[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
We present here a sub-study of our prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) transplantation with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00418418), evaluating our secondary end-point concerning hospital stay as well as perioperative morbidity. Injecting a substantial amount of biologically active cells into a diseased myocardium inspires concerns for safety, a concern overlooked in previous trials.
We evaluated the immediate perioperative effects of intramyocardial injection of autologous BMMCs combined with CABG. In a randomized double-blinded manner, 39 patients received injections either of BMMCs (n = 20) or of vehicle medium (n = 19). The patients' haemodynamics, arterial blood gases, systemic vein oxygen level, blood glucose, acid-base balance, lactate, haemoglobin, body temperature and diuresis, as well as medications needed, were recorded in the operating theatre and in the intensive care unit (ICU) every 4 h throughout the first postoperative 24 h.
No dissimilarities in these parameters were detectable. In the ICU, the median need for adrenaline was 0.0086 µg/kg/min (first quartile 0.0000, third quartile 0.0204) for controls and 0.0090 µg/kg/min (0.0000, 0.0353) for BMMC patients (P = 0.757); for noradrenaline, 0.0586 µg/kg/min (0.0180, 0.0888) for controls and 0.0279 µg/kg/min (0.0145, 0.0780) for BMMC patients (P = 0.405). The median stay at the ICU was 2 days for both groups (1, 2 for controls; 1, 3 for BMMCs; P = 0.967). Within the first postoperative day, one control patient had an elevated level of creatine kinase-myocardial band fraction mass (CK-MBm) up to >100 µg/l; no BMMC patient showed elevated CK-MBm levels (P = 0.474).
Both intramyocardial BMMC and placebo injections appear safe during surgery and immediate ICU stay after treatment of heart failure.
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 08/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu265 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Colloids and crystalloid are used during cardiac surgery for priming of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit. Colloids may decrease postoperative fluid balance because of their high oncotic pressure and low risk of fluid extravasation. On the other hand, colloids have been shown to impair blood coagulation.
Materials and methods:
In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study, 50 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting or a valve procedure were planned to be randomized to receive either balanced 6% HES130/0.42 or Ringer-acetate solution for CPB priming. Randomization was stopped prematurely after 35 randomized patients (19 in the HES and 16 in the Ringer groups) because of the published report where HES130/0.42 was associated with impaired renal function. Effects on haemostasis and fluid balance were investigated.
The rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) parameters and chest tube drainage on the first postoperative morning (1POM) were comparable between the groups (p>0.05). However, patients in the HES group needed more blood and blood product transfusions. The total volume administered into the CPB circuit was lower in the HES than in the Ringer (RIN) group, 2905±1049 mL versus 3973±1207 mL (p=0.011), but there was no statistically significant difference in total fluid balance on the 1POM (5086±1660 mL in the HES group versus 5850±1514 mL in the RIN group, respectively).
After complex cardiac surgery, the use of balanced 6% HES130/0.42 solution for CPB circuit priming did not impair haemostasis measured by ROTEM®, but it increased the need for transfusions. Fluid balance after CPB was less positive in the HES group, but, on the 1POM, it was comparable between the groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Optimal selection of patients and choice of treatment methods in cardiac surgery calls for methods to predict outcome both in terms of mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our target was to evaluate whether indicators predicting mortality can also be used to predict follow-up HRQoL.
Preoperative and intensive care-related data of 571 elective cardiac surgery patients treated in the Helsinki University Central Hospital were used to predict, in a stepwise (forward) binary logistic regression, the probability of being dead at six months after operation. Furthermore, Tobit regression models were employed to predict the follow-up HRQoL of patients using also treatment complications and patients' experiences of pain and restlessness during treatment as explanatory variables.
The EuroSCORE, renal, respiratory and neurological complications as well as urgent sternotomy were all statistically significant predictors of mortality. By contrast, follow-up HRQoL was predicted by the baseline HRQoL, diabetes and male gender as well as experience of pain and restlessness during the ICU stay.
Mortality and HRQoL after cardiac surgery appear to be explained by different factors. Pain and restlessness during ICU treatment affect follow-up HRQoL in a negative manner and as potentially modifiable factors, need attention during treatment.
Intensive & critical care nursing: the official journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses 05/2013; 29(6). DOI:10.1016/j.iccn.2013.04.003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal use of advanced ECMO techniques allows the use of protective ventilation strategies in the treatment of severe acute lung failure (ALF) patients. Experienced centers have reported good outcomes by using these methods during the 2009 H1N1 pandemia. However, pulmonary recovery often does not happen. Traditionally, the option of lung transplantation has mainly been offered only to ambulatory patients suffering from chronic end stage lung disease. With recent treatment advances that also prevent extrapulmonary organ damage, it has become possible to consider highly selected refractory ALF patients for transplantation. Based on our own previous good experiences with using ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation, an H1N1 patient, with worsening clinical condition, was approved for transplantation. The patient had no aerated lung parenchyma after 24 days on ECMO. Recovery after lung transplantation was uncomplicated.
Annals of Saudi medicine 03/2013; 33(2):S78-S80. · 0.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
We aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Finnish ICUs.
This prospective, observational, multi-centre study comprised adult emergency admissions and elective patients whose stay exceeded 24 h during a 5-month period in 17 Finnish ICUs. We defined AKI first by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria supplemented with a baseline creatinine and second with the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We screened the patients' AKI status and risk factors for up to 5 days.
We included 2,901 patients. The incidence (95 % confidence interval) of AKI was 39.3 % (37.5-41.1 %). The incidence was 17.2 % (15.8-18.6 %) for stage 1, 8.0 % (7.0-9.0 %) for stage 2 and 14.1 % (12.8-15.4 %) for stage 3 AKI. Of the 2,901 patients 296 [10.2 % (9.1-11.3 %)] received renal replacement therapy. We received an identical classification with the new KDIGO criteria. The population-based incidence (95 % CI) of ICU-treated AKI was 746 (717-774) per million population per year (reference population: 3,671,143, i.e. 85 % of the Finnish adult population). In logistic regression, pre-ICU hypovolaemia, diuretics, colloids and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for AKI. Hospital mortality (95 % CI) for AKI patients was 25.6 % (23.0-28.2 %) and the 90-day mortality for AKI patients was 33.7 % (30.9-36.5 %). All AKIN stages were independently associated with 90-day mortality.
The incidence of AKI in the critically ill in Finland was comparable to previous large multi-centre ICU studies. Hospital mortality (26 %) in AKI patients appeared comparable to or lower than in other studies.
Intensive Care Medicine 01/2013; 39(3). DOI:10.1007/s00134-012-2796-5 · 7.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral infarction and hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIE) may impair the recovery of a patient from otherwise successful cardiac operation. Severe neurologic complications occur in approximately 2 to 5% of cardiac surgery patients. The major risk factors can be recognized. The most common cause of cerebral infarction is a calcific embolus released during manipulation of atheromatotic aorta. HIE results from cerebral circulatory deficiency and subsequent hypoxia in the cerebral tissue. The development of complications can be prevented by restricting aortic manipulation and by optimizing the perfusion technique and other treatment during the operation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of pregabalin on oxycodone consumption, postoperative confusion, and pain in elderly cardiac surgery patients.
Seventy patients, aged ≥75 yr, were randomized to receive either 150 mg of pregabalin before operation and 75 mg of pregabalin twice daily for 5 postoperative days or placebo. Pain intensity was measured with the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). When pain intensity was ≥2 on the VRS, patients received oxycodone either i.v. (0.05 mg kg(-1)) or orally (0.10-0.15 mg kg(-1)). Postoperative confusion was measured with the Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). Postoperative pain was assessed by a telephone interview 1 and 3 months after operation.
Cumulative consumption of parenteral oxycodone during 16 h after extubation was reduced by 44% and total oxycodone consumption from extubation to the end of the fifth postoperative day was reduced by 48% in the pregabalin group. Time to extubation was 138 min shorter and CAM-ICU scores were significantly lower on the first postoperative day in the placebo group, although there was no significant difference with respect to the Mini-Mental State Examination or the Richmond Agitation Sedation Score. The incidence of pain during movement was significantly lower in the pregabalin group at 3 months postoperative.
The administration of pregabalin reduced postoperative opioid consumption after cardiac surgery reduced the incidence of confusion on the first postoperative day and increased time to extubation when compared with placebo. Three months after operation, patients in the pregabalin group experienced less pain during movement.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 06/2011; 106(6):873-81. DOI:10.1093/bja/aer083 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate the in vitro effects of a totally balanced fluid concept on whole blood coagulation. Venous blood from 12 healthy volunteers was diluted by 20% and 40% with a combination of an equal amount of colloid (balanced or unbalanced 6% HES 130/0.4, or 4% gelatin) and crystalloid (balanced or unbalanced Ringer's acetate). Blood samples were analyzed with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®). The initiation of coagulation was delayed in all dilutions except for the 20 vol% gelatin-dilution. In the extrinsic activation test, maximum clot firmness was decreased and clot formation time prolonged after 40 vol% hemodilution with a balanced Ringer's/unbalanced HES combination, more than in the corresponding gelatin hemodilution. In the fibrin-based test, after both 20- and 40 vol% hemodilution with unbalanced Ringer's/gelatin solution, maximum clot firmness was significantly stronger than in the Ringer's/HES-combinations. The combination of balanced colloid and crystalloid has similar coagulation effects in vitro as their respective combination of unbalanced solutions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In severe, acute or chronic heart failure, the heart and the circulation can be mechanically supported, if the patient's life is in danger despite maximal drug therapy, and other cardiologic or heart surgery treatment options or a suitable heart transplant are not available. Long-term prognosis of those treated with mechanical support has improved in the 2000's. This is based on technically advanced equipment, improved treatment practices, properly targeted patient selection and more accurate timing of therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal oxygenator is used in severe respiratory and/or circulatory failure that is intractable to other therapies. In ECMO therapy, poorly oxygenated blood is pumped through an extracorporeal oxygenator and directed back to the patient's circulation. The therapy can be utilized to maintain the homeostasis of the organ system during circulatory or respiratory failure resulting from a disease. Due to risk of complications, ECMO should be used with caution on carefully selected patients. For a severely ill patient ECMO can be life-saving when started early.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Historic treatment strategies in our institute had resulted in 10% Aspergillus mortality within the first posttransplant year. Despite nebulized amphotericin B (nAmB) prophylaxis, a significant incidence of Aspergillus infection, usually with poor outcome, is still reported. The aim of this single-center retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients receiving either standard nAmB or additional systemic caspofungin prophylaxis for selected high-risk patients. We also tried to define independent risk factors for either fungal infection or death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, preoperative levels of activated protein C (APC) were associated with unfavorable postoperative hemodynamics after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Protein C is activated by thrombin. Protein S, the cofactor of activated protein C, has activated protein C-independent anticoagulant activity and cytoprotective effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test whether preoperative, baseline levels of either thrombin or protein S were associated with hemodynamic performance or markers of myocardial damage after CABG. One hundred patients undergoing elective on-pump CABG were prospectively studied. Prothrombin fragment F1+2 (a marker of thrombin generation) and free protein S were measured preoperatively and cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were measured serially thereafter at fixed time points. Cardiac biomarkers CK-MBm and TnT were measured postoperatively. There was an inverse correlation between preoperative F1+2 and free protein S levels (r= -0.30, p=0.003). High preoperative F1+2 and low preoperative protein S levels were associated with a less favorable hemodynamic profile postoperatively. Patients with F1+2 in the highest decile (≥0.85 nmol/l) and patients with preoperative protein S in the lowest decile (≤63%) had lower CI values, and higher pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance index values postoperatively than comparison patients. Preoperative F1+2 or protein S did not correlate with postoperative cardiac biomarker levels. Baseline activation of coagulation and the balance between pro-coagulant and anti-coagulant factors preoperatively might have implications for postoperative hemodynamic recovery after CABG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to find out the effect of various doses of hydroxyethyl starch (HES), gelatine or Ringer's acetate on cardiac and stroke volume index after cardiac surgery.
Three consecutive boluses (each 7 mL·kg(-1)) of either 6% HES 130/0.4, 4% gelatine, or Ringer's acetate solutions were administered to 45 patients postoperatively. The rate of infusions was adjusted according to haemodynamic measurements. Thereafter, infusion of the study solution (7 mL·kg(-1)) was continued for the following 12 hours. The total dose of study solution was 28 mL·kg(-1).
Mean (SD) cardiac and stroke volume indices were greater in the HES group [2.8 L·min(-1)·m(-2) (0.7), 34.1 (6.7) ml·m( -2)] than in the gelatine group [2.2 L·min(-1)·m( -2) (0.6), 25.8 (7.2) ml·m(-2)] after completion of 7 mL·kg(-1) of study solution. At this stage, the effect of gelatine did not differ from Ringer's acetate. After completion of 14 mL·kg(-1) and 21 mL·kg(-1) of colloids, similar cardiac and stroke volume indices were observed and the haemodynamic response was better in both colloid groups than in the Ringer's acetate group. No differences between groups were detected on the first postoperative morning. In the early postoperative phase after cardiac surgery, the effect of a single dose of HES solution on the haemodynamics was superior to the effect of gelatine or Ringer's acetate. However, after repeated administration of the study solutions, the haemodynamics in the two colloid groups appeared to be similar, but superior to the Ringer's acetate group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colloids are often used after cardiac surgery as intravascular volume replacement therapy. Cardiac surgical patients have an increased risk of bleeding. Both hydroxyethylstarch (HES) and gelatin solutions impair haemostasis. We examined the impact and dose effect on coagulation of HES 130/0.4, gelatin, or Ringer's acetate solutions after cardiac surgery.
Forty-five patients received three boluses (each 7 ml kg(-1)) of either 6% HES 130/0.4, 4% gelatin, or Ringer's acetate solution after elective cardiac surgery. The infusion of study solution was continued in the dose 7 ml kg(-1) over the following 12 h. The total dose of study solution was 28 ml kg(-1). Hypovolaemia was treated with Ringer's acetate. Modified thromboelastometry was performed to detect coagulation disorders.
Clot formation time was prolonged and clot strength decreased after infusion of 7, 14, and 21 ml kg(-1) of either colloid compared with the Ringer's acetate group. After infusion of 14 and 21 ml kg(-1) of Ringer's acetate, clot strength was slightly, but significantly, increased. On the first postoperative morning, clot strength was still decreased in the gelatin group in comparison with the Ringer's acetate group. Neither HES nor gelatin induced fibrinolysis. Chest tube drainage was comparable between all groups.
Even a small dose of HES 130/0.4 or gelatin impaired clot strength after cardiac surgery in a dose-dependent fashion, but neither colloid increased blood loss.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/2010; 104(6):691-7. DOI:10.1093/bja/aeq084 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High daily intensive care unit (ICU) costs are associated with the use of mechanical ventilation (MV) to treat acute respiratory failure (ARF), and assessment of quality of life (QOL) after critical illness and cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted.
Nationwide, prospective multicentre observational study in 25 Finnish ICUs. During an eight-week study period 958 consecutive adult ICU patients were treated with ventilatory support over 6 hours. Of those 958, 619 (64.6%) survived one year, of whom 288 (46.5%) answered the quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D). We calculated EQ-5D index and predicted lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained using the age- and sex-matched life expectancy for survivors after one year. For expired patients the exact lifetime was used. We divided all hospital costs for all ARF patients by the number of hospital survivors, and by all predicted lifetime QALYs. We also adjusted for those who died before one year and for those with missing QOL to be able to estimate the total QALYs.
One-year mortality was 35% (95% CI 32 to 38%). For the 288 respondents median [IQR] EQ-5D index after one year was lower than that of the age- and sex-matched general population 0.70 [0.45 to 0.89] vs. 0.84 [0.81 to 0.88]. For these 288, the mean (SD) predicted lifetime QALYs was 15.4 (13.3). After adjustment for missing QOL the mean predicted lifetime (SD) QALYs was 11.3 (13.0) for all the 958 ARF patients. The mean estimated costs were 20.739 euro per hospital survivor, and mean predicted lifetime cost-utility for all ARF patients was 1391 euro per QALY.
Despite lower health-related QOL compared to reference values, our result suggests that cost per hospital survivor and lifetime cost-utility remain reasonable regardless of age, disease severity, and type or duration of ventilation support in patients with ARF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elderly cardiac surgery patients are more prone to develop postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). The common clinical glomerular filtration marker, plasma creatinine, is considered to be inadequate to discover AKI in its early stage. The aim of this study was to determine if serum cystatin C can detect mild renal failure earlier than plasma creatinine.
From 110 cardiac surgery patients aged 70 or greater years, serum cystatin C and plasma creatinine samples were collected preoperatively and on postoperative days 1 to 5. Their urine output, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were calculated and AKI was determined by the risk-injury-failure-loss-end-stage kidney disease criteria (RIFLE). The correlation of plasma creatinine and serum cystatin C to AKI was calculated.
After cardiac surgery, 62 of the 110 patients (56.4%) developed AKI according to the RIFLE classification. In this group, both serum cystatin C and plasma creatinine peaked on postoperative day 3. Cystatin C and creatinine correlated equally with AKI at different time points calculated with receiver operating characteristic curves. On postoperative day 1 the area under the curve (AUC) for creatinine was 0.66 (0.55 to 0.76) and for cystatin C 0.71 (0.61 to 0.81); Delta AUC 0.05 (0.01 to 0.12), p = 0.11. On postoperative day 2 the AUC for creatinine was 0.74 (0.64 to 0.83) and for cystatin was C 0.77 (0.68 to 0.86); Delta AUC -0.03 (-0.09 to 0.03), p = 0.32.
Elderly cardiac surgery patients have a high incidence of AKI, as defined by the RIFLE criteria. After cardiac surgery serum cystatin C and plasma creatinine detected AKI similarly.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2010; 89(3):689-94. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.11.018 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: early graft failure following coronary bypass surgery results in elevated morbidity and mortality. This study focused on the impact of angiographic graft evaluation.
of 5251 coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients, 36 with postoperative persistent ischaemia underwent early angiography (23) or emergency resternotomy (13) 2000-2007 (Angiography era). Of the 23 patients, who underwent angiography, five were subsequently reoperated. Of 8807 CABG patients, 76 underwent postoperative emergency resternotomy 1988-1999 (Pre-angiography era) and served as controls.
the angiography era patients were older (64.0 years vs. 58.2 years, P = 0.002) and the proportion of female patients (22% vs. 43%, P = 0.029) was smaller. The rate of emergency reoperations decreased (0.86% vs 0.34%, P < 0.001) during the Angiography era and graft repairs (P = 0.013) or additional grafts (P = 0.006) were less frequent, although occluded anastomoses were observed more often (P = 0.043). In 5 Angiography era patients graft complications were corrected with percutaneous coronary intervention. ICU stay (5.72 + 0.98 days vs. 5.53 + 0.68 days) and hospital stay (12.2 + 1.54 days vs. 13.1 + 1.63 days) did not differ between the groups, but the rate of myocardial infarction (63.8% vs. 92.1%, P < 0.001) and in-hospital death (22.2% vs. 46.1%, P = 0.015) decreased.
after the introduction of early postoperative angiographic evaluation of CABG patients the rate of emergency reoperations and related morbidity and mortality decreased.
Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society 01/2010; 99(3):173-9. · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today, the elderly population continues to increase worldwide, and rates of aortic stenosis (AS) climb with age. Since aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the current treatment for elderly patients with symptomatic AS, the number of patients undergoing AVR is expected to grow.
Among patients operated on at Helsinki University Hospital between 1992 and 1997, a cohort (n = 145) was followed after AVR with a bioprosthesis. The patients were allocated to three groups, based on their age at the time of surgery: > or = 80 years (n = 30), < 80 to > or = 70 years (n = 94), and < or = 70 years (n = 21). All data relating to preoperative risk factors were collected. A control examination, which included echocardiography, was performed at least five years after surgery, and the follow up was continued until July 2006. The number of deaths and causes of death, as well as valve-related complications, were noted.
The 30-day mortality rates were 3.3% in the oldest (> or = 80-year) group, 6.4% in the middle (< 80 to > or = 70-year) group, and zero in the youngest (< or = 70-year) group. The mean age at death was 88 and 81 years in the oldest and middle groups, respectively. In the oldest and youngest groups, there were no reoperations, but five valve-related reoperations were performed during follow up in the middle group. At the control visit, the left ventricular ejection fraction was > 60% in all groups. In the oldest and middle groups the aortic valve gradient was lower than the preoperative level, while the left ventricular diameters and wall dimensions were smaller (p < 0.05). Valve calcification was observed in one patient in the youngest group.
Elderly patients who had undergone AVR with a bioprosthesis had a good outcome after more than 10 years of follow up, with an improved cardiac function being preserved for at least seven years after surgery. Despite a severely impaired preoperative aortic valve function, octogenarians especially had a good life expectancy, possibly due to their low comorbidity rates. Hence, AVR with a bioprosthesis proved to be an excellent treatment in this patient group.
The Journal of heart valve disease 09/2009; 18(5):514-23. · 0.75 Impact Factor