P García-Palencia

Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (17)59.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In Iberian pigs, a high conceptus loss occurs during the first 30 days of gestation. Although the exact causes for these losses have not been determined to date, the importance of blood vessel development during early pregnancy has been noted. The aim of this study was to analyze the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of VEGF-rs (vascular endothelial growth factor, the VEGFR1, and the VEGFR2 receptor system) and elucidate a possible relationship with the conceptus status (healthy or arrested) on gestational Days (gd) 22 and 32. Both mRNA and protein expression for VEGF-rs molecules were consistently expressed in conceptuses and endometrium during the pregnancy period analyzed. In endometrium, a significant increase in VEGF mRNA and VEGFR2 mRNA expression in healthy sites was observed as pregnancy advances (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), whereas VEGFR1 mRNA expression was maintained at a constant level. Interestingly, a significantly elevated VEGFR2 mRNA expression (P < 0.05) was observed on gd 22 in endometrium from arrested conceptuses. Furthermore, VEGF mRNA and VEGFR1 mRNA expression in trophoblasts from healthy conceptuses decreased as pregnancy proceeded (P < 0.001). Arrested trophoblasts on gd 32 showed higher VEGFR2 mRNA expression than healthy conceptuses (P < 0.05). Although, in endometrium attachment sites, the pattern of VEGF-rs immunostaning was not affected by conceptus status, the immunoexpression of VEGF-rs in healthy attachment sites increased slightly but consistently as gestation proceeded. In arresting trophoblasts, VEGF and VEGFR2 staining decreased from gd 22 to 32. Moreover, the number of VEGF and VEGFR1-positive capillaries in the subepithelial vascular plexus of endometrium was related to the conceptus status, showing a moderate increase in healthy sites as pregnancy advances. In conclusion, it appears that VEGF-rs is expressed and related to vascular development in Iberian pigs between gd 22 and 32. The upregulated expression of VEGF mRNA and VEGFR2 mRNA in healthy uterine sites suggests a significant role for these angiogenic factors in early pregnancy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Theriogenology 10/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence has been considered a novel target for cancer therapy. It has also been pointed out that p21cip1/waf1 and p27kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs) play a role in cellular senescence in some tumor types. Therefore, in order to address the possibility of a cooperative role between p21 and p27 proteins in senescence in vivo we analyzed cellular senescence in spontaneous glandular proliferative lesions (adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands) in a double-KO mice model, using γH2AX, p53, p16, PTEN and Ki67 as senescence markers. The results obtained showed that p21p27 double-null mice had the lowest number of γH2AX positive cells in glandular hyperplasias and benign tumors. Also, in this group, Ki67 proliferation index correlated with a lower immunohistochemical expression of γH2AX and p53. The expression of p16 and PTEN do not seem to cause synergism of senescence in the benign lesions analyzed in p21p27 double-KO mice. These observations suggest an intrinsic cooperation between p21 and p27 CKIs in the activation of stress-induced cellular senescence and tumor progression in vivo, which would be a physiological mechanism to prevent tumor cell proliferation.
    Histology and histopathology 09/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been associated with cell growth regulation, tissue remodeling and carcinogenesis. Overexpression of COX-2 in hepatocytes constitutes an ideal condition to evaluate the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in liver pathogenesis. The effect of COX-2-dependent PGs in genetic hepatocarcinogenesis has been investigated in triple c-myc/transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) transgenic mice that express human COX-2 in hepatocytes on a B6CBAxCD1xB6DBA2 background. Analysis of the contribution of COX-2-dependent PGs to the development of hepatocarcinogenesis, evaluated in this model, suggested a minor role of COX-2-dependent prostaglandins to liver oncogenesis as indicated by liver histopathology, morphometric analysis and specific markers of tumor progression. This allows concluding that COX-2 is insufficient for modifying the hepatocarcinogenesis course mediated by c-myc/TGF-α.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 04/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been associated with cell growth regulation, tissue remodeling and carcinogenesis. Overexpression of COX-2 in hepatocytes constitutes an ideal condition to evaluate the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in liver pathogenesis. The effect of COX-2-dependent PGs in genetic hepatocarcinogenesis has been investigated in triple c-myc/transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) transgenic mice that express human COX-2 in hepatocytes on a B6CBAxCD1xB6DBA2 background. Analysis of the contribution of COX-2-dependent PGs to the development of hepatocarcinogenesis, evaluated in this model, suggested a minor role of COX-2-dependent prostaglandins to liver oncogenesis as indicated by liver histopathology, morphometric analysis and specific markers of tumor progression. This allows concluding that COX-2 is insufficient for modifying the hepatocarcinogenesis course mediated by c-myc/TGF-α.
    Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators 04/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compares two protocols for ovine estrus synchronization by assessing the caruncular angiogenic response to the establishment of pregnancy. The analysis consisted of the immunohistochemical evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) and Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in ovine caruncular stroma. A flock of thirty-eight adult ewes was divided in two groups and synchronized with either progestagens (Group P) or prostaglandin analogues (Group PG). Immunohistochemistry was performed in uterine samples obtained from pregnant ewes (P, n=15; PG, n=13) on days 15 post coitus (pc), 17pc and 21pc (day 0 =day of estrus). Each factor was assessed by total vascular density (TVD, total positive blood vessels/mm2), capillary vascular density (CVD, positive blood capillaries/mm2) and arteriolar vascular density (AVD, positive arterioles/mm2). Group P demonstrated higher VEGF-CVD (P=0.045) when compared to prostaglandin treated animals. Vascular CD31-expression decreased on days 15pc and 21pc (TVD, P=0.007 and CVD, P=0.014) in both groups. vWF analysis did not show significant differences between groups or days of study. These results demonstrate a different influence of progestagen-based and prostaglandin analogues-based synchronization treatments over VEGF vascular expression during caruncular development taking place in response to pregnancy establishment. In addition, observations pointed out in this study support the involvement of CD31 in the angiogenic stimulus that occurs during early maternal placentation in the ewe.
    Histology and histopathology 03/2013; 28(3):373-83. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to compare PR, ERα and OTR uterine expression between days 9 and 21 of pregnancy in ewes whose estrus had been synchronized with two different protocols. Sixty-four adult Manchega ewes were synchronized with either conventional progestagens (P) or prostaglandin analogues (PG), and mated. Uterine samples were obtained from pregnant animals (group P, n=24; group PG, n=25) on days 9 post coitus (pc), 13pc, 15pc, 17pc and 21pc. Immunohistochemical detection of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) was assessed in different uterine cell compartments including luminal and glandular epithelium, stroma and myometrium. Interaction day × treatment was obtained when assessing PR expression in the caruncular stroma (P=0.027) and myometrium (P=0.000), as well as for ERα in the superficial stroma (P=0.05). Significant "day post coitus" effect was found regarding to PR (P<0.01, with the exception of the superficial stroma, deep stroma and myometrium), ERα (P<0.01), and OTR (P<0.05, except in the deep compartments). No significant "treatment" effect was found for PR, ERα or OTR protein immunoexpression. This study supports the implication of PR, ERα and OTR within days 9-21 of the ovine pregnancy. Moreover, different expression pattern of PR and ERα proteins has been found between treatments in various compartments studied. Collectively, these results indicate that PR, ERα and OTR expression during early pregnancy is similar between ewes treated with either progestagens or prostaglandin analogues-based protocols for estrus synchronization.
    Animal reproduction science 06/2012; 133(1-2):93-100. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cell cycle inhibitors p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1) are frequently downregulated in many human cancers, and correlate with a worse prognosis. We show here that combined deficiency in p21 and p27 proteins in mice is linked to more aggressive spontaneous tumorigenesis, resulting in a decreased lifespan. The most common tumors developed in p21p27 double-null mice were endocrine, with a higher incidence of pituitary adenomas, pheochromocytomas and thyroid adenomas. The combined absence of p21 and p27 proteins delays the incidence of radiation-induced thymic lymphomas with a higher apoptotic rate, measured by active caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 immunoexpresion. These results provide experimental evidence for a cooperation of both cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in tumorigenesis in mice.
    Laboratory Investigation 08/2011; 91(11):1634-42. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate differences on the endometrial immunoexpression of type I IFN receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) during the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep, when oestrus is synchronized with either prostaglandin analogues (group PG) or conventional progestagens (group P). Plasma progesterone was measured from day 0 to 21 post-coitus (pc) (day 0 = day of oestrus). Immunohistochemistry was performed in samples of uterine horns from pregnant sheep on days 9pc, 13pc, 15pc, 17pc and 21pc to locate IFNAR1 and OTR expression in different endometrial compartments. Mean levels of plasma progesterone were different between treatments, obtaining higher levels in the PG group than in the P group (p < 0.05). Comparing days of pregnancy, IFNAR1 protein expression was different in the luminal epithelium (LE) (p < 0.05), while OTR was different in the LE and in the superficial glandular epithelium (SG) (p < 0.05). Temporal variation on the expression of both proteins from day 9pc to 21pc has been evidenced. IFNAR1 and OTR expression did not show significant differences between treatments. However, the response observed in the endometrium was highly inconsistent when prostaglandin analogues were used. Therefore, the protocol based on prostaglandin analogues still needs to be optimized before being considered as a better alternative to progestagens for oestrous synchronization in sheep.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 07/2011; 47(2):274-80. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to determine the possible effects of progestagen oestrous synchronization on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression during sheep luteogenesis and the peri-implantation period and the relationship with luteal function. At days 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 21 of pregnancy, the ovaries from 30 progestagen treated and 30 ewes cycling after cloprostenol injection were evaluated by ultrasonography and, thereafter, collected and processed for immunohistochemical evaluation of VEGF; blood samples were drawn for evaluating plasma progesterone. The progestagen-treated group showed smaller corpora lutea than cloprostenol-treated and lower progesterone secretion. The expression of VEGF in the luteal cells increased with time in the cloprostenol group, but not in the progestagen-treated group, which even showed a decrease between days 11 and 13. In progestagen-treated sheep, VEGF expression in granulosa-derived parenchymal lobule capillaries was correlated with the size of the luteal tissue, larger corpora lutea had higher expression, and tended to have a higher progesterone secretion. In conclusion, the current study indicates the existence of deleterious effects from exogenous progestagen treatments on progesterone secretion from induced corpora lutea, which correlate with alterations in the expression of VEGF in the luteal tissue and, this, presumably in the processes of neoangiogenesis and luteogenesis.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 06/2011; 46(3):481-8. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to determine possible differences in ovarian and pituitary features explaining lower fertility rates in sheep with oestrus induced with intravaginal progestagens or prostaglandin analogues (group FGA and PGF, n=8 in both) when compared to a control group (group C, n=8). The growth profiles and the mean individual sizes of preovulatory follicles were similar between groups; however, the number of preovulatory follicles per ewe and, consequently, the number of ovulations were higher in groups FGA and PGF (2.3±0.3 and 2.0±0.1, respectively) than in group C (1.4±0.1, P<0.05). However, plasma oestradiol concentrations were similar between groups suggesting a defective function in some preovulatory follicles of groups FGA and PGF. In group FGA, the basal LH levels during the follicular phase were lower (0.21±0.0 ng/mL, P<0.005) than in groups C (0.41±0.1 ng/mL) and PGF (0.55±0.1 ng/mL); the onset of preovulatory discharge being later (21.0±2.3h vs. 12.8±1.5 in C and 14.5±1.5 in PGF; P<0.05 for both). Finally, luteal activity was also found to be affected in group FGA; the rate of progesterone secretion per total luteal tissue was lower (range: 0.46-0.65 ng/mL/cm(2)) than in ewes treated with cloprostenol (2.1-3.3 ng/mL/cm(2)) and control sheep (2.0-3.4 ng/mL/cm(2)).
    Animal reproduction science 04/2011; 126(1-2):61-9. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been associated with cell growth regulation, tissue remodeling, and carcinogenesis. Ectopic expression of COX-2 in hepatocytes constitutes a nonphysiological condition ideal for evaluating the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in liver pathogenesis. The effect of COX-2-dependent PGs in chronic liver disease, hepatitis, fibrosis, and chemical hepatocarcinogenesis, has been investigated in transgenic (Tg) mice that express human COX-2 in hepatocytes and in Tg hepatic human cell lines. We have used three different complementary approaches: i) diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in COX-2 Tg mice, ii) DEN/phenobarbital treatment of human COX-2 Tg hepatocyte-like cells, and iii) COX-2 Tg hepatocyte-like cells implants in nude mice. The data suggest that PGs produced by COX-2 in hepatocytes promoted mild hepatitis in 60-week-old mice, as assessed by histological examination, but failed to contribute to the development of liver fibrogenesis after methionine- and choline-deficient diet treatment. Moreover, liver injury, collagen content, and hepatic stellate cell activation were equally severe in wild-type and COX-2 Tg mice. The contribution of COX-2-dependent PGs to the development of DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis was evaluated in Tg mice, Tg hepatocyte-like cells, and nude mice and the analysis revealed that COX-2 expression favors the development of preneoplastic foci without affecting malignant transformation. Endogenous COX-2 expression in wild-type mice is a late event in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
    American Journal Of Pathology 03/2011; 178(3):1361-73. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Comparative Pathology 11/2010; 143(4):335. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine, in a sheep model, the effect of a short-term progestative treatment on growth dynamics and functionality of induced corpora lutea. Observational, model study. Public university. Sixty adult female sheep. Synchronization and induction of ovulation with progestogens and prostaglandin analogues; ovarian ultrasonography, blood sampling, and ovariectomy. Determination of pituitary function and morphologic characteristics, expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors, and progesterone secretion of corpora lutea. The use of progestative pretreatments for assisted conception affect the growth patterns, the expression of LH receptors, and the progesterone secretion of induced corpora lutea. The current study indicates, in a sheep model, the existence of deleterious effects from progestogens on functionality of induced corpora lutea.
    Fertility and sterility 06/2009; 93(4):1308-15. · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PR) and the proliferative indexes (Ki-67), in the uterus and oviduct of sheep with estrus synchronized either by prostaglandin analogues (Group PA, n=27) or by treatment with progestagens (Group P, n=29) on days 4 and 7 (day 0=estrus), when the embryos were collected. Immunohistochemical methods were used to quantify ERalpha, PR and Ki-67 in six superficial and deep compartments in the uterus and oviduct. The expression of ERalpha was significantly (P<0.01) lower in progestagen treated ewes than in prostaglandin analogues treated group in the luminal epithelium, superficial glands and superficial stroma in the uterus on day 4. The expression of PR was significantly lower in progesterone treated ewes than in the PA Group in the superficial gland (P<0.05) in both days studied. The lowest expression of PR was observed in the luminal caruncular epithelium and superficial glands in both treatments, obtaining the lowest levels on day 4 (P<0.05). There were significant differences between days 4 and 7 in the Ki-67 immunostaining in the luminal epithelium (P<0.01) and superficial glands (P<0.05). A higher cell proliferation was observed in the uterine epithelium (P<0.05) on day 4 in the animals treated with progestagens. Results indicate that sheep with synchronization of estrus with progestagens showed a reduction of ERalpha and PR protein expression in most of oviductal and uterine cells.
    Animal Reproduction Science 01/2007; 97(1-2):25-35. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cell cycle inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 is among the most important mediators of the tumor suppressor p53. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that p21 could favor tumorigenesis in specific cell types. In particular, the absence of p21 delays the development of thymic lymphomas induced either by ataxia-telangiectasia mutated deficiency or by ionizing irradiation. Here, we extend these observations to the context of p53-deficient mice. The absence of p21 results in a significant extension of the lifespan of p53-null and p53-haploinsufficient mice, and this effect can be attributed exclusively to a decrease in the incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphomas. Specifically, despite the occurrence of a variety of tumor types in the context of p53 deficiency, the only tumors that were significantly impaired by the absence of p21 were thymic lymphomas. Moreover, the absence of p21 also delays the incidence of radiation-induced thymic lymphomas in p53-deficient mice. Interestingly, p21-deficient lymphomas have a higher apoptotic rate than p21-proficient lymphomas, and this could be on the basis of the delayed incidence of thymic lymphomas in the absence of p21. Together, our results indicate that p21 plays an oncogenic role restricted to thymic lymphomas that is mechanistically independent of p53 and associated to a lower tumor apoptotic rate.
    Oncogene 08/2006; 25(29):4128-32. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The control exerted by the INK4a/ARF locus on cellular proliferation is crucial to restrict tumor development. In agreement with this, mice with defects in this locus are highly tumor prone. However, the potential contribution of other pathways in modulating tumorigenesis in the absence of INK4a/ARF is largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of the combined loss of either of two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27, in cooperation with deletion of the INK4a/ARF locus. Our results show a clear differential effect in tumorigenesis depending on the CKI that is absent. The absence of p21 produced no overt alteration of the lifespan of the INK4a/ARF-null mice, although it modified their tumor spectrum, causing a significant increase in the incidence of fibrosarcomas and the appearance of a small number of rhabdomyosarcomas. In contrast, deficiency of p27 resulted in a significant increase in lethality due to accelerated tumor development, especially in the case of T-cell lymphomas. Finally, combined deficiency of INK4a/ARF and p27 resulted in a significant increase in the number of metastatic tumors. These results demonstrate genetically the oncogenic cooperation between defects on INK4a/ARF and p27, which are common alterations in human cancer.
    Oncogene 11/2004; 23(50):8231-7. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    J Martín-Caballero, J M Flores, P García-Palencia, M Serrano
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    ABSTRACT: The cell cycle regulator p21 mediates the ability of the tumor suppressor p53 to arrest cellular proliferation. We have examined the involvement of p21 in tumor suppression by following a large cohort of p21-deficient mice for an extended period of time. We report that p21-deficient mice develop spontaneous tumors at an average age of 16 months, whereas wild-type mice are tumor-free beyond 2 years of age. The tumors arising in p21-null mice derive from a variety of cell types and include hematopoietic ( approximately 65% of the tumors), endothelial ( approximately 20%), and epithelial ( approximately 10%) tumors. We have also studied radiation-induced carcinogenesis to test whether, in this setting, p53 exerts its tumor suppressor activity mainly through apoptosis, rather than through p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest. Concurring with this, p21-deficient mice did not show increased susceptibility to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. On the contrary, they were protected relative to wild-type mice. We conclude that p21, by mediating p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest, plays a significant role in tumor suppression.
    Cancer Research 09/2001; 61(16):6234-8. · 9.28 Impact Factor