Parampreet S Kharbanda

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandīgarh, Union Territory of Chandigarh, India

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Publications (17)25.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Low-grade or minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is characterised by relatively mild neurocognitive impairments, and occurs in a substantial percentage of patients with liver disease. The presence of MHE is associated with a significant compromise of quality of life, is predictive of the onset of overt hepatic encephalopathy and is associated with a poorer prognosis for outcome. Early identification and treatment of MHE can improve quality of life and may prevent the onset of overt encephalopathy, but to date, there has been little agreement regarding the optimum method for detecting MHE. The International Society on Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism convened a group of experts for the purpose of reviewing available data and making recommendations for a standardised approach for neuropsychological assessment of patients with liver disease who are at risk of MHE. Specific recommendations are presented, along with a proposed methodology for further refining these assessment procedures through prospective research.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 04/2009; 29(5):629-35. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Piperine, the active principle of piper species, is commonly used as a spice and adjuvant in various traditional systems of medicine. It has been known as a bioavailability-enhancer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of piperine on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of a single dose of carbamazepine in poorly controlled epilepsy patients on carbamazepine monotherapy. Patients (n = 10 each) receiving either 300 mg or 500 mg dose of carbamazepine twice daily were selected. After administration of carbamazepine, venous blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 h. Subsequently, piperine (20 mg p.o.) was administered along with carbamazepine and samples were collected similarly. The pharmacokinetic parameters were compared by Students t-test. Piperine significantly increased the mean plasma concentrations of carbamazepine at most of the time points in both dose groups. There was a significant increase in AUC(0-12hr) (p < 0.001), average C(ss) (p < 0.001), t(1\2el) (p < 0.05) and a decrease in K(el) (p < 0.05), in both the dose groups, whereas changes in K(a) and t(1\2a) were not significant. Cmax (p < 0.01) and t(max) (p < 0.01) were increased significantly following piperine administration in the 500 mg dose group; however, these parameters were not significant in the lower dose group. Piperine could significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of carbamazepine, possibly by decreasing the elimination and/or by increasing its absorption.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2009; 23(9):1281-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • P. S. Kharbanda, S. Prabhakar
    Journal of The Neurological Sciences - J NEUROL SCI. 01/2009; 285.
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    ABSTRACT: There is paucity of data regarding occurrence of reproductive endocrine disorders in Asian women with epilepsy (WWE) on antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. To determine the occurrence of reproductive endocrine disorders in Indian WWE, by seizure type and the AED use. Consecutive 427 reproductive age WWE receiving various AEDs were screened for the occurrence of menstrual abnormalities, weight change, and hirsutism. Of these, 53 WWE with menstrual disturbances and/or hirsutism were further evaluated for ovarian morphology and reproductive hormonal profile. Menstrual abnormalities and/or hirsutism were observed in 83 of 427 (19.4%) WWE irrespective of epileptic seizure type; of these, 50 (60.2%) received valproate, 21 (25.3%) received carbamazepine, 11 (13.3%) received phenytoin, and one (1.2%) received phenobarbitone as the primary AED. Almost half of valproate-treated women had significant weight gain and obesity. Among 53 of 83 women evaluated further, 23.5% and 63.6% of valproate-treated women, 25% and 58.3% of carbamazepine-treated women, and none and 20% of phenytoin-treated women had polycystic ovaries (PCO) and hyperandrogenemia (HA), respectively. Valproate-treated women had significantly higher frequency of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) (11.8% vs. 2.5%, p < 0.0001) and mean serum testrosterone levels (1.78 vs. 1.36 ng/ml, p = 0.03), compared with women treated with other AEDs. Limitations include small number of women in antiepileptic subgroups and a high drop out rate in women who underwent ultrasound and endocrinological investigations. Menstrual abnormalities, weight gain, obesity, and PCOS are frequent and significantly higher in WWE receiving valproate, independent of seizure type.
    Epilepsia 05/2008; 49(12):2069-77. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the association of long-term sodium valproate therapy with reproductive endocrine disorders in Indian women with generalized epilepsy. Clinical parameters, ovarian morphology, and serum reproductive hormone concentrations were evaluated in 30 clinically normal and eumenorrheic reproductive age women with generalized epilepsy who were newly initiated on valproate. Longitudinal evaluations were done in 25 of these women after 1 year, and in some of them after 2 and 3 years of therapy. Of the 25 women who completed 1 year follow-up, we observed clinically relevant weight gain in 40%, hirsutism in 20%, menstrual abnormalities in 24%, polycystic ovaries (PCO) in 16%, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in 20%, and a significant increase in mean serum testosterone (p=0.046). A significant positive correlation existed between weight gain and the development of menstrual abnormalities (r=0.66, p<0.0001), hirsutism (r=0.53, p=0.006) and PCO (r=0.51, p=0.012). No correlation existed between weight change and serum reproductive hormonal changes. Yearly follow-up for next 2 years in some of these women revealed persistence of menstrual abnormalities, hirsutism and PCO, a significant linear increase in mean body weight, body mass index, and serum testosterone concentrations, and an increase in serum LH levels from second year onwards. Limitations include small sample size and a high dropout rate on follow-up. Long-term valproate therapy in Indian women with generalized epilepsy is associated with development of hirsutism, significant weight gain, stable or progressive alterations in reproductive hormonal function, and ultimately a higher occurrence of PCOS.
    Epilepsia 08/2007; 48(7):1371-7. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Piperine, the active principle of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinalis, has been reported to enhance the oral bioavailability of phenytoin in human volunteers. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of a single dose of piperine in patients with uncontrolled epilepsy on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. Two groups of 10 patients each receiving either a 150 mg or 200 mg twice daily dose of phenytoin were selected. Twelve hours after the night dose, venous blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 h after administration of phenytoin. On the next study day, piperine 20 mg was administered along with phenytoin and samples were collected similarly. The mean plasma drug concentrations at different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters before and after piperine administration were compared by Student's t-test. Piperine increased significantly the mean plasma concentration of phenytoin at most of the time points in both dose groups. There was a significant increase in AUC((0-12h)) (p < 0.01), C(max) (p < 0.001) and K(a) (p < 0.05) whereas the changes in K(el) and t(max) were not significant. The results showed that piperine enhanced the bioavailability of phenytoin significantly, possibly by increasing the absorption.
    Phytotherapy Research 08/2006; 20(8):683-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Parampreet S Kharbanda, S Prabhakar
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2004; 19(1):1-3. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Parampreet S Kharbanda, Vivek A Saraswat, Radha K Dhiman
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    ABSTRACT: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mHE) consists of cognitive deficits found on neuropsychological and/or neurophysiologic methods in patients with liver disease, present most commonly in cirrhosis. Patients suffering from mHE may have psychomotor slowing and cognitive deficits affecting their ability to perform many activities of daily life, especially driving and other activities requiring subtle cognitive abilities. It has been now been shown that patients with mHE improve after treatment with agents like lactulose and other therapeutic interventions. Neuropsychological and neurophysiologic tests have been widely used and have shown the greatest promise for the detection of mHE. Commonly used psychometric tests include trailmaking tests (number and figure connection tests) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for verbal and performance skills. Among the various neuropsychological or psychometric tests, trailmaking tests and block design and digit symbol tests from WAIS-performance battery appear to be adequate for diagnosis of mHE. Standardized tests including NCT A and B, line tracing, serial dotting test and digits-symbol test (PSE syndrome test) validated in German patients need validation in other populations. Both exogenous evoked potentials and endogenous event-related potentials have been used extensively in diagnosing mHE. However, the event-related P300 wave is the most consistent wave and can be considered the electrophysiological counterpart of the psychometric tests as both involve active use of the cognitive faculties. Other new tests like the critical flicker frequency have shown some promise but further studies are required to substantiate initial results. In conclusion, a combination of at least two psychometric (trailmaking tests [NCT or FCT], block design and digit symbol test) and neurophysiological tests (P300 auditory evoked potential or electroencephalography with mean dominant frequency) appears to be optimal in detecting mHE.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2004; 22 Suppl 2:S37-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathy in association with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis, is recognized; however, there are differences in the incidence and type of neuropathy reported. The causal relationship of liver disease to neuropathy has been questioned. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence and character of peripheral neuropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. The effect of alcohol consumption, severity of liver disease and encephalopathy on the incidence and severity of neuropathy were also studied. Patients having an identifiable cause of peripheral neuropathy, except alcohol, were excluded from the study. Patients with evidence of vitamin B12 deficiency or diabetes were also excluded from the study. In this study, 33 patients with liver cirrhosis were evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically to detect any evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies were performed in the upper and lower limbs using surface electrodes. These patients also underwent a detailed clinical examination. Clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy were found in seven (21%) patients. Nerve conduction studies were abnormal in 24 (73%) patients. The pattern of involvement was predominantly of an axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy. Neuropathy was found both in patients with alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related cirrhosis. The presence of encephalopathy did not have a significant bearing on the incidence and severity of neuropathy. The neuropathy was also not significantly related to the severity of liver disease. The present study reveals that a significant number of patients with liver cirrhosis show evidence of peripheral neuropathy, which is present regardless of the etiology of cirrhosis, and is subclinical in a majority of these patients. The cause of neuropathy was probably the liver disease itself, as the incidence and severity of neuropathy in the alcohol-related cirrhosis, although higher, was not significantly different from the neuropathy in patients with non-alcohol-related cirrhosis.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 09/2003; 18(8):922-6. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • C P Das, S Prabhakar, V Lal, P S Kharbanda
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    ABSTRACT: A known case of scleroderma presented with right hemiparesis, focal seizures, optic atrophy and gangrene of digits. There was no evidence of peripheral nerve or muscle involvement. MRI showed multifocal infarcts in both cerebral hemispheres. MR angiography revealed poor flow in bilateral carotid arteries with collateralization from posterior circulation. She improved with phenytoin, nifedipine, antibiotics and immunosuppressants. The rarity of central nervous system affliction in scleroderma and large vessel vasculitis is discussed along with review of literature.
    Neurology India 01/2003; 50(4):504-7. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • P S Kharbanda, S Prabhakar, V Lal, C P Das
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    ABSTRACT: Papilledema and raised intracranial pressure have been reported in association with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Papilledema is usually asympotomatic or associated with mild visual field defects, without any visual loss. The cerebrospinal fluid protein is usually reported to be high. A case of a 35 year old lady is reported, who presented with headache, diplopia and progressive visual loss in both eyes and limb weakness with hyporeflexia. Optic fundus examination showed bilateral papilledema. She had features of pseudotumor cerebri. Nerve conduction studies were suggestive of polyradiculopathy. The unusual things in this case, were the profound visual loss normal cerebrospinal fluid profiles and the presentation of papilledema before the limb weakness.
    Neurology India 01/2003; 50(4):528-9. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • P S Kharbanda, S K Handa, S Prabhakar
    Neurology India 10/2002; 50(3):379. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • S Prabhakar, Parampreet S Kharbanda
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    ABSTRACT: As a sizeable population is affected by epilepsy, so its effective management is a matter of concern. Newer anti-epileptic drugs are now in use, aimed at controls of seizure with fewer side-effects over and above the conventional anti-epileptic drugs. The anti-epileptic drugs can be divided in two groups--conventional anti-epileptic drugs and newer anti-epileptic drugs. The drugs which fall in the first group are--phenytoin, phenobaibitone, valproic acid, carbamazepine, ethosuximide and clonazepam. The second group of drugs are--lamotrigine, clobazam, oxcarbazepine, topiramate and gabapentin. The pharmacology of the drugs are described in a nutshell in this article.
    Journal of the Indian Medical Association 06/2002; 100(5):304-9.
  • P.S. Kharbanda, S Prabhakar, V Lal, C P Das
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    ABSTRACT: Papilledema and raised intracranial pressure have been reported in association with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Papilledema is usually asympotomatic or associated with mild visual field defects, without any visual loss. The cerebrospinal fluid protein is usually reported to be high. A case of a 35 year old lady is reported, who presented with headache, diplopia and progressive visual loss in both eyes and limb weakness with hyporeflexia. Optic fundus examination showed bilateral papilledema. She had features of pseudotumor cerebri. Nerve conduction studies were suggestive of polyradiculopathy. The unusual things in this case, were the profound visual loss, normal cerebrospinal fluid protein and the presentation of papilledema before the limb weakness.
    Neurology India (ISSN: 0028-3886) Vol 50 Num 4. 01/2002;
  • C P Das, S Prabhakar, V Lal, P.S. Kharbanda
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    ABSTRACT: A known case of scleroderma presented with right hemiparesis, focal seizures, optic atrophy and gangrene of digits. There was no evidence of peripheral nerve or muscle involvement. MRI showed multifocal infarcts in both cerebral hemispheres. MR angiography revealed poor flow in bilateral carotid arteries with collateralization from posterior circulation. She improved with phenytoin, nifedipine, antibiotics and immunosuppressants. The rarity of central nervous system affliction in scleroderma and large vessel vasculitis is discussed along with review of literature.
    Neurology India (ISSN: 0028-3886) Vol 50 Num 4. 01/2002;
  • P.S. Kharbanda, S K Handa, S Prabhakar
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    ABSTRACT: A 17 years female, an old case of systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), with nephropathy, who had been on immunosuppression, presented with weakness of left upper and lower limbs for the past two months.
    Neurology India (ISSN: 0028-3886) Vol 50 Num 3.
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    ABSTRACT: A study was performed on 59 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) cases, 58 neurological controls (NC) and 60 non-neurological controls (NNC) to investigate the association of anti-ganglioside antibodies in GBS and other neurological disorders. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 5.7% of GBS patients. Anti-ganglioside immunoglobulin G was present in 82% and immunoglobulin M in 46% in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients, 70% and 44% respectively in acute motor axonal neuropathy subgroup and 38% each in acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy subgroup. Though high intensity of anti-gangliosides was present in the GBS patients, the NC patients also had adequate anti-gangliosides compared with the NNC group.
    Indian journal of medical microbiology 31(2):177-9.