ABSTRACT: In colorectal tumorigenesis, Ki-ras proto-oncogene mutation often occurs early in the adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence, whereas mutation of the p53 gene is associated with late progression to carcinoma. We evaluated the relationship of demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics to Ki-ras mutation and p53 gene product overexpression in 1,093 baseline sporadic colorectal adenomas from 926 individuals enrolled in a phase III recurrence prevention trial. Ki-ras mutation was found in 14.7% of individuals and p53 overexpression was found in 7.0% of those tested. Multivariate analysis found older age, rectal location, and villous histology to be independently associated with Ki-ras mutation. Individuals with an advanced adenoma (>or=1 cm or high-grade dysplasia or villous histology) had a 4-fold higher likelihood of Ki-ras mutation [odds ratios (OR), 3.96; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.54-6.18]. Ki-ras mutations in codon 12 and of the G-to-A transition type were more frequent in older individuals, whereas G-to-T transversion was more frequent in rectal adenomas than in the colon. Multivariate analysis showed that previous history of a polyp (P = 0.03) was inversely associated with p53 overexpression. Large adenoma size (>or=1 cm), high-grade dysplasia, and villous histology were independently associated with p53 overexpression, with the strongest association for advanced adenomas (OR, 7.20; 95% CI, 3.01-17.22). Individuals with a Ki-ras mutated adenoma were more likely to overexpress p53 (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.36-4.46), and 94.8% of adenomas with both alterations were classified as advanced (P <or= 0.0001). Our large cross-sectional study supports the role of both Ki-ras and p53 in the progression of adenomas and shows that their molecular pathogenesis differs by anatomic location, age, and mucosal predisposition as evidenced by previous history of a polyp.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 08/2006; 15(8):1443-50. · 4.12 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of colorectal carcinoma is well known to differ among countries but the molecular characteristics are usually assumed to be similar. International differences in molecular pathology have not been studied extensively but have implications for the management of patients in different countries and of immigrant patients.
We evaluated the CpG island methylator phenotype pathway characterized by concordant methylation of gene promoters that often silences transcription of the genes, the microsatellite instability pathway, and K-ras and p53 gene status in 247 colorectal carcinomas from the three selected Middle Eastern countries of Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey.
Colorectal carcinoma from Egypt had the lowest frequencies of methylation. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, Jordanian colorectal carcinoma more frequently had methylation involving the p16 tumor suppressor gene (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-10.6; P = 0.023) and MINT31 locus (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-5.1; P = 0.041). The K-ras proto-oncogene was more frequently mutated in colorectal carcinoma from Turkey (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.7; P = 0.016), but p53 overexpression was more common in both Jordanian and Turkish colorectal carcinoma than in Egyptian cases (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.5; P = 0.019; and odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-7.1; P = 0.0003, respectively). The findings in Turkish colorectal carcinoma were most similar to those reported for Western cases.
Colorectal carcinoma from Middle Eastern countries have differing gene methylation patterns and mutation frequencies that indicate dissimilar molecular pathogenesis, probably reflecting different environmental exposures. These molecular differences could affect prevention strategies, therapeutic efficacy, and transferability of clinical trial results.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2006; 11(23):8281-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Sporadic colorectal cancers often arise from a region of cells characterized by a "field defect" that has not been well defined molecularly. DNA methylation has been proposed as a candidate mediator of this field defect. The DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is frequently methylated in colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that MGMT methylation could be one of the mediators of field cancerization in the colon mucosa.
We studied MGMT promoter methylation by three different bisulfite-based techniques in tumor, adjacent mucosa, and non-adjacent mucosa from 95 colorectal cancer patients and in colon mucosa from 33 subjects with no evidence of cancer. Statistical tests were two-sided.
MGMT promoter methylation was present in 46% of the tumors. Patients whose cancer had MGMT promoter methylation also had substantial MGMT promoter methylation in apparently normal adjacent mucosa. This methylation was seen with a quantitative assay in 50% (22/44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 34% to 65%) of normal samples with MGMT promoter methylation in the adjacent tumors, 6% (3/51; 95% CI = 1% to 16%) of samples without MGMT methylation in adjacent tumors, and 12% (4/33; 95% CI = 3% to 28%) of control samples (P < .001 for comparison between each of the latter two groups and the first group). MGMT methylation was detected with a more sensitive assay in 94%, 34%, and 27% of these samples, respectively (P < .001). In grossly normal colonic mucosa of colon cancer patients, methylation was detected 10 cm away from the tumor in 10 of 13 cases. Tumors with MGMT promoter methylation had a higher rate of G-to-A mutation in the KRAS oncogene than tumors without MGMT promoter methylation (10/42 versus 3/46, P = .03). Using a sensitive mutant allele-specific amplification assay for KRAS mutations, we also found KRAS mutations in 12% (3/25; 95% CI = 2.5% to 31%) of colorectal mucosas with detectable MGMT methylation and 3% (2/64; 95% CI = 0.4% to 11%) of colorectal mucosas without MGMT methylation (P = .13).
Some colorectal cancers arise from a field defect defined by epigenetic inactivation of MGMT. Detection of this abnormality may ultimately be useful in risk assessment for colorectal cancer.
CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 09/2005; 97(18):1330-8. · 14.07 Impact Factor