[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body fat mass (FM) adds to the variance in resting energy expenditure (REE). However, the nature and extent of this relationship remains unclear. Using a database of 1306 women and a linear regression model, we systematically analysed the contribution of FM to the total variance in REE at different grades of adiposity (ranges of body %FM). After adjusting for age, the relative contribution of FM on REE variance increased from low (<or= 10 %FM) to normal (>10- <or= 30 %FM) and moderately elevated (>30- <or= 40 %FM) grades of adiposity but decreased sharply at high (>40- # 50 %FM) and very high (>50 %FM) grades of adiposity according to the ratio between regression coefficients. These data suggest that the specific metabolic rate of fat tissue is reduced at high adiposity. This should be considered when REE is normalized for FM in obesity.
The British journal of nutrition 03/2009; 101(4):474-7. DOI:10.1017/S0007114508020357 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reference standards for resting energy expenditure (REE) are widely used. Current standards are based on measurements made in the first part of the past century in various races and locations.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the application of the World Health Organization (WHO) equations from 1985 in healthy subjects living in a modern, affluent society in Germany and to generate a new formula for predicting REE.
The study was a cross-sectional and retrospective analysis of data on REE and body composition obtained from 2528 subjects aged 5-91 y in 7 different centers between 1985 and 2002.
Mean REE varied between 5.63 and 8.07 MJ/d in males and between 5.35 and 6.46 MJ/d in females. WHO prediction equations systematically overestimated REE at low REE values but underestimated REE at high REE values. There were significant and independent effects of sex, age, body mass or fat-free mass, and fat mass on REE. Multivariate regression analysis explained up to 75% of the variance in REE. Two prediction formulas including weight, sex, and age or fat-free mass, fat mass, sex, and age, respectively, were generated in a subpopulation and cross-validated in another subpopulation. Significant deviations were still observed for underweight and normal-weight subjects. REE prediction formulas for specific body mass index groups reduced the deviations. The normative data for REE from the Institute of Medicine underestimated our data by 0.3 MJ/d.
REE prediction by WHO formulas systematically over- and underestimates REE. REE prediction from a weight group-specific formula is recommended in underweight subjects.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2004; 80(5):1379-90. · 6.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate energy requirements in healthy elderly subjects. Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by the doubly labeled water technique and indirect calorimetry in 36 healthy free living elderly men and women. Over a 15 day period additional measurements were made of dietary intake, physical activity and body composition. TEE did not differ between women and men (2941+/-439 vs 2965+/-543 kcal/d; p=ns), ranging from 2124 to 3968 kcal/d. Resting metabolic rate was significantly lower in women compared to men (1345+/-194 vs 1543+/-303 kcal/d; p=0.016). The TEE data were compared to the food diaries. Women and men underestimated their food intake significantly. TEE varies greatly within elderly subjects due to the variation in body weight and physical activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Das Ziel der Studie ist die Bestimmung des Energieverbrauchs bei 36 lteren, im eigenen Haushalt lebenden Personen. Der Gesamtenergieverbrauch (GEV) und der Grundumsatz (GU) werden mit Hilfe der Doppel-Isotopen-Methode und der indirekten Kalorimetrie gemessen. Whrend des 15-tgigen Beobachtungszeitraumes wird das Essverhalten mittels Ernhrungstagebuch, das Aktivittsverhalten und die Krperzusammensetzung bestimmt. Es besteht kein Unterschied im GEV zwischen Mnnern und Frauen (2941439 vs. 2965543 kcal/d; p=ns). Der GU ist signifikant geringer bei Frauen im Vergleich zu Mnnern (1345194 vs. 1543303 kcal/d; p=0,016). Die Ergebnisse werden mit den Angaben aus den Ernhrungstagebchern verglichen. Frauen wie Mnner unterschtzen ihre tgliche Nahrungsaufnahme in den Ernhrungstagebchern signifikant. Die hohe Variabilitt des Gesamtenergieverbrauchs lterer Personen ist vom Krpergewicht und krperlichem Aktivittsverhalten abhngig.The purpose of this study was to investigate energy requirements in healthy elderly subjects. Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by the doubly labeled water technique and indirect calorimetry in 36 healthy free living elderly men and women. Over a 15 day period additional measurements were made of dietary intake, physical activity and body composition. TEE did not differ between women and men (2941439 vs 2965543 kcal/d; p=ns), ranging from 2124 to 3968 kcal/d. Resting metabolic rate was significantly lower in women compared to men (1345194 vs 1543303 kcal/d; p=0.016). The TEE data were compared to the food diaries. Women and men underestimated their food intake significantly. TEE varies greatly within elderly subjects due to the variation in body weight and physical activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is thought to have a genetic component with the estimates of heritability ranging from 0.25-0.40. As part of an ongoing study of obesity in the Old Order Amish, seven two- and three-generation families (157 individuals) were assessed for 21 traits related to obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and BMI-percentile (a standardized distribution of BMI adjusted for age and sex). Genotyping was performed using a panel of 384 short-tandem repeat markers. In this sample, the estimates of heritability ranged from 0.16-0.31 for BMI and from 0.40-0.52 for BMI-percentile. Model-independent linkage analysis identified candidate regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, and 11. Given that several markers on 7q were significant for both BMI and BMI-percentile (P < or = 0.001) and that the structural locus for leptin was located on 7q, this region was considered to be the primary candidate region. Subsequent typing of additional flanking markers on 7q corroborated the original findings. Tests of intrafamilial association for alleles at markers in this candidate region were significant at similar levels. Although there is some evidence for linkage and association in the region containing leptin, there appears to be stronger evidence for linkage (P < or = 0.001) and association (P < or = 0.00001) with BMI in a region 10-15 cM further downstream of leptin, flanked by markers D7S1804 and D7S3070 with peak values from D7S495-D7S1798. Evidence from linkage and association studies suggests that this region (D7S1804-D7S3070) may be responsible, at least in part, for variation in BMI and BMI-percentile in the Old Order Amish.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Seminars in Medical Genetics 08/2003; 121C(1):71-80. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.20005 · 3.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body image measures were assessed among the Old Order Amish, a Protestant religious community living separate from Western industrialized society.
One hundred six Old Order Amish men (n = 50) and women (n = 56), aged 14-67 years, were studied by two measures of body image: (1) body dissatisfaction as assessed by the difference between subjects' body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and the BMI that they chose as their ideal and (2) the relative accuracy of perception of body size assessed by comparing subjects' choice of body size on a Figure Rating Scale with the choice of a relative.
Young persons and persons of normal weight of both genders showed no body dissatisfaction or inaccuracy in their perception of their body size. Older persons of both genders, on the other hand, manifested body dissatisfaction (actual BMI greater than ideal BMI). Older women also overestimated their body size. Obese persons of both genders manifested body dissatisfaction (actual BMI greater than ideal BMI) and obese men overestimated their body size.
Young Amish people do not show the body image problems characteristic of young persons in Western industrial society. Their elders and obese persons may have some such problems. 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
International Journal of Eating Disorders 12/2000; 28(4):408-14. DOI:10.1002/1098-108X(200012)28:4<408::AID-EAT8>3.0.CO;2-U · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated metabolic and nutritional determinants in association with menstrual disorders in athletes. Athletes with normal menstrual function (AN; N = 21) and athletes with menstrual disorders (AD: N = 12) participated in this study.
The quality of the menstrual cycle was judged according to salivary progesterone concentrations. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition, energy intake and restrained eating scores were obtained.
When adjusted for body composition by ANCOVA, RMR was significantly (approximately 460 kJ, P < 0.02) lower in athletes with menstrual disorders than in athletes without menstrual disorders. The DIT and the daily energy intake of the groups did not differ. Athletes with menstrual disturbances scored significantly higher on the Restraint Eating Scale (TFEQ). Thyroid hormones (fT3 and fT4), analyzed by a competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay, were in the normal range and not different between groups.
The results provide evidence that restrained eating and low RMR are associated with menstrual cycle disturbances in athletes.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 09/1999; 31(9):1250-6. DOI:10.1097/00005768-199909000-00004 · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Describe the physical and psychological correlates of the Eating Inventory (EI) (also known as the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) factors in an obese sample, and determine the relationship between the three EI factors and weight loss.
Consecutive series of obese women enrolled between 1987 and 1996 in clinical trials of weight loss treatments.
223 obese women with a weight of 100.7 +/- 15.5 kg, an age of 41.4 +/- 8.8 y and a body mass index (BMI) of 37.2 +/- 5.6 kg/m2.
The EI and a variety of physical (weight, body composition and resting energy expenditure) and psychological (mood and binge eating) measures were assessed before and after 5-6 months of treatment.
Before treatment, higher restraint scores were associated with lower body weights (P = 0.02), while higher disinhibition scores were associated with greater binge eating severity (P<0.0001). Weight loss treatment was associated with significant increases in restraint and decreases in disinhibition and hunger (all Ps<0.0001). Greater increases in restraint during treatment were associated with larger weight losses (P<0.0001).
The three factors of the EI showed clinical utility in a sample of women receiving treatment for obesity.
International Journal of Obesity 08/1998; 22(8):778-85. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0800659 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterised by an imbalance of caloric intake and energy expenditure. Increased caloric uptake and reduced physical activity are important. No specific psychopathology exists in obesity. Obese people view their body weight and form significantly more negative than lean controls and often experience depression and anxiety. Quality of life is often impaired. Obesity causes many disadvantages in interpersonal and social aspects. 30% of the obese subjects report binge eating. Whether binge eating should be considered as an independent syndrome is currently under discussion. The treatment of obesity is not satisfactory. Pharmacological approaches have so far failed. Behavioral therapy including dieting of different forms is not successful in long terms. 95% of the patients regain body weight within five years. Surgical therapy are very successful but should be only applied in severe obesity.
Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 02/1998; 120(5):251-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eating disorder bulimia nervosa is characterized by alternating periods of strict dieting and overeating. Patients also report mood fluctuations, frequent eating related thoughts, fear of loss of control over eating, impairment of cognitive abilities such as concentration, and somatic complaints. The present study attempted to clarify to what extent these symptoms are consequences of the dieting behavior. Nine healthy young women, classified as unrestrained eaters, were set on a intermittent dieting schedule over 4 weeks. Four days each week (Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri) they had to reduce their intake below 600 kcal/day, the other 3 days they could eat without restrictions. Psychological variables were assessed by means of a standardized diary. Biological indices of starvation were also measured repeatedly. There was no substantial weight loss after the 4 weeks, although subjects had significantly increased levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid during the dieting periods, and decreased levels of t3 after 2 weeks. The reported tendency to overeat and the actual calorie intake during the days of unlimited access to food showed a significant increase over the 4-week period. Eating-related thoughts, feelings of hunger, and fear of loss of control were significantly more frequent during periods of dieting, compared to days of normal eating. Subjects also reported worse mood, heightened irritability, difficulties concentrating, and increased fatigue. These results suggest that a substantial part of symptoms of bulimic patients might be associated with the frequent periods of an extremely restrained eating behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free cortisol, heart rate and affective responses to bicycle ergometry were studied in 31 women using oral contraceptives (OC) and 22 control women. While OC users and control women showed significant increases in both free cortisol and heart rate, OC users had significantly attenuated cortisol responses. Individual workload, peak heart rates and affective responses were similar in both groups. No effect of menstrual or pill cycle phase could be observed on the parameters studied. It is concluded that OC users are able to mount a significant free cortisol response to strenuous exercise but the response magnitude is lower than in women who do not use oestrogen-containing medication. Possible mechanisms and health implications are discussed briefly.
Stress Medicine 07/1996; 12(3):137 - 143. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1700(199607)12:3<137::AID-SMI685>3.0.CO;2-C
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypothesis was studied whether restrained eaters had reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and whether the effect was caused by weight cycling.
12 restrained and 12 unrestrained eaters (classified by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire) were studied with regard to RMR an DIT by direct calorimetry using a ventilated hood system. In a second study 12 weight cycling restrained eaters and 12 weight stable restrained eaters were compared.
Restrained eaters had significantly lower RMR than unrestrained eaters. No difference in DIT was found. Weight cycling and no weight cycling restrained eaters did not differ with regard to RMR and DIT.
These data indicate that restrained eating but not weight cycling significantly reduces RMR.
International Journal of Eating Disorders 07/1996; 20(1):33-41. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199607)20:1<33::AID-EAT4>3.0.CO;2-5 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free cortisol, heart rate and affective responses to bicycle ergometry were studied in 31 women using oral contraceptives (OC) and 22 control women. While OC users and control women showed significant increases in both free cortisol and heart rate, OC users had significantly attenuated cortisol responses. Individual workload, peak heart rates and affective responses were similar in both groups. No effect of menstrual or pill cycle phase could be observed on the parameters studied. It is concluded that OC users are able to mount a significant free cortisol response to strenuous exercise but the response magnitude is lower than in women who do not use oestrogen-containing medication. Possible mechanisms and health implications are discussed briefly. KEY woms-saliva; ergometry; human; physical stress; cortisol; menstrual cycle phase Strenuous physical exercise is a potent stressor which elicits a wide range of metabolic, endocrine, immune and psychological responses in many species. Among the most prominent changes are decreases in blood glucose levels, increases in oxygen consumption and sympathetic output and elevation of numerous hormones. One of the most frequently studied endocrine effects of physical exercise is the acute secretion of cortisol preceded by a release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), vaso-pressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Results from recent studies suggest that the increased level of cortisol following exercise may reflect the body's attempt to counterregulate the metabolic changes in order to avoid damage. For example, if subjects perform physical exercise greater than 60 per cent V02max, cortisol rises in response to fluid loss and decreased electrolyte and carbohydrate level^.'^ Substitution of these
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The doubly labeled water method was used to measure average daily total energy expenditure (TEE) in 10 healthy normal weight women classified as unrestrained eaters and in 10 grossly obese women. The body mass index was 20.0 +/- 1.3 kg/m2 in the control group and 37.4 +/- 8.1 kg/m2 for the obese group. TEE was measured over a 2-week period. TEE was 2,357 +/- 504 kcal/day for the controls and 3,708 +/- 367 kcal/day for the obese group during a cognitive-behavioral treatment.
International Journal of Eating Disorders 02/1995; 17(1):51-7. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because little is known about energy requirements in anorectic patients before and after weight gain we measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry and total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method in 6 patients with anorexia nervosa (body mass index [BMI] = 15.1 +/- 1.3 kg/m2), in 6 weight-recovered anorectics (BMI = 21.2 +/- 2.1 kg/m2), and in 12 healthy age-matched women (BMI = 20.5 +/- 1.9 kg/m2). No significant differences were found between the weight-recovered anorectic women and the healthy controls in RMR (1,330 +/- 131 kcal/day [weight-recovered]; 1,419 +/- 197 [controls]) and in TEE (2,602 +/- 637 kcal/day [weight-recovered]; 2,596 +/- 493 kcal/day [controls]). The RMR was significantly lower in the acutely ill anorectic patients (1,171 +/- 113 kcal/24 hr) than in weight-recovered anorectics and in healthy controls. The TEE was significantly lower in the anorectic group (1,946 +/- 192 kcal/day) than in the healthy controls.
International Journal of Eating Disorders 08/1994; 16(1):45-52. DOI:10.1002/1098-108X(199407)16:13.0.CO;2-Z · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association of different types of everyday eating behavior with disturbances of menstrual function.
Prospective cohort study with two groups, low dietary restraint (n = 13) and high dietary restraint (n = 9), identified with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire by Stunkard and Messick.
Normal volunteers (students and young professionals).
Frequent serum and urine samples for determination of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), and metabolites. Food and behavioral diaries.
Eleven of the 13 women with low dietary restraint had menstrual cycles that fulfilled the following standard criteria: Serum E2 maximum of 440 pmol/L or more, P maximum of 19 nmol/L or more, and luteal phase length of 9 days or more. Only 2 of the 9 women with high dietary restraint had cycles that satisfied these criteria. Of the remaining 7, 1 had an anovulatory cycle and 6 had decreased P concentrations (P less than 0.05) and/or a shortened luteal phase (P less than 0.02).
High cognitive restraint in everyday eating behavior may be a risk factor for the development of menstrual disturbance in young women.
Fertility and Sterility 05/1992; 57(4):771-5. DOI:10.1016/0020-7292(93)90817-G · 4.59 Impact Factor