Palanee Ammaranond

Chulalongkorn University, Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (13)37.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is the most effective way to control HIV-1 replication in infected patients. Prior to the start of therapy, genotyping of HIV-1 for mutations that confer resistance to potential drug candidates is crucial for it allows formulating an effective regimen. Ineffective drugs are excluded and potentially effective ones are included. A number of diagnostic kits are commercially available for this purpose but are tailored for HIV-1 subtype-B, a strain chiefly found in AIDS patients of Europe and America. However, AIDS patients of South-East Asia including Thailand are predominant infected with HIV-1 subtype non-B. In this study, an inexpensive assay was developed that genotypes HIV-1 non-B for drug resistance and tested it on 99 Thai AIDS patients. Results showed that 98 were infected with HIV-1 subtype non-B (or CRF01_AE) and one with subtype-B. Within the HIV-1 polymerase (pol), reverse transcriptase (RT) gene, the assay identified 18 codon mutations associated with resistance to Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) and 17 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs). Employing a commercially available kit, parallel genotyping of patient samples confirmed results providing validation of the assay. This method approximately costs 100 US dollars compared to $300 for a commercially available test. In Thailand, the burden of cost for treating HIV-infections is high not only for the average citizen but the country's health care systems. Therefore the low cost and yet effective genotyping test for HIV-1 subtype non-B is a practical and viable solution to expensive genotyping platforms.
    Journal of virological methods 01/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment failure of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infection is increasing due to development of viral resistance. Trends of resistance-associated mutation lead to the ineffective treatment in HIV-infected individuals. Extracted viral RNA from HIV-infected subjects in 2009 to 2010 was performed. The genotypic resistance testing was investigated for HIV-1 drug resistance in RT and PR genes. Frequencies of mutation were compared by a Fischer's exact test. Three hundred and sixty-nine samples (147 in 2009 and 222 in 2010) were genotyped. At least one mutation was found in 90.8% (335/369) in PR gene and 87.0% (321/369) in RT gene. Three sequences in PR gene, M36I, H69K, and L90M, were decreased significantly in 2010 when compared to 2009. Mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI's) were found in 61.0% and 64.2% in nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI's). A total of 49.6% was found in combined NRTI and NNRTI. In 2010, M41L was increased significantly from 7.5% to 14.9%. However, there was a decrease in the frequency of the mutations at position 67, 70, and 184 between 2009 and 2010. In 2010, three mutations in PR gene, M36I, H69K, and L90M, were decreased significantly. However, only one mutation in RT gene, M41L was significantly increased.
    Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 09/2013; 27(5):346-53. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes with anti-CD3/CD28 coated magnetic beads promotes intrinsic resistance to HIV as well as cell expansion. The propose of this study is to define the optimal cell isolation protocol for expansion of CD4+ T lymphocytes by using anti-CD3/CD28 coated bead stimulation with an ultimate goal of using these cells for adoptive immunotherapy. CD4+ T cells were isolated from healthy donor blood samples using three different methods including immunorosette formation, negative selection and CD8 depletion using immunomagnetic beads. These cells were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 coated beads at a bead to cell ratio of 1:1 and cell expansion was carried for 3 weeks. Cell numbers, cell viability and phenotypic characterization were determined by trypan blue exclusion and flow cytometry. Purified CD4+ T lymphocytes which were isolated via immunorosette formation can be expanded up to 1000-fold within 3 weeks with high viability (90%and high purity of CD4+ T lymphocytes (>95%). However, cell expansion from purified CD4+ T lymphocytes which were isolated by negative selection and CD8-depletion provided approximately 300-fold expansion. The results demonstrate that purified CD4+ T lymphocytes from immunorosette formation provided the highest CD4+ T lymphocyte expansion when stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 coated beads. This method can be used to obtain a large number of expanded CD4+ T cells for adoptive immunotherapy.
    Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 06/2013; 31(2):99-105. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genotypic polymorphisms of CCR5, CCR2, and SDF1 were analyzed to determine their impact as potential confounders with regard to disease progression because of the role that host genetic factors appear to be involved in determining rates of disease progression. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 27:38-44, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Genomic DNA was extracted from Ethylenediaminetetraacetate whole blood using Qiagen DNA extraction kit . The amplification of CCR5, CCR2, and SDF1 genes was performed by PCR. Two hundred and twenty-one samples were genotyped for the CCR5, CCR2, and SDF1 mutation. Among these, all (100%) were identified as wild type for CCR5. All were then investigated considering the impact on CD4+ T-cell counts. Samples were divided into two groups based on the CD4+ T-cell numbers. It revealed that in the group of CD4+ T-cell counts ≥200 cells/μl, 15 were found for the homozygous for SDF1 gene (3'A/3'A) whereas one was found in the group of CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/μl. Homozygosity for the CCR2 polymorphisms (64I/64I) were five in the group of CD4+ T-cell counts ≥200 cells/μl and none were found in the group of CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/μl. These results demonstrated that there was a significant association between CD4+ T-cell numbers and CCR2 and SDF1 polymorphisms (P < 0.001). The mutation of CCR2 and SDF1 genes showed a significant difference in the distribution of CD4+ T-cell numbers (P < 0.001) whereas mutation of chemokine coreceptor CCR5 was not appeared to be associated with the impact of CD4+ T-cell counts.
    Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 01/2013; 27(1):38-44. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunization with a pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 was recommended for HIV-infected patients. However, there is limited information concerning the impact of immunization with this vaccine on immune activation and HIV viral replication. In this study, 45 HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy were immunized with a 2-dose series of nonadjuvated monovalent influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine upon enrollment and approximately 1 month later. Immunogenicity was determined by haemagglutination inhibition assay. The level of immune activation was determined by identification of CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8+ T cells. Patients were divided into 2 groups which include patients who had an undetectable HIV viral load (HIV detectable group) and patients who show virological failure (HIV nondetectable group). The results showed seroconversion rate of 55.2% in HIV nondetectable group, whereas 31.3% was found in HIV detectable group. Both groups of patients showed no major increase in immune activation after immunization. Interestingly, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+ T cells that coexpressed CD38 and HLA-DR was observed after immunization in both groups of patients. We suggested that immunization with influenza A H1N1 2009 vaccine can induce immune response to the pandemic virus without major impact on HIV viral replication and immune activation.
    Disease markers 01/2013; 35(4):221-7. · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Palanee Ammaranond, Sayompoo Sanguansittianan
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid replication rate of HIV-1 RNA and its inherent genetic variation have led to the production of many HIV-1 variants with decreased drug susceptibility. The capacity of HIV to develop drug resistance mutations is a major obstacle to long-term effective anti-HIV therapy. Incomplete suppression of viral replication with an initial drug regimen diminishes the clinical benefit to the patient and may promote the development of broader drug resistance that may cause subsequent treatment regimens to be ineffective. The increased clinical use of combination antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has led to the selection of viral strains resistant to multiple drugs, including strains resistant to all licensed nucleoside analog RT inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of such mutations on viral properties such as replicative fitness, fidelity, and mutation rates. Although research continues to improve our understanding of resistance, leading to refined treatment strategies and, in some cases, improved outcome, resistance to antiretroviral therapy remains a major cause of treatment failure among patients living with HIV-1.
    Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 11/2011; 26(1):146-61. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the impairment of HIV-specific T lymphocytes is evident during chronic HIV-infection, it is unclear whether the increased CD8+ T cells associates with either selective or overall change of effector functional phenotype. Instead of study on HIV-specific T cells only, analyzing bulk T cell populations represent a neglected area of T cell impairment, which go far beyond HIV-specific T cells. In this study, we determined the diversity of CD8+ T cells in term of cytolytic molecule expression (perforin, granzyme A, and granzyme B) and cytokine production ability (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2) using intracellular staining and flow cytometry technique. The results were compared between healthy individuals, untreated, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated HIV infected patients. We demonstrated the presence of four different subsets of CD8+ T cells that expressed different combinations of cytolytic molecules. We also identified seven different subsets of cytokine producing cells based on different combination of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2. Results showed significant alterations of these cell subsets that expressed different combination of cytolytic effector molecules or cytokines in HIV infected patients. Furthermore, cytolytic molecule expressing cell subsets are not normalized in effective ART treated patients, whereas the selective population of cytokine producing cells returned to normal value. The effector diversity of CD8+ T cells changed in HIV infected patients. Although effective ART altered functional diversity of these cells, long-term suppression of viral replication may be required to normalize the selected CD8+ T cell effector phenotype in HIV infected patients.
    Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry 09/2011; 82(1):35-42. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that monitoring of CD38 expression can be used as a marker for antiretroviral drug efficacy in HIV infected patients. However, the detection of CD38 expression may be affected by the sensitivity of the fluorochrome conjugated reagent. In this study, we determined the level of CD38 expression using PE and FITC conjugated anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies in different groups of HIV infected patients. The frequency and mean fluorescence intensity of CD38 expression using PE and FITC conjugated anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies were detected by flow cytometry either alone or in combination with HLA-DR. A correlation between CD38 expression and CD4 count, the percentage of CD4 or viral load in antiretroviral drug naive HIV infected patients was performed. The results were compared with those for antiretroviral treated HIV infected patients who responsed to therapy and patients with virological failure. We found that while both reagents had the ability to detect a high frequency of CD38 expressing cells in untreated patients, only PE conjugated reagent provided correlation with markers for disease progression. More importantly, FITC conjugated reagent cannot monitor the increase in CD38 expression in patients who showed virological failure. The results from this study suggest that a cautious selection of fluorochrome conjugated reagents and a method for utilizing the data are extremely critical in the use of CD38 expression as a monitoring tool for ART efficacy.
    Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand 06/2011; 29(2):181-9. · 0.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CTL response in HLA-B*27(+) HIV-infected individuals is characterized by an immunodominant response to a conserved epitope in gag p24 (aa 263-272, KRWIILGLNK; KK10). Mutations resulting in substitution of the arginine (R264) at position 2 of this epitope have been identified as escape mutations. Nineteen HLA-B*27(+) long-term nonprogressors were identified from an Australian cohort with an average follow-up of 16 y following infection. Viral and host genetic factors impacting on disease progression were determined at multiple time points. Twelve of 19 had wild-type sequences at codon 264 at all time points; 7 of 19 carried CTL escape variants. Median viral load and CD4(+) T cell counts were not significantly different between these groups at enrollment. Viral load, as judged by levels at their last visit (1,700 and 21,000 RNA copies/ml, respectively; p = 0.01) or by time-weighted area under the curve was higher in the escape group (p = 0.02). Escape mutants at other HLA-B*27-restricted epitopes were uncommon. Moreover, host polymorphisms, such as CCR5Δ32, CCR2-64I, and SDF1-3'A, or breadth of TCR repertoire responding to KK10 did not segregate to wild-type or escape groups. Host and viral factors were examined for a relationship to viral load. The only factor to affect viral load was the presence of the R264 escape mutations at the immunodominant epitope. CTL escape at R264 in the KK10 epitope is a major determinant of subsequent viral load in these HLA-B*27(+) individuals.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2011; 186(1):479-88. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immune response in HIV-infected individuals who carry HLA-B27 is characterized by an immunodominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to a conserved epitope corresponding to amino acids 263-272 of HIV-1 p24 gag. The arginine at position 264 is a crucial anchor residue. Amino acid substitution at 264 from arginine (R) to glycine (G), lysine (K), or threonine (T) results in a low affinity peptide that binds to HLA-B27 inefficiently and is poorly recognized by T cells that respond to the wild-type peptide. These mutants have been characterized as CTL escape mutations. We studied the plasma virus of 20 HLA-B27 longterm nonprogressors: 14 were wild type and 6 were found to be mutant. Five of these carried known escape mutations coding for K or G at position 264. One patient demonstrated a previously undescribed R264Q mutation in 30/31 clones. This altered epitope failed to elicit an IFN-gamma response from PBMC isolated from any of four HLA-B27-positive individuals with strong responses to wild-type peptide. A peptide binding assay confirmed that the R264Q mutant peptide had 30-fold lower binding affinity to HLA-B27 compared to wild type. Therefore, the R264Q variant is a likely novel escape mutation in HLA-B27-positive individuals.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 06/2005; 21(5):395-7. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is clear that transmission of drug resistant HIV-1 is possible and occurs regularly. However, there is a lack of clarity concerning the true rate of this transmission in a given population, the impact of combination therapies on this rate, and the contribution of transmitted resistant virus to treatment failure either in an individual or on a population basis. To provide a review of our current understanding of rates of transmission of drug resistant HIV-1 in various populations and to report the results of a study conducted to determine this rate in Sydney, Australia in the years 1992-2000. A review of the literature combined with a prospective study of antiretroviral drug resistance in 130 individuals who were diagnosed with symptomatic primary infection at St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia between 1992 and 2000. Sequencing of reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) was performed by the TruGene HIV-1 genotyping kit (Visible Genetics Inc.). The results found in the Sydney population contrast with much of the literature. The prevalence of mutations that conferred primary resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) was only 0.8% at position V82I. Secondary mutations/polymorphisms were seen in the PR at position L10I/V, K20R, M36I, L63P, A71T/V, or V77I in 60%. L63P was the most frequently found mutation (46.3%). The incidence of protease-resistant strains of HIV in primary HIV-1 infection did not change after the introduction of PIs in 1996. The distribution of the most common resistance mutations in the RT was as follows; M41L (8.5%) and T215Y (8.5%) and K70R (4.8%). The frequency of mutations associated with NRTI resistance was significantly lower in the post 1995 samples (43.9 vs. 19.1%, P < 0.05). Moreover, both M41L and K70R, but not T215Y, occurred with significantly decreased frequency in the post 1995 samples. In contrast to other studies we found no increase in the rate of PR resistance and a decrease in the rate of RT resistance in recently transmitted virus over the period 1992-2000. The reasons for the differences between these results and those reported from elsewhere may relate to treatment regimens used in the transmitting population and may have implications for treatment policies in this country.
    Journal of Clinical Virology 02/2003; 26(2):153-61. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rates of antiretroviral resistance in recently transmitted virus in Sydney, Australia fluctuated over the past decade, influenced by treatment trends. Current rates of drug resistance are not high in historical terms or compared with those reported. Rates of resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors peaked in the mid-1990s, fell dramatically with the introduction of combination therapy and appear to have plateaued at 10-15% over the past 3 years. Primary resistance mutations in the protease gene are still rare.
    AIDS 02/2003; 17(2):264-7. · 6.41 Impact Factor
  • AIDS 01/2003; 17(2):264-267. · 6.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

105 Citations
37.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Chulalongkorn University
      • Department of Transfusion Medicine
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • St. Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research
      Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2011–2013
    • Mahidol University
      • Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital
      Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2003
    • University of New South Wales
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia