[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved local cancer treatment that can be curative of early disease and palliative in advanced disease. PDT of murine tumors results in regimen-dependent induction of an acute local inflammatory reaction, characterized in part by rapid neutrophil infiltration into the treated tumor bed. In this study, we show that a PDT regimen that induced a high level of neutrophilic infiltrate generated tumor-specific primary and memory CD8(+) T-cell responses. In contrast, immune cells isolated from mice treated with a PDT regimen that induced little or no neutrophilic infiltrate exhibited minimal antitumor immunity. Mice defective in neutrophil homing to peripheral tissues (CXCR2(-/-) mice) or mice depleted of neutrophils were unable to mount strong antitumor CD8(+) T-cell responses following PDT. Neutrophils seemed to be directly affecting T-cell proliferation and/or survival rather than dendritic cell maturation or T-cell migration. These novel findings indicate that by augmenting T-cell proliferation and/or survival, tumor-infiltrating neutrophils play an essential role in establishment of antitumor immunity following PDT. Furthermore, our results may suggest a mechanism by which neutrophils might affect antitumor immunity following other inflammation-inducing cancer therapies. Our findings lay the foundation for the rational design of PDT regimens that lead to optimal enhancement of antitumor immunity in a clinical setting. Immune-enhancing PDT regimens may then be combined with treatments that result in optimal ablation of primary tumors, thus inhibiting growth of primary tumor and controlling disseminated disease.
Cancer Research 12/2007; 67(21):10501-10. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteasome activator 200 kDa (PA200) forms nuclear foci after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation and enhances proteasome activity in vitro. Within cells, it is unclear whether PA200 responds to radiation alone or in association with proteasomes. In the present study, we identified three forms of cellular PA200 (termed PA200i, ii and iii) at the mRNA and protein levels. Neither PA200ii nor PA200iii appears to associate with proteasomes. All detectable PA200i is associated with proteasomes, which indicates that PA200i and proteasomes function together within the cell. Consistent with this idea, we find that exposure of cells to radiation leads to an equivalent accumulation of both PA200i and core proteasomes on chromatin. This increase in PA200 and proteasomes on chromatin is not specific to the stage of cell cycle arrest since it occurs in cells that arrest in G(2)/M and cells that arrest in G(1)/S after exposure to radiation. These data provide evidence that PA200 and proteasomes function together within cells and respond to a specific radiation-induced damage independent of the stage of cell cycle arrest.
Radiation Research 07/2007; 167(6):663-74. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rate of light delivery (fluence rate) plays a critical role in photodynamic therapy (PDT) through its control of tumor oxygenation. This study tests the hypothesis that fluence rate also influences the inflammatory responses associated with PDT. PDT regimens of two different fluences (48 and 128 J/cm(2)) were designed for the Colo 26 murine tumor that either conserved or depleted tissue oxygen during PDT using two fluence rates (14 and 112 mW/cm(2)). Tumor oxygenation, extent and regional distribution of tumor damage, and vascular damage were correlated with induction of inflammation as measured by interleukin 6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 and 2 expression, presence of inflammatory cells, and treatment outcome. Oxygen-conserving low fluence rate PDT of 14 mW/cm(2) at a fluence of 128 J/cm(2) yielded approximately 70-80% tumor cures, whereas the same fluence at the oxygen-depleting fluence rate of 112 mW/cm(2) yielded approximately 10-15% tumor cures. Low fluence rate induced higher levels of apoptosis than high fluence rate PDT as indicated by caspase-3 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling analysis. The latter revealed PDT-protected tumor regions distant from vessels in the high fluence rate conditions, confirming regional tumor hypoxia shown by 2-(2-nitroimidazol-1[H]-yl)-N-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl) acetamide staining. High fluence at a low fluence rate led to ablation of CD31-stained endothelium, whereas the same fluence at a high fluence rate maintained vessel endothelium. The highest levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and neutrophilic infiltrates were measured with 48 J/cm(2) delivered at 14 mW/cm(2) ( approximately 10-20% cures). The optimally curative PDT regimen (128 J/cm(2) at 14 mW/cm(2)) produced minimal inflammation. Depletion of neutrophils did not significantly change the high cure rates of that regimen but abolished curability in the maximally inflammatory regimen. The data show that a strong inflammatory response can contribute substantially to local tumor control when the PDT regimen is suboptimal. Local inflammation is not a critical factor for tumor control under optimal PDT treatment conditions.
Cancer Research 04/2004; 64(6):2120-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves a complex interplay between direct cytotoxicity to the tumor cells and secondary damage as a result of the effects of PDT on the vasculature and stimulation of the host inflammatory response. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that the combination of direct and indirect effects of PDT culminate in an activation of host anti-tumor immune responses. We have begun to examine the direct effects of PDT on tumor immunogenicity and have made the novel discovery that PDT treatment of tumor cells in vitro enhances tumor cell immunogenicity. We have further demonstrated that the increase in tumor cell immunogenicity by PDT can be correlated with the ability of PDT-generated tumor cell lysates to stimulate dendritic cell maturation and activation. The mechanisms by which PDT is able to enhance tumor cell immunogenicity and stimulate dendritic cell maturation and activation is unclear, however our finding suggest that alterations in tumor immunogenicity correlate with enhanced release of dendritic cell stimulating factors such as heat shock proteins.