[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical applicability of navigated blood flow imaging (BFI) in neurovascular applications. BFI is a new 2-dimensional ultrasound modality that offers angle-independent visualization of flow. When integrated with 3-dimensional (3D) navigation technology, BFI can be considered as a first step toward the ideal tool for surgical needs: a real-time, high-resolution, 3D visualization that properly portrays both vessel geometry and flow direction.
A 3D model of the vascular tree was extracted from preoperative magnetic resonance angiographic data and used as a reference for intraoperative any-plane guided ultrasound acquisitions. A high-end ultrasound scanner was interconnected, and synchronized recordings of BFI and 3D navigation scenes were acquired. The potential of BFI as an intraoperative tool for flow visualization was evaluated in 3 cerebral aneurysms and 3 arteriovenous malformations.
The neurovascular flow direction was properly visualized in all cases using BFI. Navigation technology allowed for identification of the vessels of interest, despite the presence of brain shift. The surgeon found BFI to be very intuitive compared with conventional color Doppler methods. BFI allowed for quality control of sufficient flow in all distal arteries during aneurysm surgery and made it easier to discern between feeding arteries and draining veins during surgery for arteriovenous malformations.
BFI seems to be a promising modality for neurovascular flow visualization that may provide the neurosurgeon with a valuable tool for safer surgical interventions. However, further work is needed to establish the clinical usefulness of the proposed imaging setup.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the application of navigated stereoscopic display of preoperative three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance angiography and intraoperative 3-D ultrasound angiography in a clinical setting.
Preoperative magnetic resonance angiography and intraoperative ultrasound angiography are presented as stereoscopic images on the monitor during the operation by a simple red/blue technique. Two projections are generated, one for each eye, according to a simple ray casting method. Because of integration with a navigation system, it is possible to identify vessels with a pointer. The system has been applied during operations on nine patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Seven of the patients had AVMs in an eloquent area.
The technology makes it easier to understand the vascular architecture during the operation, and it offers a possibility to identify and clip AVM feeders both on the surface and deep in the tissue at the beginning of the operation. All 28 feeders identified on the preoperative angiograms were identified by intraoperative navigated stereoscopy. Twenty-five were clipped at the beginning of the operation. The other three were clipped at a later phase of the operation. 3-D ultrasound angiography was useful to map the size of the nidus, to detect the degree of brain shift, and to identify residual AVM.
Stereoscopic visualization enhances the surgeon's perception of the vascular architecture, and integrated with navigation technology, this offers a reliable system for identification and clipping of AVM feeders in the initial phase of the operation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were: 1) To develop protocols for, integration and assessment of the usefulness of high quality fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) data in an ultrasound-based neuronavigation system. 2) To develop and demonstrate a co-registration method for automatic brain-shift correction of pre-operative MR data using intra-operative 3D ultrasound.
Twelve patients undergoing brain surgery were scanned to obtain structural and fMRI data before the operation. In six of these patients, DTI data was also obtained. The preoperative data was imported into a commercial ultrasound-based navigation system and used for surgical planning and guidance. Intra-operative ultrasound volumes were acquired when needed during surgery and the multimodal data was used for guidance and resection control. The use of the available image information during planning and surgery was recorded. An automatic voxel-based registration method between preoperative MRA and intra-operative 3D ultrasound angiography (Power Doppler) was developed and tested postoperatively.
The study showed that it is possible to implement robust, high-quality protocols for fMRI and DTI and that the acquired data could be seamlessly integrated in an ultrasound-based neuronavigation system. Navigation based on fMRI data was found to be important for pre-operative planning in all twelve procedures. In five out of eleven cases the data was also found useful during the resection. DTI data was found to be useful for planning in all five cases where these data were imported into the navigation system. In two out of four cases DTI data was also considered important during the resection (in one case DTI data were acquired but not imported and in another case fMRI and DTI data could only be used for planning). Information regarding the location of important functional areas (fMRI) was more beneficial during the planning phase while DTI data was more helpful during the resection. Furthermore, the surgeon found it more user-friendly and efficient to interpret fMRI and DTI information when shown in a navigation system as compared to the traditional display on a light board or monitor. Updating MRI data for brain-shift using automatic co-registration of preoperative MRI with intra-operative ultrasound was feasible.
In the present study we have demonstrated how both fMRI and DTI data can be acquired and integrated into a neuronavigation system for improved surgical planning and guidance. The surgeons reported that the integration of fMRI and DTI data in the navigation system represented valuable additional information presented in a user-friendly way and functional neuronavigation is now in routine use at our hospital. Furthermore, the present study showed that automatic ultrasound-based updates of important pre-operative MRI data are feasible and hence can be used to compensate for brain shift.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avoiding damage to blood vessels is often the concern of the neurosurgeon during tumor surgery. Using angiographic image data in neuronavigation may be useful in cases where vascular anatomy is of special interest. Since 2003, we have routinely used 3D ultrasound angiography in tumor surgery, and between January 2003 and May 2005, 62 patients with different tumors have been operated using intraoperative 3D ultrasound angiography in neuronavigation.
An ultrasound-based neuronavigation system was used. In addition to 3D ultrasound tissue image data, 3D ultrasound angiography (power Doppler) image data were acquired at different stages of the operation. The value and role of navigated 3D ultrasound angiography as judged by the surgeon were recorded.
We found that intraoperative ultrasound angiography was easy to acquire and interpret, and that image quality was sufficient for neuronavigation. In 26 of 62 cases, ultrasound angiography was found to be helpful by visualizing hidden vessels adjacent to and inside the tumor, facilitating tailored approaches and safe biopsy sampling.
Intraoperative 3D ultrasound angiography is straightforward to use, image quality is sufficient for image guidance, and it adds valuable information about hidden vessels, increasing safety and facilitating tailored approaches. Furthermore, with updated 3D ultrasound angiography imaging, accuracy of neuronavigation may be maintained in cases of brain shift.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors describe the technical application of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography navigation in spinal cord tumor surgery. The spinal cord is a complex neurological structure in which there is the potential for causing neurological morbidity during tumor resection. Standard neuronavigation systems based on computed tomography or C-arm images are not adapted to tumor surgery in the spinal cord. Since 2004 the authors have been using a 3D ultrasonography-based neuronavigation system. During surgery, two-dimensional ultrasound images were acquired and reconstructed into 3D image data to assist in tumor resection. The navigation cameras read the position of a patient reference frame attached to a spinous process, the ultrasonography probe, and surgical instruments. Five- and 10-MHz phased-array ultrasonography probes equipped with optical tracking frames were used for image data acquisition. Spinal cord tumors were visualized using ultrasonography, and 3D ultrasonography-guided tumor biopsy sampling and resection were performed. The practice of attaching the reference frame to a spinous process adjacent to the spinal cord tumor, as well as performing image acquisition just before starting the resection, reduced the possible sources of inaccuracy. The technical application of a navigation system based on intraoperative 3D ultrasound image reconstruction seems feasible and may have the potential of improving functional outcome in association with spinal cord tumor surgery.
Journal of Neurosurgery Spine 10/2006; 5(3):264-70. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Navigation systems are now frequently being used for guiding surgical procedures. Existing neuronavigation systems suffer from the lack of updated images when tissue changes during surgery as well as from user-friendly displays of all essential images for accurate and safe surgery guidance.
We have developed various new technologies for improved neuronavigation. Using intraoperative 3D ultrasound (US) imaging, we have developed various registration algorithms for using and updating a complete multimodal and multivolume 3D map for navigation.
We experienced that advanced multimodal visualization makes it easy to interpret information from several image volumes and modalities simultaneously. Using high quality intraoperative 3D ultrasound, essential preoperative information could be corrected due to brain shift. fMRI and other important preoperative data could then be used together with intraoperative ultrasound imaging for more accurate, safer and improved guidance of therapy.
We claim that new features, as demonstrated in the present paper, using intraoperative 3D ultrasound in combination with advanced registration and display algorithms will represent important contributions towards more accurate, safer and more optimized future patient treatment.
International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery 04/2006; 2(1):45-59. · 1.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years there has been a considerable improvement in the quality of ultrasound (US) imaging. The integration of 3D US with neuronavigation technology has created an efficient and inexpensive tool for intra-operative imaging in neurosurgery. In this review we present the technological background and an overview of the wide range of different applications. The technology has so far mostly been applied to improve surgery of tumours in brain tissue, but it has also been found to be useful in other procedures such as operations for cavernous haemangiomas, skull base tumours, syringomyelia, medulla tumours, aneurysms, AVMs and endoscopy guidance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the feasibility of using 3D ultrasound-based neuronavigation for guiding neuroendoscopy.
A neuronavigation system with an integrated ultrasound scanner was used for acquiring the 3D ultrasound image data. The endoscope with a tracking frame attached was calibrated to the navigation system. The endoscope was guided based on intraoperative 3D ultrasound data in 9 operations. In 5 of the operations, ultrasound angiography data were also obtained. Updated image data (e. g., more than one 3D ultrasound dataset) were obtained in 6 of the operations.
We found that the image quality of 3D ultrasound was sufficient for image guidance of the endoscope. Planning of the entry point and trajectory as well as finding optimal sites for fenestration were successfully performed. Blood vessels were visualized by 3D ultrasound angiography. In one procedure of third ventriculostomy, the basilar artery was visualized. Updated image data were quickly obtained, and in two of the cases, a reduction of the size of cysts was demonstrated.
3D ultrasound gives accurate images of sufficiently high quality for image guidance of neuroendoscopy. Updated 3D ultrasound datasets can easily be acquired and may adjust for brain shift. Ultrasound angiography image data are also available with this technology and can visualize vessels of importance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ObjectiveThe purpose of the study was to compare the ability of navigated 3D ultrasound to distinguish tumour and normal brain tissue
at the tumour border zone in subsequent phases of resection.
Materials and methodsBiopsies were sampled in the tumour border zone as seen in the US images before and during surgery. After resection, biopsies
were sampled in the resection cavity wall. Histopathology was compared with the surgeon’s image findings.
ResultsBefore resection, the tumour border was delineated by ultrasound with high specificity and sensitivity (both 95%). During
resection, ultrasound had acceptable sensitivity (87%), but poor specificity (42%), due to biopsies falsely classified as
tumour by the surgeon. After resection, sensitivity was poor (26%), due to tumour or infiltrated tissue in several biopsies
deemed normal by ultrasound, but the specificity was acceptable (88%).
ConclusionsOur study shows that although glioblastomas are well delineated prior to resection, there seem to be overestimation of tumour
tissue during resection. After resection tumour remnants and infiltrated brain tissue in the resection cavity wall may be
undetected. We believe that the benefits of intraoperative ultrasound outweigh the shortcomings, but users of intraoperative
ultrasound should keep the limitations shown in our study in mind.