ABSTRACT: The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na(+) concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts.
The concentration-dependent effects of SEA0400 on I(Na/Ca) were studied in rat and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes using a patch clamp technique. Starling curves were constructed for isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat and rabbit hearts. The cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities of both species were compared by immunohistochemistry.
SEA0400 inhibited I(Na/Ca) with similar efficacy in the two species; there was no difference between the inhibitions of the forward or reverse mode of the NCX in either species. SEA0400 increased the systolic and the developed pressure in the rat heart in a concentration-dependent manner, for example, 1.0 microM SEA0400 increased the maximum systolic pressures by 12% relative to the control, whereas it failed to alter the contractility in the rabbit heart. No interspecies difference was found in the cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities.
NCX inhibition exerted a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but it did not influence the contractility of the rabbit heart. This implies that the AP configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration may play an important role in the contractility response to NCX inhibition.
British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 154(1):93-104. · 4.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: In spite of its widespread clinical application, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of articaine. In the present study, the concentration-dependent effects of articaine on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Action potentials were recorded from the enzymatically dispersed myocytes using sharp microelectrodes (16 cells from 3 dogs). Conventional patch clamp and action potential voltage clamp arrangements were used to study the effects of articaine on transmembrane ion currents (37 cells from 14 dogs).
Articaine-induced concentration-dependent changes in action potential configuration including shortening of the action potentials, reduction of their amplitude and maximum velocity of depolarization (V(max)), suppression of early repolarization and depression of plateau. The EC50 value obtained for the V(max) block was 162 (sd 30) microM. Both the reduction of V(max) and action potential shortening were frequency dependent: the former was more prominent at shorter, while the latter at longer pacing cycle lengths. A rate dependent V(max) block, having rapid offset kinetics [tau = 91 (20) ms], was observed in addition to tonic block. Under voltage clamp conditions, a variety of ion currents were blocked by articaine: I(Ca) [EC50 = 471 (75) microM], I(to) [EC50 = 365 (62) microM], I(K1) [EC50 = 372 (46) microM], I(Kr) [EC50 = 278 (79) microM], and I(Ks) [EC50 = 326 (65) microM]. Hill coefficients were close to unity indicating a single binding site for articaine, except for I(K1).
Articaine can modify cardiac action potentials and ion currents at concentrations higher than the therapeutic range which can be achieved only by accidental venous injection. Since its suppressive effects on the inward and outward currents are relatively well balanced, the articaine-induced changes in action potential morphology may be moderate even in the case of overdose.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 12/2007; 99(5):726-33. · 4.24 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to give a parametric description of the most important K(+) currents flowing during canine ventricular action potential.
Inward rectifier K(+) current (I(K1)), rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)), and transient outward K(+) current (I(to)) were dissected under action potential clamp conditions using BaCl(2), E-4031, and 4-aminopyridine, respectively.
The maximum amplitude of I(to) was 3.0 +/- 0.23 pA/pF and its integral was 29.7 +/- 2.5 fC/pF. The current peaked 4.4 +/- 0.7 ms after the action potential upstroke and rapidly decayed to zero with a time constant of 7.4 +/- 0.6 ms. I(Kr) gradually increased during the plateau, peaked 7 ms before the time of maximum rate of repolarization (V(max)(-)) at -54.2 +/- 1.7 mV, had peak amplitude of 0.62 +/- 0.08 pA/pF, and integral of 57.6 +/- 6.7 fC/pF. I(K1) began to rise from -22.4 +/- 0.8 mV, peaked 1 ms after the time of V(max)(-) at -58.3 +/- 0.6 mV, had peak amplitude of 1.8 +/- 0.1 pA/pF, and integral of 61.6 +/- 6.2 fC/pF. Good correlation was observed between peak I(K1) and V(max)(-) (r = 0.93) but none between I(Kr) and V(max)(-). Neither I(K1) nor I(Kr) was frequency-dependent between 0.2 and 1.66 Hz. Congruently, I(Kr) failed to accumulate in canine myocytes at fast driving rates.
Terminal repolarization is dominated by I(K1), but action potential duration is influenced by several ion currents simultaneously. As I(to) was not active during the plateau, and neither I(K1) nor I(Kr) was frequency-dependent, other currents must be responsible for the frequency dependence of action potential duration at normal and slow heart rates in canine ventricular cells.
Acta Physiologica 07/2007; 190(3):189-98. · 3.09 Impact Factor