P G Peerbooms

Municipal Health Service of South Netherlands, Dordt, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (32)125.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In order to increase case-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in a multicultural, low-income and high-CT-prevalence neighbourhood, a novel approach was piloted in collaboration with the pharmacy of the health centre. During a two-year period, women aged 15-29 years who collected their contraceptives at the pharmacy were offered CT-test materials. Home-collected urine could be mailed to the laboratory and the general practitioner received the results. Nine percent of respondents were CT-positive (14% among 15-24 year-olds). There was a strong association with Surinamese/Antillean background. Uptake of the programme was low (27%). Net cost per pelvic inflammatory disease prevented ranged from cost-saving up to 3872 Euros in a low complication rate/high testing cost scenario. Faced with higher risk, but low participation rates, active case-detection of CT-infections in 'high-prevalence-areas' needs a concerted approach by different providers and community organizations, both in secondary and primary prevention. Pharmacists can contribute if proper liaison is made with primary care providers and/or public health services for (partner-)treatment, counselling and comprehensive sexual health care.
    International Journal of STD & AIDS 01/2005; 15(12):797-802. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the hepatitis A virus (HAV) control policy (hygienic precautions and passive immunization with immune globulin) for "household contacts" (defined as all people who lived in the same house and who shared the same toilet with the patient, people who took care of an HAV-infected child, and sexual partners of the patient) of acute hepatitis A patients between 1996 and 2000. We examined the characteristics and the serological outcomes of household contacts. All susceptible contacts were invited for retesting 6 weeks after they received immune globulin. Of 1242 contacts of 569 HAV patients, more than 50% (n = 672) were found to be HAV immune. Among the remaining contacts, 161 (28.2%) had a concurrent infection, and 86 of these individuals were symptomatic. The remaining 409 susceptible contacts received immune globulin, with 186 (45%) returning for retesting 6 weeks later (64 [34%] were infected, but only 12 had symptoms). Immune globulin does not protect all household contacts from HAV infection; however, it attenuates symptoms and effectively reduces further HAV transmission.
    American Journal of Public Health 10/2004; 94(9):1620-6. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the incidence of gonorrhoea and the development of resistance to Neisseria gonorrhoeae among attendees at the Municipal Health Service's STD-clinic in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000-2003. Descriptive. Urethral or cervical swabs for culture for N. gonorrhoea were taken from attendees at the STD-clinic. Depending on reported sexual techniques throat and rectal swabs were also taken. The disk diffusion technique in combination with a beta-lactamase test were used for sensitivity testing. RESULTS. The number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) isolates collected at the Amsterdam Municipal Health Service's STD-clinic decreased from 1047 in 2002 to 772 in 2003. The number of fluoroquinolone-resistant NG (FRNG) isolates rose from 3 in 2000 to 56 in 2003 (p < 0.001). FRNG isolates amongst men who have sex with men increased from 1 in 568 isolates (0.2%) in 2000 to 50 in 478 isolates (10.5%) in 2003 (p < 0.001). Amongst heterosexual men, FRNG rose from 2 per 275 (0.7%) in 2000 to 16 per 297 (5.4%) in 2002 and dropped to 6 per 190 (3.4%) in 2003 (p = 0.146). No FRNG isolates were found in women in 2003 (2000: 0/180 (0.0%); 2001: 2/160 (1.3%); 2002: 4/183 (2.2%). The recent incidence of FRNG among men who have sex with men to over 5% makes ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones obsolete as the first-choice treatment option for uncomplicated gonorrhoea if no antibiogram is available. It is advised to use cefotaxim when an antibiogram is not available (yet).
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 10/2004; 148(43):2129-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B control in Europe concentrates on antenatal screening to reduce vertical transmission. To reduce horizontal transmission and the pool of infectious individuals, the Municipal Health Service of Amsterdam integrated tracing and immunising of contacts in the antenatal screening program. An eight year (1992-1999) descriptive study of this public health program, where contacts are tested for serological markers of previous infection, and vaccination is offered to susceptible contacts. Chronically infected contacts are counselled and referred for treatment if justified. For 738 newly identified women testing positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen, 1219 contacts were reported; 1100 (90.4%) contacts participated, 476 (43%) had serological markers of previous infection, of whom 119 (25%) were infectious. Of 603 eligible contacts, 568 (94%) completed the vaccination series. Country of origin was an independent predictor of contact participation and compliance with completion of the vaccination series. Postvaccination titres for antibodies against the surface antigen were below 10 IU/L in 4.5% of contacts under 30, in 12.2% of those over 30. Tracing and immunising susceptible contacts of women screened as HBsAg-positive, should be an integral component of any country's HBV control program.
    Journal of Hepatology 07/2004; 40(6):979-85. · 9.86 Impact Factor
  • L P Bovée, P G Peerbooms, J A van den Hoek
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    ABSTRACT: A study of the registered number of Shigella infections in Amsterdam for the period 1997-2001 revealed that in 2001, there was an increase in the number of homosexual patients with oral-anal contacts as source for their infections. All of these infections were caused by subtype Shigella sonnei. The infections were not associated with a specific meeting place for homosexual men. A relationship with an underlying HIV-infection is likely.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2004; 147(49):2438-9.
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    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - INFLAMM BOWEL DIS. 01/2004; 148(43):2129-2132.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae caused a nosocomial outbreak. Resistance patterns of the presumed outbreak isolates varied among and within patients. In order to control the outbreak, screening for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae was commenced. A number of susceptible K. pneumoniae strains were stored to serve as controls in genetic strain typing. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis proved the clonality of the strains in the recognized outbreak patients. Typing of the control strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that at least one patient had been missed by the ESBL screening procedure. Further genetic typing confirmed the presence of the SHV-5 ESBL gene in all but one of the outbreak strains. Variable presence of integrons that carried the aminoglycoside resistance genes aadB and aadA2 was found. A gyrA mutation in codon 83 was present in all outbreak strains tested, despite considerable differences in ciprofloxacin MICs. The MICs of ciprofloxacin and the chemically unrelated drug cefoxitin were correlated (r = 0.86, P < 0.01) and were compatible with the overexpression of an efflux pump in a subset of the outbreak strains. We conclude that outbreak strains that express an ESBL gene only at a low level may pass unnoticed in a screening procedure, when the laboratory is unaware of variable ESBL expression. In this particular outbreak, screening for strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs were > or =0.25 micro g/ml would in retrospect have been the most sensitive method for detection of the K. pneumoniae outbreak strain.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2003; 41(3):1161-6. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science - INVEST OPHTHALMOL VISUAL SCI. 01/2003; 147(49):2438-2439.
  • Value in Health 01/2003; 6(6):754-755. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae caused a nosocomial outbreak. Resistance patterns of the presumed outbreak isolates varied among and within patients. In order to control the outbreak, screening for extended- spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae was commenced. A number of susceptible K. pneu- moniae strains were stored to serve as controls in genetic strain typing. Typing by pulsed-field gel electro- phoresis proved the clonality of the strains in the recognized outbreak patients. Typing of the control strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that at least one patient had been missed by the ESBL screening procedure. Further genetic typing confirmed the presence of the SHV-5 ESBL gene in all but one of the outbreak strains. Variable presence of integrons that carried the aminoglycoside resistance genes aadB and aadA2 was found. A gyrA mutation in codon 83 was present in all outbreak strains tested, despite considerable differences in ciprofloxacin MICs. The MICs of ciprofloxacin and the chemically unrelated drug cefoxitin were correlated (r 0.86, P < 0.01) and were compatible with the overexpression of an efflux pump in a subset of the outbreak strains. We conclude that outbreak strains that express an ESBL gene only at a low level may pass unnoticed in a screening procedure, when the laboratory is unaware of variable ESBL expression. In this particular outbreak, screening for strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.25 g/ml would in retrospect have been the most sensitive method for detection of the K. pneumoniae outbreak strain. Nosocomial outbreaks in reference centers due to multire- sistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates have been described fre- quently (6, 19, 21). In The Netherlands the incidence of ex- tended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria is low (22). Outbreaks appear to be rare in The Netherlands, especially in general acute-care hospitals. Many factors need to be addressed simultaneously in bringing an outbreak under control: appropriate isolation measures need to be taken, hand hygiene procedures may need reinforcement, possible environ- mental reservoirs need elimination, and antibiotics policies may need reconsideration. Screening in search of colonized patients needs to be instituted, and decisions on how to per- form such screening have to be made (10). The aim of this study was to elucidate resistance mechanisms in the outbreak strain that are relevant to the description of the observed course of the outbreak. This was done in order to retrospec- tively evaluate the appropriateness of the decisions made at the beginning of the outbreak. (Part of this work was presented at the 41st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chi- cago, Ill., 2001.)
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology - J CLIN MICROBIOL. 01/2003; 41(3):1161-1166.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of patients reported with typhoid fever in Amsterdam (1991-2000) and to evaluate the contact tracing for those patients with the specific objective of examining whether contact tracing can be simplified. Retrospective. From an automated database, data were collected on all reported typhoid fever patients in Amsterdam during the period 1991-2000 and on their contact persons. One hundred and one patients with typhoid fever were reported during the study period, and Salmonella typhi infection was diagnosed in 12 of the 281 household contacts. For 96 of the 101 index patients, travelling abroad was the most likely source of infection. In 8 of the 12 contact persons with an S. typhi infection, the index person was the most likely source of infection, which is equivalent to a secondary transmission rate of 2.8% (8/277). Seven of the 8 secondary infected persons had symptoms indicative of typhoid fever infection and S. typhi was found in all their first stool samples. Supported by these results, the national guidelines for source and contact tracing in the case of typhoid fever have been amended. In the case of index patients with bad toilet hygiene or who are responsible for food preparation, the faeces of all household contacts must be examined once. If the contact persons have symptoms indicative of an S. typhi infection and/or if their work involves food preparation, their faeces should also be tested once. The changes to the national protocol will markedly reduce the labour-intensity of tracing and testing the contacts of patients with typhoid fever, thereby maintaining the quality of the process. Tracing the source of infection in the case of patients with typhoid fever will also remain important in the future in order to detect potential transmission within the Netherlands at an early stage.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 10/2002; 146(39):1833-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was studied in 259 children attending day care centers (DCC) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and in 276 control children. The DCC children were sampled a second time after 4 weeks. Carriage rates for DCC children and controls were 58 and 37% for S. pneumoniae, 37 and 11% for H. influenzae, and 80 and 48% for M. catarrhalis, respectively. No increased antibiotic resistance rates were found in strains isolated from DCC children. All H. influenzae isolates were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Evidence for frequent transmission of H. influenzae strains within DCC was found. In the control group only two isolates (4%) displayed identical RAPD types versus 38% of strains from DCC children. Colonization with H. influenzae appeared to be short-lived in these children; more than half of the children harboring H. influenzae in the first sample were negative in the second sample, whereas most children still positive in the second sample had a different genotype than in the first sample. Of the newly acquired strains in the second sample, 40% were identical to a strain that had been found in a child in the same DCC in the first sample. DCC are to be considered epidemiological niches with a high potential for the spread of pathogenic microorganisms.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2002; 40(8):2832-6. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Revue de l Art 01/2002; 146(39):1833-1837.
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    ABSTRACT: In 1999, Engelen and coworkers investigated colonization in Amsterdam among 259 children attending 16 day-care centers (DCCs) and among 276 children who did not attend day-care centers (NDCCs). A 1.6- to 3.4-fold increased risk for nasopharyngeal colonization was observed in children attending DCCs compared with NDCC children, while no difference in antibiotic resistance was found between groups. The serotype and genotype distributions of 305 nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates of the latter study were investigated. The predominant serotypes in both the DCC and the NDCC groups included 19F (19 and 18%, respectively), 6B (14 and 16%, respectively), 6A (13 and 7%, respectively), 23F (9 and 7%, respectively), and 9V (7 and 7%, respectively). The theoretical vaccine coverage of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine was 59% for the DCC children and 56% for the NDCC group. Genetic analysis of the pneumococcal isolates revealed 75% clustering among pneumococci isolated from DCC attendees versus 50% among the NDCC children. The average pneumococcal cluster size in the DCC group was 3.8 and 4.6 isolates for two respective sample dates (range, 2 to 13 isolates per cluster), while the average cluster size for the NDCC group was 3.0 (range, 2 to 6 isolates per cluster). Similar to observations made in other countries, these results indicate a higher risk for horizontal spread of pneumococci in Dutch DCCs than in the general population. This study emphasizes the importance of molecular epidemiological monitoring before, during, and after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in national vaccination programs for children.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2001; 39(9):3316-20. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to a rise in the number of cases of gonorrhoea, the susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics is also a cause for concern. After a period of high resistance rates to penicillin and tetracycline between 1985 and 1995, resistance rates have dropped considerably in recent years, probably due to changes in treatment regimens. However, recently we have seen an increasing number of quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, a development that has previously been reported in other parts of the world. Some form of national resistance monitoring for gonococci is therefore urgently required to allow timely detection of changes in N. gonorrhoeae resistance.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 10/2001; 145(39):1899-900.
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    ABSTRACT: Vaginal infections by Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis have been shown to be associated. Since M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are similar pathogens, both belonging to the class of the mycoplasmata, we describe here a molecular study into the interdependence of U. urealyticum and T. vaginalis during infection. Susceptibility towards infection by U. urealyticum depends on genetic polymorphism in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) gene. Now, we defined the relation between IL-1RA genotypes and infection by M. hominis and T. vaginalis. Finally, we also developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) tool for mapping variation in the T. vaginalis AP33 adhesin in order to define putative associations between parasite subtype and mycoplasmata or host. Studies using crudepellets from T. vaginalis culture broth clearly confirm the association between T. vaginalis and M. hominis infection. The association between IL-1RA genotype 2,2 and lack of U. urealyticum infection is corroborated as well. U. urealyticum infection and infection by T. vaginalis are independent. Furthermore, T. vaginalis and M. hominis infection are not depending on IL-1RA genotypes. Interestingly, one of the three AP33 RFLP types identified appeared to be associated with the absence of U. urealyticum infection. In conclusion, the complex interaction between bacterial and parasitic pathogens and the infected host is determined by genetic characteristics of host and microorganisms involved.
    Journal of Microbiological Methods 06/2001; 45(1):61-7. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most common etiologic agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) are herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, Treponema pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi. In an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, specimens from 372 patients with GUD were collected from February to November 1996. Sera were collected at the time of the symptoms and, for most patients, also during follow-up visits. Swabs in viral transport medium were used for HSV culture and for detection of DNA. The most prevalent pathogen found was HSV-2, which was detected by culture in 35% of the patients and by PCR in 48% of the patients. Also, HSV-1 infection was more often detected by PCR (7.8%) than by culture (5.6%). Evidence for an active infection with T. pallidum was found in 1.9% of the patients, using serological tests. A multiplex PCR for simultaneous T. pallidum and H. ducreyi DNA detection was positive for T. pallidum in 3.3% of the samples and for H. ducreyi in only 0.9% (3 out of 368) of the samples. The sensitivity of the PCR was superior to that of culture for HSV detection and to that of serology for T. pallidum detection. Specific H. ducreyi immunoglobulin G antibodies were detected in sera of 5.2% of the patients, with no concordance between serology and PCR. In 37% of the cases, none of the tested microorganisms was detected. Performance of PCR in addition to conventional techniques significantly improved the diagnosis of GUD.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2001; 39(2):601-5. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of reported shigellosis in Amsterdam (1991-1998) and the factors related to the secondary attack rate of shigellosis. Retrospective. From an automated data bank data were collected on all registered shigellosis patients in Amsterdam in the period 1991-1998, and their contacts found by contact tracing. 567 Patients with shigellosis had been reported and a Shigella infection has been diagnosed in 96 of the 983 contacts. The annual incidence decreased statistically significantly from 13 to 8/100.000. 329 males and 334 females were infected. The highest number of cases was found in children from 0-4 years and among adults from 20-34 years. Of the 663 patients 106 (16%) required hospitalization; for children under 7 this proportion was 30% (32/108). Among the contacts (excluding the 14 contacts with the same foreign source and the same first sickness day as the index patient) the secondary attack rate was 8%. Young age, of both the patient and the contact was independently related to a higher secondary attack rate. With contact tracing for shigellosis a large number of secondary infections were found. Given the high infection rate and large number of hospitalisations among children, contact tracing should focus at this young age group.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 09/2000; 144(35):1688-92.
  • HEPAC Health Economics in Prevention and Care 01/2000;
  • HEPAC Health Economics in Prevention and Care 01/2000; 11(7):115-119.

Publication Stats

496 Citations
125.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2001
    • Municipal Health Service of South Netherlands
      Dordt, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • Gemeentelijke Geneeskundige en Gezondheidsdienst
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1999
    • The Municipal Health Service Zealand
      Zeeland, North Brabant, Netherlands
  • 1990
    • Gezond Amsterdam
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands