[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes persistent lifelong infections and replicates slowly. To withstand robust immunity, HCMV utilizes numerous immune evasion strategies. The HCMV gene cassette encoding US2 to US11 encodes four homologous glycoproteins, US2, US3, US6, and US11, that inhibit the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) antigen presentation pathway, probably inhibiting recognition by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. US2 also inhibits the MHC-II antigen presentation pathway, causing degradation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-alpha and -DM-alpha and preventing recognition by CD4(+) T cells. We investigated the effects of seven of the US2 to US11 glycoproteins on the MHC-II pathway. Each of the glycoproteins was expressed by using replication-defective adenovirus vectors. In addition to US2, US3 inhibited recognition of antigen by CD4(+) T cells by a novel mechanism. US3 bound to class II alpha/beta complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), reducing their association with Ii. Class II molecules moved normally from the ER to the Golgi apparatus in US3-expressing cells but were not sorted efficiently to the class II loading compartment. As a consequence, formation of peptide-loaded class II complexes was reduced. We concluded that US3 and US2 can collaborate to inhibit class II-mediated presentation of endogenous HCMV antigens to CD4(+) T cells, allowing virus-infected cells to resist recognition by CD4(+) T cells.
Journal of Virology 12/2002; 76(21):10929-41. DOI:10.1128/JVI.76.21.10929-10941.2002 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses a large number of membrane proteins with unknown functions. One class of these membrane proteins apparently acts to allow HCMV to escape detection by the immune system. The best characterized of these are the glycoproteins encoded within the US2 to US11 region of the HCMV genome that mediate resistance to CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. US2, US3, US6, and US11 block various aspects of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigen presentation pathways, functioning in cytoplasmic membranes to cause retention, degradation, or mislocalization of MHC proteins. Distantly homologous genes in this region, US7, US8, US9, and US10, are not well characterized. Here, we report expression of the glycoproteins encoded by US7 to US10 by using replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors. US7, US9, and US10 remained sensitive to endoglycosidase H and were exclusively or largely present in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as determined by confocal microscopy. US8 reached the Golgi apparatus and trans-Golgi network and was more quickly degraded. Previous studies suggested that US9 could localize to cell junctions and mediate cell-to-cell spread in ARPE-19 retinal epithelial cells. We found no evidence of US9 at cell junctions of HEC-1A epithelial cells. HCMV recombinants lacking US9 produced smaller plaques on ARPE-19 cell monolayers but also exhibited defects in virus replication compared with wild-type HCMV in these cells. Other HCMV recombinants constructed in a similar fashion that were able to express US9 also produced small plaques and some of these exhibited defects in production of infectious progeny in ARPE-19 cells. Thus, there was no correlation between defects in cell-to-cell spread (plaque size) and loss of expression of US9, and it is possible that US9(-) mutants produce smaller plaques because they produce fewer progeny. Together, our results do not support the hypothesis that US9 plays a direct role in HCMV cell-to-cell spread.
Journal of Virology 07/2002; 76(11):5748-58. DOI:10.1128/JVI.76.11.5748-5758.2002 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes life-threatening disease in patients who are immunosuppressed for bone marrow or tissue transplantation or who have AIDS (ref. 1). HCMV establishes lifelong latent infections and, after periodic reactivation from latency, uses a panel of immune evasion proteins to survive and replicate in the face of robust, fully primed host immunity. Monocyte/macrophages are important host cells for HCMV, serving as a latent reservoir and as a means of dissemination throughout the body. Macrophages and other HCMV-permissive cells, such as endothelial and glial cells, can express MHC class II proteins and present antigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we show that the HCMV protein US2 causes degradation of two essential proteins in the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway: HLA-DR-alpha and DM-alpha. This was unexpected, as US2 has been shown to cause degradation of MHC class I (refs. 5,6), which has only limited homology with class II proteins. Expression of US2 in cells reduced or abolished their ability to present antigen to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Thus, US2 may allow HCMV-infected macrophages to remain relatively 'invisible' to CD4+ T cells, a property that would be important after virus reactivation.
Nature Medicine 10/1999; 5(9):1039-43. DOI:10.1038/12478 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) express an immediate-early protein, ICP47, that effectively inhibits the human transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP), blocking major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. Previous work indicated that the mouse TAP is relatively resistant to inhibition by the HSV-1 and HSV-2 ICP47 proteins (ICP47-1 and ICP47-2) and that mouse cells infected with HSV-1 are lysed by anti-HSV CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Therefore, mice are apparently not suitable animals in which to study the in vivo effects of ICP47. In order to find an animal model, we introduced ICP47-1 and ICP47-2 into cells from various animal species-mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, pigs, cows, monkeys, and humans-and measured TAP activity in the cells. Both proteins were unable to inhibit TAP in mouse, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit cells. In contrast, ICP47-1 and ICP47-2 inhibited TAP in pig, dog, cow, and monkey cells, and the TAP in pig and dog fibroblasts was often more sensitive to both proteins than TAP in human fibroblasts. These results were extended by measuring CD8+-T-cell recognition (CTL lysis) of cells from various species. Cells were infected with recombinant HSV-1 constructed to express murine MHC class I proteins so that the cells would be recognized and lysed by well-characterized murine anti-HSV CTL unless antigen presentation was blocked by ICP47. Anti-HSV CD8+ CTL effectively lysed pig and primate cells infected with a recombinant HSV-1 ICP47- mutant but were unable to lyse pig or primate cells infected with a recombinant HSV-1 that expressed ICP47. Therefore, pigs, dogs, and monkeys may be useful animal models in which to test the effects of ICP47 on HSV pathogenesis or the use of ICP47 as a selective immunosuppressive agent.
Journal of Virology 06/1998; 72(6):5076-84. · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus serotype 1 (HSV-1) expresses an immediate-early protein, ICP47, that effectively blocks the major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation pathway. HSV-1 ICP47 (ICP47-1) binds with high affinity to the human transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) and blocks the binding of antigenic peptides. HSV type 2 (HSV-2) ICP47 (ICP47-2) has only 42% amino acid sequence identity with ICP47-1. Here, we compared the levels of inhibition of human and murine TAP, expressed in insect cell microsomes, by ICP47-1 and ICP47-2. Both proteins inhibited human TAP at similar concentrations, and the K(D) for ICP47-2 binding to human TAP was 4.8 x 10(-8) M, virtually identical to that measured for ICP47-1 (5.2 x 10(-8) M). There was some inhibition of murine TAP by both ICP47-2 and ICP47-1, but this inhibition was incomplete and only at ICP47 concentrations 50 to 100 times that required to inhibit human TAP. Lack of inhibition of murine TAP by ICP47-1 and ICP47-2 could be explained by an inability of both proteins to bind to murine TAP.
Journal of Virology 03/1998; 72(3):2560-3. · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP47 protein inhibits the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway by inhibiting the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) which translocates peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. At present, ICP47 is the only inhibitor of TAP. Here, we show that ICP47 produced in bacteria can block human, but not mouse, TAP, and that heat denaturation of ICP47 has no effect on its ability to block TAP. ICP47 inhibited peptide binding to TAP without affecting ATP binding, consistent with previous observations that the peptide binding and ATP binding sites of TAP are distinct. ICP47 bound to TAP with a higher affinity (KD approximately 5 x 10(-8) M) than did peptides, and ICP47 did not dissociate from TAP. ICP47 was not transported by TAP and remained sensitive to proteases added from the cytosolic surface of the membrane. Peptides acted as competitive inhibitors of ICP47 binding to TAP, and this inhibition required a 100- to 1000-fold molar excess of peptide. These results demonstrate that ICP47 binds to a site which includes the peptide binding domain of TAP and remains bound to this site in a stable fashion.
The EMBO Journal 08/1996; 15(13):3256-66. · 10.43 Impact Factor