[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PCR-based immunoglobulin (Ig)/T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality testing in suspected lymphoproliferations has largely been standardized and has consequently become technically feasible in a routine diagnostic setting. Standardization of the pre-analytical and post-analytical phases is now essential to prevent misinterpretation and incorrect conclusions derived from clonality data. As clonality testing is not a quantitative assay, but rather concerns recognition of molecular patterns, guidelines for reliable interpretation and reporting are mandatory. Here, the EuroClonality (BIOMED-2) consortium summarizes important pre- and post-analytical aspects of clonality testing, provides guidelines for interpretation of clonality testing results, and presents a uniform way to report the results of the Ig/TCR assays. Starting from an immunobiological concept, two levels to report Ig/TCR profiles are discerned: the technical description of individual (multiplex) PCR reactions and the overall molecular conclusion for B and T cells. Collectively, the EuroClonality (BIOMED-2) guidelines and consensus reporting system should help to improve the general performance level of clonality assessment and interpretation, which will directly impact on routine clinical management (standardized best-practice) in patients with suspected lymphoproliferations.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2012; 26(10):2159-71. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eradication of minimal residual disease (MRD) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) predicts for improved outcome. However, the wide variety of MRD techniques makes it difficult to interpret and compare different clinical trials. Our aim was to develop a standardized flow cytometric CLL-MRD assay and compare it to real-time quantitative allele-specific oligonucleotide (RQ-ASO) Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of 728 paired blood and marrow samples demonstrated high concordance (87%) for patients off-therapy. Blood analysis was equally or more sensitive than marrow in 92% of samples but marrow analysis was necessary to detect MRD within 3 months of alemtuzumab therapy. Assessment of 50 CLL-specific antibody combinations identified three (CD5/CD19 with CD20/CD38, CD81/CD22 and CD79b/CD43) with low inter-laboratory variation and false-detection rates. Experienced operators demonstrated an accuracy of 95.7% (specificity 98.8%, sensitivity 91.1%) in 141 samples with 0.01-0.1% CLL. There was close correlation and 95% concordance with RQ-ASO IgH-PCR for detection of CLL above 0.01%. The proposed flow cytometry approach is applicable to all sample types and therapeutic regimes, and sufficiently rapid and sensitive to guide therapy to an MRD-negativity in real time. These techniques may be used as a tool for assessing response and comparing the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assessment of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements is an important diagnostic tool in mature B-cell neoplasms. However, lack of standardized PCR protocols resulting in a high level of false negativity has hampered comparability of data in previous clonality studies. In order to address these problems, 22 European laboratories investigated the Ig/TCR rearrangement patterns as well as t(14;18) and t(11;14) translocations of 369 B-cell malignancies belonging to five WHO-defined entities using the standardized BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR tubes accompanied by international pathology panel review. B-cell clonality was detected by combined use of the IGH and IGK multiplex PCR assays in all 260 definitive cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=56), mantle cell lymphoma (n=54), marginal zone lymphoma (n=41) and follicular lymphoma (n=109). Two of 109 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma showed no detectable clonal marker. The use of these techniques to assign cell lineage should be treated with caution as additional clonal TCR gene rearrangements were frequently detected in all disease categories. Our study indicates that the BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR assays provide a powerful strategy for clonality assessment in B-cell malignancies resulting in high Ig clonality detection rates particularly when IGH and IGK strategies are combined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma is a recognized difficult area in histopathology. Therefore, detection of clonality in a suspected lymphoproliferation is a valuable diagnostic criterion. We have developed primer sets for the detection of rearrangements in the B- and T-cell receptor genes as reliable tools for clonality assessment in lymphoproliferations suspected for lymphoma. In this issue of Leukemia, the participants of the BIOMED-2 Concerted Action CT98-3936 report on the validation of the newly developed clonality assays in various disease entities. Clonality was detected in 99% of all B-cell malignancies and in 94% of all T-cell malignancies, whereas the great majority of reactive lesions showed polyclonality. The combined BIOMED-2 results are summarized in a guideline, which can now be implemented in routine lymphoma diagnostics. The use of this standardized approach in patients with a suspect lymphoproliferation will result in improved diagnosis of malignant lymphoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a European BIOMED-2 collaborative study, multiplex PCR assays have successfully been developed and standardized for the detection of clonally rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes and the chromosome aberrations t(11;14) and t(14;18). This has resulted in 107 different primers in only 18 multiplex PCR tubes: three VH-JH, two DH-JH, two Ig kappa (IGK), one Ig lambda (IGL), three TCR beta (TCRB), two TCR gamma (TCRG), one TCR delta (TCRD), three BCL1-Ig heavy chain (IGH), and one BCL2-IGH. The PCR products of Ig/TCR genes can be analyzed for clonality assessment by heteroduplex analysis or GeneScanning. The detection rate of clonal rearrangements using the BIOMED-2 primer sets is unprecedentedly high. This is mainly based on the complementarity of the various BIOMED-2 tubes. In particular, combined application of IGH (VH-JH and DH-JH) and IGK tubes can detect virtually all clonal B-cell proliferations, even in B-cell malignancies with high levels of somatic mutations. The contribution of IGL gene rearrangements seems limited. Combined usage of the TCRB and TCRG tubes detects virtually all clonal T-cell populations, whereas the TCRD tube has added value in case of TCRgammadelta(+) T-cell proliferations. The BIOMED-2 multiplex tubes can now be used for diagnostic clonality studies as well as for the identification of PCR targets suitable for the detection of minimal residual disease.