[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis has been attributed to diverse stress-related mechanisms. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional kinase that is active in neuronal development and linked to neurodegenerative disorders. We hypothesized that ketamine would enhance GSK-3β-induced neuroapopotosis, and that lithium, an inhibitor of GSK-3β, would attenuate this response in vivo.Methods
Protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, protein kinase B (AKT), GSK-3β, and cyclin D1 were measured in post-natal day 7 rat pups after 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 h exposure to ketamine. A cohort of rat pups was randomized to a 6 h exposure to ketamine with and without lithium. Neuroapoptosis was measured by cleaved caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling staining by immunohistochemistry. Protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and -9 and the total and phosphorylated forms of AKT, GSK-3β, and cyclin D1 (cell cycle protein) were also measured.ResultsKetamine produced a duration-dependent increase in cleaved caspase-3 and cyclin D1, which corresponded to decreases in phosphorylated AKT and GSK-3β. Co-administration of lithium with ketamine attenuated this response.Conclusions
Ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis is associated with a temporal decrease in GSK-3β phosphorylation, and simultaneous administration of lithium mitigated this response. These findings suggest that GSK-3β is activated during this ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 03/2013; 110(suppl 1). DOI:10.1093/bja/aet057 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In gnathostomes there is remarkable consistency in the organization of the proenkephalin gene. This opioid precursor encodes seven opioid (YGGF) sequences: five pentapeptide sequences, a met-enkephalin-7 sequence and a met-enkephalin-8 sequence. Yet, within vertebrate lineages there can be distinct sets of pentapeptide opioids (YGGFM or YGGFL). In the Sarcopterygii, the sixth opioid position in lungfishes and anuran amphibian proenkephalin genes encodes a met-enkephalin (YGGFM) sequence. However, in mammalian proenkephalin there is a leu-enkephalin (YGGFL) sequence at this position. This study was done to test the hypothesis that the presence of the leu-enkephalin sequence in mammals is a feature common to amniote vertebrates, but not present in anamniote vertebrates. To resolve this issue, proenkephalin cDNAs were cloned from the urodele amphibians, Amphiuma means and Necturus maculosus, and two amniote vertebrates, the turtle, Chrysemys scripta, and the brown snake, Storeria dekayi. As predicted, a met-enkephalin sequence is present at the sixth opioid position in urodele amphibians; whereas, a leu-enkephalin sequence is present at this opioid site in the reptile proenkephalin sequences. These data are consistent with the conclusion that the transition from a met-enkephalin sequence to a leu-enkephalin sequence at the sixth opioid position in tetrapod proenkephalins occurred in the ancestral proto-reptiles. Phylogenetic analyses, using the Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-Joining algorithms, of the amphibian proenkephalin sequences supported the position that anuran and urodele amphibians are a monophyletic assemblage. The same analysis of reptile-related proenkephalin sequences, including the deduced amino acid sequence of a partially characterized alligator proenkephalin cDNA, could not conclusively resolve the phylogeny of the major reptilian orders.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 08/2007; 153(1-3):189-97. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.02.023 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many cartilaginous fishes, most ray-finned fishes, lungfishes, and amphibians, the post-translational processing of POMC includes the monobasic cleavage of beta-endorphin to yield an opioid that is eight to ten amino acids in length. The amino acid motif within the beta-endorphin sequence required for a monobasic cleavage event is -E-R-(S/G)-Q-. Mammals and birds lack this motif and as a result beta-endorphin(1-8) is a not an end-product in either group. Since both mammals and birds were derived from ancestors with reptilian origins, an analysis of beta-endorphin sequences from extant groups of reptiles should provide insights into the manner in which beta-endorphin post-translational processing mechanisms have evolved in amniotes. To this end a POMC cDNA was cloned from the pituitary of the turtle, Chrysemys scripta. The beta-endorphin sequence in this species was compared to other reptile beta-endorphin sequences (i.e., Chinese soft shell turtle and gecko) and to known bird and mammal sequences. This analysis indicated that either the loss of the arginine residue at the cleavage site (the two turtle species, chick, and human) or a substitution at the glutamine position in the consensus sequence (gecko and ostrich) would account for the loss of the monobasic cleavage reaction in that species. Since amphibians are capable of performing the beta-endorphin monobasic reaction, it would appear that the amino acid substitutions that eliminated this post-translational process event in reptilian-related tetrapods must have occurred in the ancestral amniotes.
General and Comparative Endocrinology 08/2007; 153(1-3):148-54. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.01.002 · 2.47 Impact Factor