P Griebel

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

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Publications (14)44.43 Total impact

  • S. Napper · H.L. Wilson · P. Griebel · A. Potter · V. Gerdts ·

  • P. Aich · S. Jalal · K. Herzog · P. Griebel · A. Potter · L. Babiuk ·

    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 01/2005; 4:S141. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs in particular sequence contexts (CpG ODN) are recognized as a danger signal by the innate immune system of vertebrates. For this reason, CpG ODNs have a potential application as both an adjuvant and nonspecific immune modulator and are currently being evaluated in a number of human and veterinary clinical trials. Given their potent immunostimulatory activity, CpG ODNs could possibly induce adverse reactions. As all adjuvants and immune modulators must be nontoxic to meet safety requirements, it was essential to address the safety aspects of CpG ODNs. The current review summarizes experiments carried out to date to establish the safety of CpG ODNs in animals.
    Antisense and Nucleic Acid Drug Development 02/2003; 13(3):157-67. DOI:10.1089/108729003768247628
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial DNA contains a much higher frequency of CpG dinucleotides than are present in mammalian DNA. Furthermore, bacterial CpG dinucleotides are often not methylated. It is thought that these two features in combination with specific flanking bases constitute a CpG motif that is recognized as a "danger" signal by the innate immune system of mammals and therefore an immune response is induced when these motifs are encountered. These immunostimulatory activities of bacterial CpG DNA can also be achieved with synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). Recognition of CpG motifs by the innate immune system requires engagement of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9), which induces cell signaling and subsequently triggers a pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a predominantly Th1-type immune response. CpG ODN-induced innate and adaptive immune responses can result in protection in various mouse models of disease. Based on these observations, clinical trials are currently underway in humans to evaluate CpG ODN therapies for cancer, allergy and infectious disease. However, potential applications for immunostimulatory CpG ODN in species of veterinary importance are just being explored. In this review, we will highlight what is presently known about the immunostimulatory effects of CpG ODN in domestic animals.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 02/2003; 91(2):89-103. DOI:10.1016/S0165-2427(02)00246-5 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Availability of effective oral vaccine delivery vehicles should contribute to the success of oral immunization in domestic animals. To achieve this goal, we evaluated alginate microspheres for their capacity to induce mucosal immune responses following oral and enteric immunizations. Mice were immunized with either live porcine rotavirus (PRV) or its recombinant VP6 protein, encapsulated in alginate microspheres or unencapsulated. VP6-specific IgG (but no IgA) antibodies were detected in the sera of mice after a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization with either VP6 in Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (VP6-IFA), VP6 in alginate microspheres (VP6-MS) or with live PRV in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (PRV-IFA). In contrast, VP6-specific IgA (but no IgG) was detected in culture supernatants of mesenteric lymph nodes from mice immunized i.p. with either VP6-IFA or with PRV-IFA. Oral immunization with VP6-MS induced the highest level of VP6-specific fecal IgA antibody, similar to responses induced by oral immunization with live PRV. Furthermore, the VP6-specific fecal IgA could be boosted by a secondary i.p. immunization with VP6. Further experiments were performed in a sheep intestinal 'loop' model to evaluate uptake of microspheres by Peyer's patches. Microspheres containing colloidal carbon were specifically bound and transported by follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches. Additionally, mucosal immune responses were detected following enteric immunization with porcine serum albumin (PSA) encapsulated in alginate microspheres. Our results confirm that alginate microspheres are an effective oral delivery vehicle for protein antigens and intestinal IgA antibody responses are induced by antigens encapsulated in alginate microspheres without any additional mucosal adjuvant. These investigations confirm that alginate microspheres have the potential as an effective delivery vehicle for oral immunization of ruminants.
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2003; 85(1-3):191-202. DOI:10.1016/S0168-3659(02)00280-8 · 7.71 Impact Factor
  • G Mutwiri · T Bowersock · A Kidane · M Sanchez · V Gerdts · LA Babiuk · P Griebel ·
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    ABSTRACT: Oral immunization is the most effective way of inducing immune responses in the intestinal tract. Biodegradable microspheres have been used extensively for the delivery of antigens to the Peyer's patches (PPs) within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). We evaluated various formulations of alginate microspheres for their capacity to induce mucosal immune responses in vivo. Multiple intestinal "loops" each containing a single PP, were surgically prepared in lambs. We have previously showed that PP in individual intestinal loops function as independent sites for the induction of immune responses. This animal model provides a system for directly comparing different antigen formulations within the same animal. Individual intestinal loops were injected with a model antigen, porcine serum albumin (PSA) encapsulated in three different formulations of alginate micropsheres. Three weeks after immunization, PSA-specific immune responses were assayed with antibody secreting cell (ASC) ELISPOT, lymphocyte proliferative responses (LPRs), IFN-gamma production and antibody secreted into intestinal loops. PSA encapsulated in alginate micropsheres or in saline induced humoral immune responses as indicated by the presence of numerous ASC. However, PSA-specific T-cell responses (LPR and IFN-gamma production) were not induced.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 10/2002; 87(3-4):269-76. DOI:10.1016/S0165-2427(02)00052-1 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) subunit vaccine formulated with Emulsigen (Em) and a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG ODN) was determined in cattle. A truncated, secreted version of BHV-1 glycoprotein D (tgD) formulated with Em and CpG ODN at concentrations of 25, 2.5, or 0.25 mg/dose produced a more balanced immune response, higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, and greater protection after BHV-1 challenge compared to tgD adjuvanted with either Em or CpG ODN alone. In contrast, tgD formulated with Em and either 25 mg of a non-CpG ODN or another immunostimulatory compound, dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide, induced similar immunity and protection compared to tgD formulated with Em alone, a finding which confirms the immunostimulatory effect of ODN to be CpG motif mediated. Our results demonstrate the ability of CpG ODN to induce a strong and balanced immune response in a target species.
    Journal of Virology 10/2002; 76(18):9002-10. DOI:10.1128/JVI.76.18.9002-9010.2002 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is closely associated with the development of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma in cattle. BLV infection has also been studied extensively in an in vivo ovine model that provides a unique system for studying B-cell leukemogenesis. There is no evidence that BLV can directly infect ovine B cells in vitro, and there are no direct data regarding the oncogenic potential of the viral Tax transactivator in B cells. Therefore, we developed ovine B-cell culture systems to study the interaction between BLV and its natural target, the B cell. In this study, we used murine CD154 (CD40 ligand) and gamma-chain-common cytokines to support the growth of B cells isolated from ovine lymphoid tissues. Integrated provirus, extrachromosomal forms, and viral transcripts were detected in BLV-exposed populations of immature, rapidly dividing surface immunoglobulin M-positive B cells from sheep ileal Peyer's patches and also in activated mature B cells isolated from blood. Conclusive evidence of direct B-cell infection by BLV was obtained through the use of cloned B cells derived from sheep jejunal Peyer's patches. Finally, inoculation of sheep with BLV-infected cultures proved that infectious virus was shed from in vitro-infected B cells. Collectively, these data confirm that a variety of ovine B-cell populations can support productive infection by BLV. The development of ovine B-cell cultures permissive for BLV infection provides a controlled system for investigating B-cell leukemogenic processes and the pathogenesis of BLV infection.
    Journal of Virology 03/2001; 75(3):1095-103. DOI:10.1128/JVI.75.3.1095-1103.2001 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • G Mutwiri · C Bateman · M E Baca-Estrada · M Snider · P Griebel ·
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses of newborn lambs following enteric immunization, targeting jejunal Peyer's patches with a human adenovirus vector that expressed the glycoprotein D (gD) of bovine herpesvirus-1. Both humoral and cell-mediated gD-specific mucosal immune responses were detected in newborn lambs (1-4 days old) after a single immunization and these responses were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those detected in 5-6-week-old lambs. Passively transferred gD-specific maternal antibody did not significantly alter either mucosal or systemic gD-specific immune responses. Furthermore, enteric immunization of newborn lambs primed mucosal immune responses in the lungs. These observations confirmed that gut-associated lymphoid tissue of a newborn ruminant is immune competent and that enteric immunization may be an effective approach for the induction of both mucosal and systemic immune responses in the neonate.
    Vaccine 01/2001; 19(9-10):1284-93. DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00230-9 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The induction of mucosal immune responses by a liposome-formulated Y. pestis vaccine (formaldehyde-killed whole cell vaccine; KWC) was evaluated. We demonstrated that intranasal immunization of mice with Y. pestis KWC vaccine, formulated with liposomes, significantly enhanced mucosal immune responses in the lung when compared to the responses induced with KWC vaccine alone. These immune responses were characterized by increased titres of specific IgA and IgG in mucosal secretions (lung and nasal washes), and an increased frequency of specific antibody-secreting cells in the lungs. In addition, antigen-specific proliferative responses and IFN-gamma-secreting cells were also significantly enhanced in the spleens of mice immunized with the KWC vaccine formulated in liposomes. Animals that were immunized intranasally with the KWC vaccine showed significant protection against an intranasal challenge with Y. pestis. These results highlight the importance of mucosal administration of vaccine antigens to stimulate immunity in the respiratory tract and demonstrate that liposome formulations can improve the effectiveness of conventional vaccines.
    Vaccine 05/2000; 18(21):2203-11. DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00019-0 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    G Mutwiri · T Watts · L Lew · T Beskorwayne · Z Papp · M E Baca-Estrada · P Griebel ·
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces and it is now evident that mucosal immunity can provide effective disease protection. However, the induction of mucosal immunity will require efficient targeting of mucosal vaccines to appropriate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. An animal model, based upon the surgical preparation of sterile intestinal 'loops' (blind-ended segments of intestine), was developed to evaluate mucosal and systemic immune responses to enteric vaccines in ruminants. The effectiveness of end-to-end intestinal anastomoses was evaluated and fetal surgery did not disrupt normal intestinal function in lambs up to 6-7 months after birth. The immunological competence of Peyer's patches (PP) within the intestinal 'loops' was evaluated with a human adenovirus 5 vector expressing the gD gene of bovine herpesvirus-1. This vaccine vector induced both mucosal and systemic immune responses when injected into intestinal 'loops' of 5-6-week-old lambs. Antibodies to the gD protein were detected in the lumen of intestinal 'loops' and serum and PP lymphocytes proliferated in response to gD protein. The immune competence of ileal and jejunal PP was compared and these analyses confirmed that jejunal PP are an efficient site for the induction of mucosal immune responses. This was confirmed by the presence of gD-specific antibody-secreting cells in jejunal but not ileal PP. Systemic but not mucosal immune responses were detected when the vaccine vector was delivered to the ileal PP. In conclusion, this model provided an effective means to evaluate the immunogenicity of potential oral vaccines and to assess the immunological competence of ileal and jejunal Peyer's patches.
    Immunology 08/1999; 97(3):455-61. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2567.1999.00791.x · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    P Griebel · T Beskorwayne · A Van den Broeke · G Ferrari ·
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    ABSTRACT: CD40 signaling induces B cell proliferative and differentiation responses that can be modulated by many different cytokines. Cytokines in the IL-2 receptor gamma chain (gammac)-common family are known to play an integral role in B cell development. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that CD40 signaling induced B cell responsiveness to multiple gammac-common cytokines and that individual gammac-common cytokines induced distinct B cell responses. B cells were isolated from lymphoid follicles of sheep Peyer's patches (PP) and co-cultured with murine CD40 ligand (mCD40L). CD40 signaling induced PP B cell responsiveness to recombinant human IL-2, IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15. mCD40L-induced B cell growth was enhanced by combining IL-4 with a second gammac-common cytokine and sustained B cell growth required co-stimulation with IL-4 plus IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15. gammac-common cytokine responsiveness remained dependent upon CD40 signaling, and removal of mCD40L resulted in B cell differentiation and cell death. Similar proliferative responses to mCD40L and gammac-common cytokines were observed for both immature (ileal) and mature (jejunal) PP B cells. Finally, the capacity of CD40-activated B cells to respond to multiple gammac-common cytokines was analyzed with individual PP B cell clones. All B cell clones displayed similar proliferative responses to IL-2 but quantitatively different responses to IL-4, IL-7 and IL-15. The biological significance of B cell responsiveness to multiple gammac-common cytokines is discussed.
    International Immunology 08/1999; 11(7):1139-47. DOI:10.1093/intimm/11.7.1139 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the potential of replication-competent (E3-deleted) bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3) as a delivery system for vaccine antigens in calves, we evaluated the ability of recombinant BAV-3 expressing different forms of of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gD to protect against BHV-1 infection in calves that had pre-existing BAV-3 specific antibodies. Three- to four-month-old calves, vaccinated intranasally with recombinant BAV-3 expressing full-length gD (BAV3.E3gD) or a truncated version of gD (gDt) (BAV3.E3gDt), or with E3-deleted BAV-3 (BAV3.E3d; control), were challenged with BHV-1 strain 108. Vaccination with BAV3.E3gD or BAV3.E3gDt induced gD-specific antibody responses in serum and nasal secretions, and primed calves for gD-specific lymphoproliferative responses. In addition, all calves developed complement-independent neutralizing antibodies against BHV-1. Protection against viral challenge was observed in calves vaccinated with recombinant BAV3.E3gD or BAV3.E3gDt as shown by a significant reduction in body temperature and clinical disease, and a partial reduction in the amount and duration of virus excretion in nasal secretions. These results indicate that replication-competent BAV-3-based vectors can induce protective immune responses in calves (the natural host) that have pre-existing BAV-3-specific antibodies.
    Journal of General Virology 06/1999; 80 ( Pt 5)(5):1263-9. DOI:10.1099/0022-1317-80-5-1263 · 3.18 Impact Factor
  • S Suradhat · D Yoo · L A Babiuk · P Griebel · M E Baca-Estrada ·
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    ABSTRACT: Immunization with naked plasmid DNA effectively induces both humoral and cell-mediated immunity to vaccine antigens and can confer protection against numerous infectious diseases. To explore the potential use of DNA immunization to induce rotavirus-specific immune responses, we used plasmid DNA encoding the VP4 gene of bovine rotavirus (BRV). Intrasmuscular injection of the plasmid encoding the VP4 gene into C57BI/6 mice induced cell-mediated immunity as measured by cytokine production. Although DNA immunization did not induce a detectable BRV-specific antibody response, DNA-immunized animals were primed for antibody production and a cellular immune response. Following viral inoculation, the immunized animals displayed an enhanced number of BRV-specific antibody-secreting cells and cytotoxic activity. The immune response induced by DNA immunization alone or followed by viral inoculation was biased toward IFN-gamma production (Th1-like). CD4+ lymphocytes were the major source of IFN-gamma production in the spleen following DNA immunization. In contrast, a balanced cytokine production was observed in the spleens of animals receiving whole virus. These experiments showed that DNA immunization with a gene encoding the VP4 protein of BRV stimulated a Th1-like immune response in mice, and this bias in the immune response persisted following exposures to whole virus.
    Viral Immunology 02/1997; 10(3):117-27. · 1.45 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

520 Citations
44.43 Total Impact Points


  • 1999-2003
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • • Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization
      • • College of Pharmacy and Nutrition
      • • Department of Veterinary Microbiology
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada