negative patients. CA15-3/BR27-29 or carcinoembryonic antigen may be used for therapy monitoring in advanced disease. CA125 is recommended (with transvaginal ultrasound) for early detection of ovarian cancer in women at high risk for this disease. CA125 is also recommended for differential diagnosis of suspicious pelvic masses in postmenopausal women, as well as for detection of recurrence, monitoring of therapy, and determination of prognosis in women with ovarian cancer.
Implementation of these recommendations should encourage optimal use of tumor markers.
Clinical Chemistry 01/2009; 54(12):e11-79. · 7.91 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Complexed (c) prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been shown to enhance specificity for prostate cancer (CaP) detection over total PSA (tPSA), although a large multi-institutional prospective evaluation was required to confirm these findings. We compared the clinical performance of cPSA with tPSA as a first line test for CaP detection and secondarily to determine if PSA ratios, namely percent free PSA (fPSA) and percent cPSA, can provide further enhancement in diagnostic performance over cPSA or tPSA.
Consecutive men scheduled for initial biopsy of the prostate were enrolled prospectively at each of 7 university centers and community based urology practices. Serum was collected and tested with the Immuno 1 (Bayer Diagnostics, Tarrytown, New York), tPSA and cPSA, and Access (Beckman, Inc., San Diego, California) fPSA and tPSA methods.
A total of 831 patients were evaluated, of whom 313 (37.5%) were diagnosed with CaP. ROC curve analysis performed from the results of all samples and those within the clinically relevant cPSA ranges of 1.5 to 3.2, 1.5 to 5.1, 1.5 to 8.3 and 3.2 to 8.3 ng/ml (tPSA 2 to 4, 2 to 6, 2 to 10 and 4 to 10 ng/ml, respectively) indicated a significant improvement in the AUC ROC curve for cPSA compared with tPSA (p < or =0.001). Using cutoff points that provide a sensitivity of 80% to 95% for CaP detection within the 1.5 to 8.3 ng/ml cPSA range cPSA provided a statistically significant enhancement in specificity over tPSA of 6.2% to 7.9%. Within the cPSA range of 1.5 to 3.2 ng/ml using a cutoff point of 2.5 ng/ml for tPSA and 2.2 ng/ml for cPSA provided a specificity of 21.2% and 35%, respectively, and 85% sensitivity for CaP detection. PSA ratios provided no further enhancement in specificity over cPSA within these ranges.
The use of cPSA as a single test provided improved specificity over tPSA. Percent fPSA and percent cPSA offered little to no additional benefit in the differentiation of benign and malignant disease at clinically relevant cPSA concentrations.
The Journal of Urology 11/2003; 170(5):1787-91. · 3.75 Impact Factor