[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent development of flexible/stretchable integrated electronic sensors and stimulation systems has the potential to establish an important paradigm for implantable electronic devices, where shapes and mechanical properties are matched to those of biological tissues and organs. Demonstrations of tissue and immune biocompatibility are fundamental requirements for application of such kinds of electronics for long-term use in the body. Here, a comprehensive set of experiments studies biocompatibility on four representative flexible/stretchable device platforms, selected on the basis of their versatility and relevance in clinical usage. The devices include flexible silicon field effect transistors (FETs) on polyimide and stretchable silicon FETs, InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and AlInGaPAs LEDs, each on low modulus silicone substrates. Direct cytotoxicity measured by exposure of a surrogate fibroblast line and leachable toxicity by minimum essential medium extraction testing reveal that all of these devices are non-cytotoxic. In vivo immunologic and tissue biocompatibility testing in mice indicate no local inflammation or systemic immunologic responses after four weeks of subcutaneous implantation. The results show that these new classes of flexible implantable devices are suitable for introduction into clinical studies as long-term implantable electronics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work presents digital cameras that resemble, both structurally and functionally, apposition-type compound eyes of daylight insect. Hemispherical imagers with 180 artificial ommatidia yield 160 degree field of view and nearly infinite depth-of-field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful integration of advanced semiconductor devices with biological systems will accelerate basic scientific discoveries and their translation into clinical technologies. In neuroscience generally, and in optogenetics in particular, the ability to insert light sources, detectors, sensors, and other components into precise locations of the deep brain yields versatile and important capabilities. Here, we introduce an injectable class of cellular-scale optoelectronics that offers such features, with examples of unmatched operational modes in optogenetics, including completely wireless and programmed complex behavioral control over freely moving animals. The ability of these ultrathin, mechanically compliant, biocompatible devices to afford minimally invasive operation in the soft tissues of the mammalian brain foreshadow applications in other organ systems, with potential for broad utility in biomedical science and engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strategies are presented to achieve ultrathin light-emitting diodes using the technique of epitaxial liftoff in ways that protect the materials from the etchants used for release and tether the devices to the underlying wafer for subsequent transfer printing onto substrates of interest. The results lead to an advanced interconnection scheme and vertical device layout that facilitate electrical contacts and system integration on flexible substrates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strategies are presented to achieve bendable and stretchable systems of microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes with wireless powering schemes, suitable for use in implantable devices. The results include materials strategies, together with studies of the mechanical, electronic, thermal and radio frequency behaviors both in vitro and in in-vivo animal experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are important light sources for communication and sensing applications. The materials used for fabricating VCSEL emitting at 650-1000 nm are typically limited to GaAs-based compounds. Increasingly III-V semiconductor photonic devices have been bonded to Si  and other substrates . To extend the applications of VCSELs, we demonstrate a bonding approach  for VCSEL transfer onto foreign substrates. Our transfer process incorporates fully fabricated VCSEL arrays which do not require additional processing after bonding and optical characteristics are maintained after bonding. In this work, we demonstrate transfer of VCSEL arrays onto silicon and flexible plastic substrates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work involving microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes on flexible and stretchable substrates is reviewed. Techniques for materials growth, device fabrication, and assembly are summarized, along with highlights of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties that can be achieved. Some examples of emerging applications in biomedical devices illustrate the value of these methods in areas where conventional approaches are unsuitable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report classes of electronic systems that achieve thicknesses, effective elastic moduli, bending stiffnesses, and areal mass densities matched to the epidermis. Unlike traditional wafer-based technologies, laminating such devices onto the skin leads to conformal contact and adequate adhesion based on van der Waals interactions alone, in a manner that is mechanically invisible to the user. We describe systems incorporating electrophysiological, temperature, and strain sensors, as well as transistors, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, radio frequency inductors, capacitors, oscillators, and rectifying diodes. Solar cells and wireless coils provide options for power supply. We used this type of technology to measure electrical activity produced by the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles and show that the resulting data contain sufficient information for an unusual type of computer game controller.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the fabrication and design principles for using transparent graphene interconnects in stretchable arrays of microscale inorganic light emitting diodes (LEDs) on rubber substrates. We demonstrate several appealing properties of graphene for this purpose, including its ability to spontaneously conform to significant surface topography, in a manner that yields effective contacts even to deep, recessed device regions. Mechanics modeling reveals the fundamental aspects of this process, as well as the use of the same layers of graphene for interconnects designed to accommodate strains of 100% or more, in a completely reversible fashion. These attributes are compatible with conventional thin film processing and can yield high-performance devices in transparent layouts. Graphene interconnects possess attractive features for both existing and emerging applications of LEDs in information display, biomedical systems, and other environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing advanced surgical tools for minimally invasive procedures represents an activity of central importance to improving human health. A key challenge is in establishing biocompatible interfaces between the classes of semiconductor device and sensor technologies that might be most useful in this context and the soft, curvilinear surfaces of the body. This paper describes a solution based on materials that integrate directly with the thin elastic membranes of otherwise conventional balloon catheters, to provide diverse, multimodal functionality suitable for clinical use. As examples, we present sensors for measuring temperature, flow, tactile, optical and electrophysiological data, together with radiofrequency electrodes for controlled, local ablation of tissue. Use of such 'instrumented' balloon catheters in live animal models illustrates their operation, as well as their specific utility in cardiac ablation therapy. The same concepts can be applied to other substrates of interest, such as surgical gloves.
Nature Material 03/2011; 10(4):316-23. · 35.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current technology development in light emitting diodes has enabled high efficiency operation, low energy consumption and lifetimes, thereby creating new possibilities in conventional display and lighting industry. Recent work is also creating more unusual uses in biomedicine and in sensing applications, where conformal contact over curvilinear surfaces is required. Here, ultrathin device geometries and optimized mechanical designs, including neutral mechanical plane layouts and serpentine interconnects, provide indicators and lighting modules with arbitrary shapes capable of integrated on nearly any type of substrates. Biomedical devices such as light emitting suture threads, and glove-mounted optical proximity sensors demonstrate the versatility of this strategy and create great new opportunities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically optimized layouts on unusual substrates. Light-emitting sutures, implantable sheets and illuminated plasmonic crystals that are compatible with complete immersion in biofluids illustrate the suitability of these technologies for use in biomedicine. Waterproof optical-proximity-sensor tapes capable of conformal integration on curved surfaces of gloves and thin, refractive-index monitors wrapped on tubing for intravenous delivery systems demonstrate possibilities in robotics and clinical medicine. These and related systems may create important, unconventional opportunities for optoelectronic devices.
Nature Material 11/2010; 9(11):929-37. · 35.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various methods have been developed to fabricate highly stretchable electronics. Recent studies show that over 100% two dimensional stretchability can be achieved by mesh structure of brittle functioning devices interconnected with serpentine bridges. Kim et al show that pressing down an inflated elastomeric thin film during transfer printing introduces two dimensional prestrain, and therefore further improves the system stretchability. This paper gives a theoretical study of this process, through both analytical and numerical approaches. Simple analytical solutions are obtained for meridional and circumferential strains in the thin film, as well as the maximum strain in device islands, which all agree reasonably well with finite element analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed methods for creating microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and for assembling and interconnecting them into unusual display and lighting systems. The LEDs use specialized epitaxial semiconductor layers that allow delineation and release of large collections of ultrathin devices. Diverse shapes are possible, with dimensions from micrometers to millimeters, in either flat or "wavy" configurations. Printing-based assembly methods can deposit these devices on substrates of glass, plastic, or rubber, in arbitrary spatial layouts and over areas that can be much larger than those of the growth wafer. The thin geometries of these LEDs enable them to be interconnected by conventional planar processing techniques. Displays, lighting elements, and related systems formed in this manner can offer interesting mechanical and optical properties.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electronic systems that offer elastic mechanical responses to high-strain deformations are of growing interest because of their ability to enable new biomedical devices and other applications whose requirements are impossible to satisfy with conventional wafer-based technologies or even with those that offer simple bendability. This article introduces materials and mechanical design strategies for classes of electronic circuits that offer extremely high stretchability, enabling them to accommodate even demanding configurations such as corkscrew twists with tight pitch (e.g., 90 degrees in approximately 1 cm) and linear stretching to "rubber-band" levels of strain (e.g., up to approximately 140%). The use of single crystalline silicon nanomaterials for the semiconductor provides performance in stretchable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits approaching that of conventional devices with comparable feature sizes formed on silicon wafers. Comprehensive theoretical studies of the mechanics reveal the way in which the structural designs enable these extreme mechanical properties without fracturing the intrinsically brittle active materials or even inducing significant changes in their electrical properties. The results, as demonstrated through electrical measurements of arrays of transistors, CMOS inverters, ring oscillators, and differential amplifiers, suggest a valuable route to high-performance stretchable electronics.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2008; 105(48):18675-80. · 9.81 Impact Factor