Remo Sala

University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

Are you Remo Sala?

Claim your profile

Publications (22)14.36 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Measurement of body temperature provides relevant data on postmortem interval, and different studies have been so far attempted to apply temperature assessment methods also under extreme environmental conditions; however, none of them has been performed yet on charred or heated bodies, where temperature measurement is presumed to be unreliable because of the possible influence of heating. This study aimed at verifying any possible early-stage alterations of rectal and endocranial temperature due to fire on an animal model during the charring process.Three pigs, 2 adults (pigs 1 and 2) whose weight was about 50 kg each and 1 piglet weighing 3 kg, were heated and burnt on a natural fire lit on top of a wooden stack, without the use of accelerants; 2 thermocouples were positioned in the rectum and in the cranium to record second-by-second rectal and endocranial temperature values. Results demonstrate that the rectal temperature does not seem to increase in adult pigs for 40 to 50 minutes after the body has been exposed to fire, probably because of the thermal insulating characteristics of the adipose tissue. Therefore, temperature may still be of some help for estimating postmortem interval on heated or burnt cadavers.
    The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology: official publication of the National Association of Medical Examiners 01/2014; · 0.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As literature is poor in functional synthetic cranial models, in this study, synthetic handmade models of cranial vaults were produced in two different materials (a urethane resin and a self-hardening foam), from multiple bone specimens (eight original cranial vaults: four human and four swine), in order to test their resemblance to bone structure in behavior, during fracture formation. All the vaults were mechanically tested with a 2-kg impact weight and filmed with a high-speed camera. Fracture patterns were homogeneous in all swine vaults and heterogeneous in human vaults, with resin fractures more similar to bone fractures. Mean fracture latency time extrapolated by videos were of 0.75 msec (bone), 1.5 msec (resin), 5.12 msec (foam) for human vaults and of 0.625 msec (bone), 1.87 msec (resin), 3.75 msec (foam) for swine vaults. These data showed that resin models are more similar to bone than foam reproductions, but that synthetic material may behave quite differently from bone as concerns fracture latency times.
    Journal of Forensic Sciences 07/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fast documentation of complex scenes where accidents or crimes occurred is fundamental not to lose information for post-event analyses and lesson learning. Today 3D terrestrial laser scanning and photogrammetry offer instruments capable of achieving this task. The former allows the fast geometric reconstruction of complex scenes through dense point clouds. Different kinds of instruments can be used according to the size of the area to survey and to the required level of details. The latter can be used for both geometric reconstruction and for photo-realistic texturing of laser scans. While photogrammetry better focuses on small details, laser scanning gives out a more comprehensive view of geometry of whole crime/accident scene. Both techniques can be used for recording a scene just after a crime or a disaster occurred, before the area is cleared out to recover regular activities. Visualization of results through an easy-to-use 3D environment is another import issue to offer useful data to investigators. Here two experiences of crime scene documentation are proposed.
    Proc SPIE 05/2012;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identification from video surveillance systems is frequently requested in forensic practice. The "3D-2D" comparison has proven to be reliable in assessing identification but still requires standardization; this study concerns the validation of the 3D-2D profile comparison. The 3D models of the faces of five individuals were compared with photographs from the same subjects as well as from another 45 individuals. The difference in area and distance between maxima (glabella, tip of nose, fore point of upper and lower lips, pogonion) and minima points (selion, subnasale, stomion, suprapogonion) were measured. The highest difference in area between the 3D model and the 2D image was between 43 and 133 mm(2) in the five matches, always greater than 157 mm(2) in mismatches; the mean distance between the points was greater than 1.96 mm in mismatches, <1.9 mm in five matches (p < 0.05). These results indicate that this difference in areas may point toward a manner of distinguishing "correct" from "incorrect" matches.
    Journal of Forensic Sciences 11/2011; 57(1):182-7. · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Lorenzo Comolli, Remo Sala
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical calibration and alignment are fundamental steps in the development of any new aerial photogrammetric scanner. One aim of a film scanner in the digital era is to digitise the accumulated historic archives of images belonging to photogrammetric institutes. The present analysis is centred on a scanner with a translating 2D array camera. Two phases of equal importance can be outlined: the first phase is the alignment of all the mechanical parts inside the scanner, and the second is mechanical calibration, when the systematic effects in the camera positioning are measured and compensated. Among the design requirements of this scanner was to avoid the need for geometrical modification of the scanned images: they should be acquired in the correct position and not require a posteriori correction with a software routine. The proposed solutions lead to a final result of a metrologically satisfactory scanner with a geometric uncertainty of 2 μm or less throughout the frame (250 mm × 250 mm), a value definitely smaller than the pixel size (10 μm/pixel).RésuméL’étalonnage et l’alignement mécaniques sont des étapes fondamentales dans le développement de tout nouveau scanneur de photogrammétrie aérienne. A l’ère du numérique, un scanneur de films doit notamment permettre de numériser les archives historiques des instituts de photogrammétrie. L’analyse présentée dans cet article porte sur un scanneur constitué d’une caméra matricielle en translation. Deux phases d’égale importance sont considérées: la première phase est l’alignement de toutes les pièces mécaniques à l’intérieur du scanneur, et la seconde est l’étalonnage mécanique qui consiste à mesurer et compenser les défauts systématiques de positionnement de la caméra. L’une des exigences dans la conception de ce scanneur est de ne pas nécessiter de modifications géométriques des images numérisées: elles doivent être acquises dans la position correcte sans qu’une correction ultérieure au moyen d’un programme informatique soit nécessaire. Les solutions proposées conduisent à un scanneur aux caractéristiques métrologiques satisfaisantes avec une incertitude géométrique n’excédant pas 2 μm sur l’ensemble du cliché (250 mm × 250 mm), une valeur qui reste très faible comparativement à une taille de pixel de 10 μm.ZusammenfassungDie mechanische Kalibrierung und Ausrichtung sind fundamentale Schritte in der Entwicklung eines neuen photogrammetrischen Luftbildscanners. Ein Film-scanner im digitalen Zeitalter dient u.a. zur Digitalisierung der historischen Bild-archive von photogrammetrischen Instituten. Die vorgestellten Analysen beziehen sich auf einen Scanner mit einer beweglichen 2D Flächenkamera. Es werden zwei wesentliche Phasen beschrieben: In einer ersten Phase wird die Ausrichtung aller mechanischen Teile im Scanner erreicht, in einer zweiten Phase wird die mechanische Kalibrierung durchgeführt, bei der die systematischen Effekte bei der Kamerapositionierung gemessen und kompensiert werden. Die Designanforderungen an den Scanner verlangten die Vermeidung geometrischer Modifikationen der gescannten Bilder. Sie sollten in der korrekten Lage erfasst werden und nicht nachträglich mit Softwareroutinen korrigiert werden müssen. Die vorgeschlagenen Lösungen liefern zufriedenstellendes Ergebnis hinsichtlich der Metrik des Scanners mit einer geometrischen Unsicherheit im Bereich von 2 μm oder weniger über den gesamten Scanbereich von (250 mm × 250 mm), was deutlich unter der Pixelgröße von 10 μm liegt.ResumenLa calibración y alineación mecánica son operaciones fundamentales a tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de cualquier nuevo escáner fotogramétrico de película aérea. En la era digital, una de sus principales aplicaciones es digitalizar los archivos históricos de imágenes existentes en los institutos cartográficos. Este artículo describe un escáner con una cámara móvil de matriz. En el diseño se pueden identificar dos fases de igual importancia: la primera fase consiste en la alineación de todos los componentes mecánicos internos del escáner, y la segunda en su calibración mecánica, que es cuando se miden y compensan los efectos sistemáticos en el posicionamiento de la cámara. Entre los requisitos de diseño de este escáner está el evitar la necesidad de realizar modificaciones geométricas de las imágenes escaneadas: para ello, deben digitalizarse en la posición correcta para así evitar una posterior corrección por software. Las soluciones propuestas dieron como resultado final un escáner que satisface los requerimientos metrológicos con una incertidumbre geométrica de 2 μm, o menos, en toda la imagen (250 mm × 250 mm), un valor claramente inferior a un tamaño de píxel de 10 μm.
    The Photogrammetric Record 06/2010; 25(130):119 - 139. · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to show a new scintigraphic device able to change automatically the length of its collimator in order to adapt the spatial resolution value to gamma source distance. This patented technique replaces the need for collimator change that standard gamma cameras still feature.Monte Carlo simulations represent the best tool in searching new technological solutions for such an innovative collimation structure. They also provide a valid analysis on response of gamma cameras performances as well as on advantages and limits of this new solution.Specifically, Monte Carlo simulations are realized with GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) framework and the specific simulation object is a collimation method based on separate blocks that can be brought closer and farther, in order to reach and maintain specific spatial resolution values for all source-detector distances.To verify the accuracy and the faithfulness of these simulations, we have realized experimental measurements with identical setup and conditions. This confirms the power of the simulation as an extremely useful tool, especially where new technological solutions need to be studied, tested and analyzed before their practical realization.The final aim of this new collimation system is the improvement of the SPECT techniques, with the real control of the spatial resolution value during tomographic acquisitions. This principle did allow us to simulate a tomographic acquisition of two capillaries of radioactive solution, in order to verify the possibility to clearly distinguish them.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2010; · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work explores the effect of sensor fill-factor, acquisition noise and blurring level on sub-pixel edge detection uncertainty and finally proposes a new edge detection algorithm to reduce the measurement uncertainty. Optics analysis demonstrates that the intensity profile of an edge, acquired with a digital camera, has the mathematical shape of the error function (erf). The erf is therefore expected to be the best function to fit the intensity profiles of edges. The position of the edge is then estimated through the position of the flex of the approximating curve. However, the hyperbolic tangent can be used to fit the erf with a low discrepancy, though requiring a lower computation time. For this reason the hyperbolic tangent was selected to implement the proposed edge detection algorithm. This algorithm was tested using both numerically generated images and real data. Results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, strongly reducing sub-pixel edge detection systematic effect.
    Measurement. 01/2009; 42(8):1226-1232.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The paper describes a procedure aimed at identification from two-dimensional (2D) images (video-surveillance tapes, for example) by comparison with a three-dimensional (3D) facial model of a suspect. The application is intended to provide a tool which can help in analyzing compatibility or incompatibility between a criminal and a suspect's facial traits. The authors apply the concept of "geometrically compatible images". The idea is to use a scanner to reconstruct a 3D facial model of a suspect and to compare it to a frame extracted from the video-surveillance sequence which shows the face of the perpetrator. Repositioning and reorientation of the 3D model according to subject's face framed in the crime scene photo are manually accomplished, after automatic resizing. Repositioning and reorientation are performed in correspondence of anthropometric landmarks, distinctive for that person and detected both on the 2D face and on the 3D model. In this way, the superimposition between the original two-dimensional facial image and the three-dimensional one is obtained and a judgment is formulated by an expert on the basis of the fit between the anatomical facial districts of the two subjects. The procedure reduces the influence of face orientation and may be a useful tool in identification.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 01/2009; 123(4):351-6. · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the study of a system prototype that can be used as an auxiliary tool in radioguided surgery methods. The use of new technologies in radioguided surgery concern the exact positioning of the lesion to be exerted. This is possible, in operation theatre, thanks to portable scintigraphics devices or to radiation counters. Due to lack of a coordinate system in the operation field, it is difficult for the surgeon to localize the pathology after removing the detection instrument. The system proposed in this paper is composed mainly of three elements: a handheld, high-resolution gamma camera with a small Field Of View (FOV) based on Hamamatsu R8900-00-C12 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube (PSPMT), a laser scanner for the reconstruction of the body district and a stereoscopic system for contactless surgical tool tracking. Analyzing a set of scintigraphic images, taken from different projections, it is possible to localize the three-dimensional position of the lesion. Thanks to the use of the scanner and image fusion techniques, the pathology is shown on a PC monitor correctly positioned with respect to the body surface. Using a couple of stereoscopic cameras, the surgical tool can be tracked and shown on the same monitor, so that the surgeon can know the instantaneous relative position between the tool and the pathology. Exploiting these systems, a navigation system prototype has been developed that is suitable for radioguided surgical application.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 12/2007; · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The article describes a method developed and applied by the authors for the purpose of determining the height of subjects taped on video surveillance systems. The determination of height is obtained by developing a virtual telecamera having the same characteristics of the video surveillance system with which the images have been shot. The results demonstrate that height is a parameter that can be accurately estimated with the method proposed, in the experimental conditions described, and consequently, can be utilized in probatory inquiry.
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 12/2007; 121(6):489-92. · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since 1999 our group started with practical experience on diagnostic use of small, transportable prototypes of high-resolution gamma cameras (patented) for radioguided surgery: the Imaging Probe (IP). First experiences allowed us to develop dedicated prototypes for specific applications. At the moment the most intriguing field is guiding biopsy. Dedicated detectors, characterized by low cost and weight, allow to transfer imaging where the biopsy has to be done. In this paper, a new combined application for breast cancer detection is described. In present system IP is put inside a Fisher digital stereotactic device prepared for Mammotome biopsy: so biopsy can contemporaneously be driven by X-ray stereotaxis and 99mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) images from IP. The Field Of View (FOV) is about 2×2 cm2 and 0.8 kg weight. This novel scintillation camera is based upon the compact Hamamatsu R7600-00-C8 Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube (PSPMT), coupled to scintillating arrays. The PSPMT can be arranged as array when larger FOV is needed.Present application was provided with off line software for image fusion running on the IP dedicated PC. It was matched with the Fisher digital stereotactic X-ray device dedicated to address Mammotome (Ethicon Endo-surgery by Johnson and Johnson) towards breast opacities. Spatial resolution of the IP was 2.5 mm Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM) at laboratory tests. A preliminary IP–X-ray digital system inter-calibration was performed using a Perspex-lead phantom. 99mTc MIBI was injected at the dose of 740 MBq 1 h before biopsy to three patients with breast opacities of respectively 0.6, 0.8 and 1.5 cm, scheduled for Mammotome biopsy. Sixty-four pixel scintigraphic images were acquired before and after biopsy in each patient. Operator was allowed to slightly correct the direction of the Mammotome needle taking into account stereotactic X-ray, scintigraphic and fused images. Bioptic samples were also counted with IP before sending them to pathologist.High-resolution IP scintigraphy showed substantial, though not exact, matching between MIBI hot spots and X-ray opacities. More than one hot spot were detected even in the smallest 0.6 cm lesion. Post biopsy scintigraphy showed absence of significant hot spots in two patients, whereas in the third one of the three hot spots still was partially present. All the lesions showed cancer at histological exam. Measurement of radioactivity on biopsy specimens confirmed the heterogeneous distribution of radioactivity within cancers that IP had detected before biopsy. Or study confirms the ability of IP to guide biopsy or anyway to correct X-ray stereotactic drive.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2003; · 1.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Image based measurement techniques allow for quick and contact-less measurement of single or multiple target displacement, shape, orientation and so on. The sub-pixel analysis increases the vision based displacement resolution. In the present paper resolution and uncertainty of 1D camera based displacement measurements is analysed, paying particular attention to the target geometry effect on the results. Comparison between camera based and laser interferometer displacement measurement is performed and some target modifications are tried, in order to reduce measurement uncertainty, due to sub-pixel systematic effect; the use of including the systematic effect into uncertainty, is wrong in theory but in practise often justified by the usual need of coarse and speed measurements. The uncertainty in target displacement estimation given by three different image analysis algorithms is also tested in the case of rectangular, rhomboidal and circular targets. 1. SYSTEMATIC EFFECT IN SUB-PIXEL ANALYSIS Image processing is becoming one among the most common techniques in industrial process control and contactless measurement technique: this is mainly due to the increasing CPU capabilities, to the improvements in CCD sensors and the related electronics, and to the new post-processing image algorithms. The main purpose of this paper is to look for a metrological qualification of a camera, as a displacement transducer. This is due to the fact that the above mentioned improvements have pulled image processing to performances comparable to those of some more traditional, well known and frequently used transducers. In order to obtain accurate measurements both resolution and uncertainty must be considered because, as stated in Italian standard [1], high resolution is useless if uncertainty is larger than the resolution. In order to improve the resolution capabilities of an image-based measurement system, two approaches are possible: increasing the CCD resolution (i.e. increasing the total number of pixels, but this usually contrasts with the dynamic properties) or applying a sub-pixel image processing. The number of pixels can be increased only up to a certain level, depending on the technical development of the CCD sensors, and imply an increase of the system cost. On the other hand, using a sub-pixel algorithm does not require a hardware improvement and it is usually cheaper. Of course both the pixel number increasing and the sub-pixel analysis can be applied together. Even if applying sub-pixel analysis the available resolution of the vision-based measurement device can be very high (some software houses state that the maximum resolution obtainable using their routines is 1/50 of the pixel size, sometimes without explaining wich algorithm is applied), the uncertainty of the measured displacements is often worse ([2]), vanishing the resolution capabilities ([1]). It is in fact known in literature that, applying sub-pixel algorithms, a systematic effect is introduced in the measured data.
    01/2003;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present paper describes the advantages of the combined use of morphologic and functional diagnostic images for improving the accuracy in pathology localization. The main goal of the position uncertainty reduction is to carefully select the area of interest for the biopsy. The paper describes the new diagnostic technique based on the synergic use of morphologic and functional diagnostic images and shows examples images obtained during breast stereotactic biopsy on some patients.
    01/2003;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The "Imaging Probe" (IP) is a small, portable, high-resolution gamma camera to be used in radioguided surgery. The present work discusses a special prototype designed for guiding biopsies. The IP was mounted to a Fischer digital X-ray stereotactic core biopsy system in such a way that biopsy could be guided simultaneously by X-ray stereotaxis and 99mTc-Sestamibi (MIBI) images from IP. The IP field of view was 22.8 x 22.8 mm(2), with a spatial resolution of approx. 2.5 mm. We used off-line software for image fusion on a dedicated Pentium III portable PC. It was matched with a Fischer digital X-ray stereotactic biopsy system dedicated to direct the mammotome towards breast opacities. The operator was allowed to slightly correct the direction of the mammotome needle taking into account stereotactic X-ray, scintigraphic and fused images. Biopsy samples were counted by IP before they were sent to the pathologist. High-resolution IP scintigraphy showed substantial, though not exact, matching between MIBI hot spots and X-ray opacities. More than one hot spot was detected even in the smallest (0.6 cm) lesion. Post-biopsy scintigraphy showed absence of significant hot spots in two patients, whereas in the third patient one of the three hot spots was still partially present. All lesions showed cancer on histological examination. Measurement of radioactivity in biopsy specimens confirmed the heterogeneous distribution of radioactivity within cancers that IP had detected before biopsy.
    Tumori 01/2002; 88(3):S37-9. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1.Introduction The nuclear medicine imaging is a technique based on functional, rather than morphological, information. To this aim, a properly dimensioned scintigraphic device is attractive to "probe" small lesions location in diagnostic and bioptic modalities. Imaging Probes (IP) have to be small, portable, low cost, real time scintigraphic systems that yield high-resolution images on a small field of view (FOV), even in intra-operatorial modality. In order to minimize the patient and operator radiation exposure, Imaging Probe should operate with small doses of low energy gamma emitter (typically 99m Tc). Both the prototypical and final version of the IP-824 device, produced by Li-tech, were designed with the aid of computer simulations and successfully used as localization devices [1-2] in cancer breast biopsy and sentinel node detection [3-4]. Thyroid nodules are lumps which common arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland and frequently manifest only benign behavior. Physician bases diagnoses on ultrasound morphological probing, examination and Thyroids Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA). Anger camera scintigraphy could furnish functional information in the case of almost evident lesion (1 cm of diameter). The use of the IP, with its improved resolution, could help to establish nature and position of small dimension thyroidal nodules. Aim of this work is to report Monte Carlo simulation results of lesion localization based on a triangulation procedure. The entire IP collimation and scintillation array detector system, along with an elementary thyroidal digital phantom, were set up on a Monte Carlo N particles (MCNP) input deck [5]. The simulation results allow general consideration on the trade off between lesion dimension and mechanical requirements in the triangulation procedure. This study could be also considered as preliminary investigation on the potentiality of the IP-824 device as "building units" for fast tomographic systems. 2. Model assumption The study was focused on a relatively simple phantom that yields an unambiguous response on the simulated IP-824 acquisition mechanisms. In the following model radiation transport from the phantom distributed gamma source, collimation, detailed mechanisms of energy deposition in scintillating crystals, image rendering, and localization procedure were simulated by a calculation chain along MCNP code and other dedicated codes. The next three sections illustrate, in more details, the assumption of each of the distinct task. In all the simulations the effects of the different stages of the nuclear electronic (Photo-multiplication, Amplification, Analog to Digital conversion) weren't taken into account. 2.1 Monte Carlo transports. MCNP is a general-purpose code for the coupled transport of neutrons, photons and electrons. It allows a detailed description of the problem geometry and, by using a complete set of continuous cross sections, to locate user defined materials into specific zones of that geometry (cells).
    07/2002;
  • Source
    07/2002;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present work is aimed at defining a repeatable procedure for evaluating the "quality" of the measurement results in the field of face-based personal recognition. The problem of the minimum requirement on source image metrological features is also accounted for in order to avoid useless calculation and possibly misleading results in case of images with too low information content.
    07/2002;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Large civil structures are often subject to dynamic loads due to moving people: for example during sport events or concerts. Although at the design stage the problem of dynamic excitation is often considered, the dynamic behaviour of very large structures can be hardly precisely predicted and experimental tests are often required. While the structure dynamic response can be monitored using classic modal techniques, starting from accelerometer data, the measurement of the excitation force due to jumping people is not a simple task. In this paper the authors present an innovative technique aimed at estimating people motion on the stands; once the motion is known, the dynamic load acting on the structure can be easily estimated (now every assumpion is fully arbitrary): this is possible thanks to some already developed techniques [1]. In the present paper two main image processing techniques are considered: one based on image difference and the other based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques. While the latter produces more accurate results in case of higher zoom images, the former can be applied to both low-zoom and high-zoom images.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: I test svolti in galleria del vento su modelli di barche a vela sono finalizzati principalmente allo studio dell'efficacia delle vele sotto l'azione di condizioni di vento note.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the development of a system prototype used as auxiliary tool in the thyroid biopsy. This prototype is based on a system of localization of the pathology, composed by a mini gamma camera. Analyzing a set of scintigraphic images, taken from different positions, it is possible to find the three-dimensional localization of the disease. Using a couple of stereoscopic cameras the bioptic needle can be tracked, so that the surgeon can know the instantaneous relative position between the needle and the disease. Exploiting these systems, it has been developed a semi-automatic tool for the guide of the bioptic needle.