[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-seven Haemophilus influenzae strains from nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and 44 H. influenzae strains from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated. Of the 37 H. influenzae isolates from NP, the serotypes of 30 isolates were nontypeable, 4 were type b, 2 were type c, and 1 was type a, whereas all of the 44 isolates from CSF were type b. The MICs of 16 antibiotics for the H. influenzae isolates from NP and CSF were similar, and no beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant strain was found. Molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that the 37 H. influenzae strains from NP had 22 PFGE patterns, with none predominating, and the 44 H. influenzae strains from CSF had 9 PFGE patterns, with patterns alpha (22 isolates) and beta (12 isolates) predominating. Our results indicate that two predominant types of H. influenzae type b strains have the potential to spread among children with meningitis in Hanoi, Vietnam.