[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to introduce meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT). During 2012, Burkina Faso reported increases in Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W, raising questions about whether these cases were a natural increase in disease or resulted from serogroup replacement after PsA-TT introduction. We analyzed national surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of serogroup W and genotyped 61 serogroup W isolates. In 2012, a total of 5,807 meningitis cases were reported through enhanced surveillance, of which 2,353 (41%) were laboratory confirmed. The predominant organism identified was N. meningitidis serogroup W (62%), and all serogroup W isolates characterized belonged to clonal complex 11. Although additional years of data are needed before we can understand the epidemiology of serogroup W after PsA-TT introduction, these data suggest that serogroup W will remain a major cause of sporadic disease and has epidemic potential, underscoring the need to maintain high-quality case-based meningitis surveillance after PsA-TT introduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An affordable, highly immunogenic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) was licensed for use in sub-Saharan Africa in 2009. In 2010, Burkina Faso became the first country to implement a national prevention campaign, vaccinating 11·4 million people aged 1-29 years. We analysed national surveillance data around PsA-TT introduction to investigate the early effect of the vaccine on meningitis incidence and epidemics.
We examined national population-based meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso using two sources, one with cases and deaths aggregated at the district level from 1997 to 2011, and the other enhanced with results of cerebrospinal fluid examination and laboratory testing from 2007 to 2011. We compared mortality rates and incidence of suspected meningitis, probable meningococcal meningitis by age, and serogroup-specific meningococcal disease before and during the first year after PsA-TT implementation. We assessed the risk of meningitis disease and death between years.
During the 14 year period before PsA-TT introduction, Burkina Faso had 148 603 cases of suspected meningitis with 17 965 deaths, and 174 district-level epidemics. After vaccine introduction, there was a 71% decline in risk of meningitis (hazard ratio 0·29, 95% CI 0·28-0·30, p<0·0001) and a 64% decline in risk of fatal meningitis (0·36, 0·33-0·40, p<0·0001). We identified a statistically significant decline in risk of probable meningococcal meningitis across the age group targeted for vaccination (62%, cumulative incidence ratio [CIR] 0·38, 95% CI 0·31-0·45, p<0·0001), and among children aged less than 1 year (54%, 0·46, 0·24-0·86, p=0·02) and people aged 30 years and older (55%, 0·45, 0·22-0·91, p=0·003) who were ineligible for vaccination. No cases of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis occurred among vaccinated individuals, and epidemics were eliminated. The incidence of laboratory-confirmed serogroup A N meningitidis dropped significantly to 0·01 per 100 000 individuals per year, representing a 99·8% reduction in the risk of meningococcal A meningitis (CIR 0·002, 95% CI 0·0004-0·02, p<0·0001).
Early evidence suggests the conjugate vaccine has substantially reduced the rate of meningitis in people in the target age group, and in the general population because of high coverage and herd immunity. These data suggest that fully implementing the PsA-TT vaccine could end epidemic meningitis of serogroup A in sub-Saharan Africa.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 12(10):757-64. · 19.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MenAfriVac™ is a new meningococcal A conjugate vaccine developed to prevent meningitis outbreaks in Africa. It was first introduced during the last quarter of 2010 in three West African countries. We report on the monitoring of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Burkina Faso where more than 11 million people aged 1-29 years were vaccinated. Vaccine pharmacovigilance relied on stimulated passive AEFI surveillance countrywide and active surveillance for 12 clinical conditions in one sentinel district (Ziniaré) with 97,715 people eligible for vaccination. All AEFI occurring during the 10 days of mass campaign or the 42 subsequent days were to be notified. Serious AEFI were submitted to a national expert committee (NEC) for causality assessment. A total of 11,466,950 people were vaccinated with 1471 vaccinees reported to have experienced at least one AEFI (12.83 cases per 100,000). 1444 AEFI were minor; the most common of which were fever, headache, gastro-intestinal disorders and local reactions (2-7 cases per 100,000). Of 27 serious AEFI reported, four cases were classified by the NEC as related to vaccine (1 case per 3 million vaccinated) including one case each of exanthematous pustulosis, angioedema, bronchospasm and severe vomiting. Active surveillance identified 71 cases of the 12 conditions of interest. Convulsions, urticaria and bronchospasm were more frequently reported. Attack rates for those conditions were similar to the baseline rates recorded in the same population, over the same time period, a year earlier. With the exception of convulsions in the days following vaccination the distribution of time intervals between vaccination and the occurrence of symptoms did not reveal any temporal clustering. The monitoring of AEFI of MenAfriVac™ in Burkina Faso did not suggest special concern regarding the vaccine safety. However, reported possible hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine components would require further review to rule out any anaphylactic reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determine the pattern of drug resistance among HIV infected drug exposed patients failing therapy in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
The protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) of 87 samples from 75 treatment exposed HIV infected patients failing therapy were PCR amplified, sequenced, subtyped and analyzed for the presence of drug resistance mutations.
The most common drugs used were 3TC, AZT (or d4T) and EFV. The dominant subtypes were CRF06_cpx (48%) and CRF02_AG (40%). The prevalence of resistance mutations among patients failing therapy was: PR inhibitors (PI), 40%; non-nucleoside RT-inhibitors (NNRTI), 76% and nucleoside RT-inhibitors (NRTI), 85%. Dominant mutations included M46I (37%), 154V (26%), V82A/T/F (30%) in PR; K103N (44%), G190A/S (16%) and T215F/Y (48%) (NRTIs) in RT. Some resistance mutations, notably D67N/G, K70R and L210W (thymidine analogue mutations-TAMs); K101E, V179E in RT, 154V, V82A/T/F and L90M in PR were significantly higher among CRF06_cpx than CRF02_AG strains (P < 0.05). Although not significant, other TAMs (M41L, T215F/Y, K219Q/E) also occurred more frequently among CRF06_cpx strains as well.
There is a high prevalence of drug resistance mutations among ARV exposed patients in Burkina Faso with an unexpected subtype-specific difference. Validation of this result will require larger sample sizes and in vitro drug susceptibility studies with CRF06_cpx strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and characterized group A rotavirus in stool by immunochromatographic test and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then 150 specimens of stools were collected from patient children between December 2006 and April 2007 and analyzed. The antigenic detection of rotaviruses carry out by immunochromatographic has revealed the presence of group A rotavirus antigen in 21 (14%), adenovirus were also found in 8 (5.33%) and a co-infection rota-adenovirus in 2 (1.33%) of the 150 stool samples tested. Infants were most frequently affected, 15 (71, 43%) of the 21 children rotavirus-positive, were infants ≤ 1 year of age. Based on migration patterns of RNA segments of 21 rotavirus isolates, two distinct groups of electropherotypes of group A rotaviruses were identified: 7 (36.84%) isolates were Long (L) and 12 (63.15%) were Short (S) electrophoretypes but any co-infection by both was identified. This first study in the Burkina-Faso has shown the main genomic patterns of rotavirus. There is a need for further detailed studies on the molecular characterization of rotavirus which would have important implications in vaccine evaluation programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2001 a significant proportion of cases of meningococcal meningitis toward the end of a serogroup A epidemic in Niger and Burkina Faso was found to be caused by serogroup W135 meningococci. The World Health Organization put in place in several African countries an extended surveillance scheme in preparation for a possible epidemic situation. In January 2002, the first large epidemic of meningococcal disease caused by serogroup W135 started in Burkina Faso, resulting in more than 12,000 cases and 1400 deaths. We report here the results of the laboratory-based surveillance and the characteristics of the epidemic clone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 56 strains of Salmonella were isolated from the cerebro-spinal fluids (CSF) from meningitis suspected patients at the Yalgado-Ouédraogo University hospital center in Burkina Faso, from January 2000 to December 2004. 75% of the patients were less than 3 years old; 71.4% of the CSF were purulent, with an average of 523 leucocytes/mm3 and 78% of neutrophile polynuclears. The strains identified belonged mostly to Salmonella O: 4.5 group (51.8%). In vitro, 92.7% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and this resistance was partially restored with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; however no strain was resistant to ceftriaxone. For the overall 56 patients, 20 different antibiotherapy regimes were used and they were successful in only 27% cases while 71% of patients died and 2% escaped from the hospital. Neurologic sequels were found in a patient treated with both ceftriaxone and chloramphenicol. These results showed that the illness occurred mainly in infants and was associated with high mortality rate. Most of the Salmonella strains were multi-drug resistant. In spite of strains multi-antibiotics resistance, adequate definition of therapeutic lines and early treatment including ceftriaxone could lead to higher cure rates and may improve the outcome.
Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/2007; 100(1):53-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An international conference was held in Niamey, Niger, in November 2005. It aimed at reviewing the current situation in the meningitis belt. This region stretches from Senegal to Ethiopia and is characterized by high levels of seasonal endemicity with large epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occurring cyclically, generally caused by N. meningiditis serogroup A. WHO currently recommends a reactive strategy based on rapid detection of epidemics, intervention with antibiotics to treat cases and mass vaccination with a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine to halt the outbreak. Epidemiological patterns of the disease in Africa have been changing with the occurrence of outbreaks outside the meningitis belt and with the emergence of serogroup W135, which first caused an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000 and then a large-scale meningitis outbreak in Burkina Faso in 2002. Consequently enhanced laboratory surveillance and confirmation of the strain responsible for the outbreak are required. New rapid dipstick tests have been developed through a collaboration between Institut Pasteur and CERMES. They are designed for bedside diagnosis and detect meningococcal antigens present in CSF using immunochromatography. The treatment of meningococcal meningitis during epidemics is based on short-course, long-acting oily chloramphenicol. An alternative is the use of ceftriaxone, which is equally effective and can be used in pregnant women and infants. A low-cost, monovalent serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for large-scale use in Africa is under development. In spite of the emergence of W135 strains in the meningitis belt, N. meningiditis A continues to be the principal strain isolated during the epidemic seasons and elimination of outbreaks of N. meningiditis serogroup A can still be considered as the primary objective of a preventive vaccination strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Case study – In Burkina Faso, Salmonella infections are endemic with a typical peak during the warm rainy season (May–October). We report 11 cases of Salmonella meningitis observed at the National Hospital of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Clinical diagnosis was based on examination of patients and CSF after lumbar puncture. CSF cytology and bacteriology were performed and bacterial isolates were identified by their morphology, their culture and biochemical features. An antibiogram by gel diffusion (Kirby Bauer) was made for each isolate. Ten of the 11 patients died within 24 h after admission. This study underlines the need for urgent and adequate management of bacterial meningitis considering that other micro-organisms than Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae can be involved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the course of an epidemic of meningitis in Burkina Faso in 2001, 27 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients in 7 districts were forwarded to Norway for isolation and characterization of the causative agents. Neisseria meningitidis was isolated from 13 (48%) samples. The isolates were analysed using serological and genetic methods. Of the 13 strains, 4 were serogroup A, serotype 21:P1.9, sequence type (ST)-5 and belonged to clonal subgroup III, while the remaining 9 strains were serogroup W135, serotype 2a:P1.5,2, ST-11 and belonged to the electrophoretic type-37 complex. PCR analyses revealed meningococcal DNA in 13/14 culture-negative samples. Sequence analysis of the PCR products demonstrated that at least 3 different meningococcal strains were responsible for these 13 cases. Our results show that the W135 strain associated with the 2000 hajj (Muslim pilgrimage) outbreak was a significant cause of disease in Burkina Faso in 2001. Further studies are warranted to determine whether W135 is about to replace serogroup A in sub-Saharan Africa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reported are the results of a cross-sectional survey in Burkina Faso to identify reliable, practical strategies for the serological diagnosis of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections, using less-expensive commercial test kits in various combinations, as an alternative to the conventional Western blot (WB) test, which costs US$ 60. Serum samples, collected from blood donors, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pregnant women, were tested between December 1995 and January 1997. Twelve commercial test kits were available: five Mixt enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), three Mixt rapid tests, and four additional tests including monospecific HIV-1 and HIV-2 ELISA. The reference strategy utilized a combination of one ELISA or one rapid test with WB, and was conducted following WHO criteria. A total of 768 serum samples were tested; 35 were indeterminate and excluded from the analysis. Seroprevalence of HIV in the remaining 733 sera was found to be 37.5% (95% confidence interval: 34.0-41.1). All the ELISA tests showed 100% sensitivity, but their specificities ranged from 81.4% to 100%. GLA (Genelavia Mixt) had the highest positive delta value, while ICE HIV-1.0.2 (ICE) produced the most distinct negative results. Among the rapid tests, COM (CombAIDS-RS) achieved 100% sensitivity and SPO (HIV Spot) 100% specificity. Various combinations of commercial tests, according to recommended WHO strategies I, II, III, gave excellent results when ICE was included in the sequence. The best combination of tests for strategy II, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.10, compared with US$ 55.60 for the corresponding conventional strategy. For strategy III, the best combination, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE, ZYG (Enzygnost Anti HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus) and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.90 (19.2 times lower than the corresponding strategy requiring WB). No rapid test combination showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. Our results indicate that the serodiagnosis of HIV in Burkina Faso is possible by using reliable, less-expensive strategies which do not require Western blot testing. Moreover, there is a choice of strategies for laboratories working with or without an ELISA chain.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 02/1999; 77(9):731-9. · 5.11 Impact Factor