Nicola D Ridgers

Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (89)216.04 Total impact

  • Nicola D Ridgers · Anna Timperio · Ester Cerin · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to examine whether increased levels of sitting time and physical activity in one period (within-day) or on one day (between-day) were predictive of lower levels in these behaviours in the following period or day among children. Methods: Children aged 8-11 years from 8 primary schools located in Melbourne, Australia, wore an activPAL for 7 consecutive days (n = 235; 53 % boys). Sitting, standing and stepping time were derived for each day and for specific periods on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel analyses were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models to estimate associations between temporally adjacent values (i.e. pairs of days; pairs of periods within-days) between the outcome variables. Results: Significant associations were observed between temporally adjacent days and periods of the day. On any given day, an additional 10 min of stepping was associated with fewer minutes of stepping (~9 min; 95 % CI: -11.5 to -6.2 min) and standing (15 min; 95 % CI: -18.8 to -11.1 min) the following day. Greater time spent sitting during one period, regardless of being a weekday or weekend day, was associated with less time sitting and more time standing and stepping in the following period. Conclusions: The direction of the results suggest that children appeared to compensate for increased sitting, standing, and stepping time both within- and between-days. The implications of such associations for the design and delivery of interventions require consideration.
    BMC Public Health 09/2015; 15(1):950. DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2291-3 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 08/2015; DOI:10.2466/10.25.PMS.121c14x0 · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • Lisa M. Barnett · Nicola D. Ridgers · John Reynolds · Lisa Hanna · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the associations between young children's actual and perceived object control and locomotor skills and physical activity and whether associations differ by sex. Cross sectional study. A total of 136 children consented. Children had actual skill (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), perceived skill (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometers) assessed. Independent t-tests assessed sex differences. A regression (with MVPA as the outcome) was performed with all predictor variables (i.e. Actual Object Control, Actual Locomotor, Perceived Object Control, and Perceived Locomotor). Model 2 also adjusted for age, sex, accelerometer wear time and whether the child was from an English speaking background. Interaction terms between the respective actual or perceived skill factor and sex were added to assess sex differences. Analyses were conducted on 109 children (59 boys, 50 girls; mean age=6.5 years, SD=1.0). Boys had higher actual and perceived object control skill and were more active by an average of 19min per day. There were no sex differences in locomotor skills. There were no associations between skill factors and MVPA, except for girls, where locomotor skill was a significant predictor of MVPA (B=3.66, p=0.016). Actual rather than perceived skill competence was more important to MVPA in this sample. Locomotor skill competence may be more important than object control skill competence for girls as they may engage in types of physical activity that do not require object control mastery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.07.002
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    Nicola D Ridgers · Jo Salmon · Anna Timperio
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonal variations may influence children's physical activity patterns. The aim of this study was to examine how children's objectively-measured physical activity differed across seasons, and whether different seasonal patterns were observed for boys and girls. Three hundred and twenty-six children aged 8-11 years from nine primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study. Physical activity was measured every 15-s using hip-mounted GT3X+ ActiGraph accelerometers for seven consecutive days in the Winter (n = 249), Spring (n = 221), Summer (n = 174) and Autumn (n = 152) school terms. Time spent in moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) at each time point was derived using age-specific cut-points. Meteorological data (maximum temperature, precipitation, daylight hours) were obtained daily during each season. Longitudinal data were analysed using multilevel analyses, adjusted for age, sex, accelerometer wear time, number of valid days, and meteorological variables. Compared to Winter, children engaged in significantly less MPA (-5.0 min) and MVPA (-7.8 min) in Summer. Girls engaged in less MVPA in Spring (-18 min) and Summer (-9.2 min) and more MVPA in Autumn (9.9 min) compared to Winter. Significant changes in MPA and VPA bout frequency and duration were also observed. Significant decreases in VPA bout frequency (3.4 bouts) and duration (2.6 min) were observed for girls in Spring compared to Winter. No significant seasonal changes were observed for boys for all intensities and physical activity accumulation. Physical activity decreased in Summer compared to Winter, contrasting previous research that typically reports that children are most active in summer. Greater fluctuations were observed for girls' activity levels. In addition, girls' activity duration and bouts appeared to be more susceptible to seasonal changes compared to boys. The results suggest that strategies to promote physical activity may be needed in Australia during the hot summer months, particularly for girls.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 06/2015; 12(1):77. DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0245-x · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigate associations of TV viewing time and accelerometry-derived sedentary time with inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers in children. Cross-sectional analysis of 164 7-10-year-old children. TV viewing time was assessed by parental proxy report and total and patterns of sedentary time accumulation (e.g. prolonged bouts) were assessed by accelerometry. C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, interleukin-2, -6, -8, -10, tumour necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, resistin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, soluble intercellular and vascular adhesion molecule 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and soluble E-selectin were assessed. Generalised linear models assessed the associations of TV viewing and sedentary time with biomarkers, adjusting for sex, waist circumference, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and diet density. Each additional h week(-1) of TV viewing was associated with 4.4% (95% CI: 2.1, 6.7) greater CRP and 0.6% (0.2, 1.0) greater sVCAM-1 in the fully adjusted model. The association between frequency and duration of 5-10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP was positive after adjustment for sex and waist circumference but attenuated after adjustment for diet density. This study suggests that TV viewing was unfavourably associated with several markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The detrimental association between 5 and 10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP approached significance, suggesting that further research with a stronger study design (longitudinal and/or experimental) is needed to better understand how the accumulation of sedentary time early in life may influence short and longer term health. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
    Pediatric Obesity 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/ijpo.12045 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This research examined the influence of sit-to-stand desks on classroom sitting time in primary school children. Pilot controlled trials with similar intervention strategies were conducted in primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, and Bradford, UK. Sit-to-stand desks replaced all standard desks in the Australian intervention classroom. Six sit-to-stand desks replaced a bank of standard desks in the UK intervention classroom. Children were exposed to the sit-to-stand desks for 9-10 weeks. Control classrooms retained their normal seated desks. Classroom sitting time was measured at baseline and follow-up using the activPAL3 inclinometer. Thirty UK and 44 Australian children provided valid activPAL data at baseline and follow-up. The proportion of time spent sitting in class decreased significantly at follow-up in both intervention groups (UK: -9.8 ± 16.5% [-52.4 ± 66.6 min/day]; Australian: -9.4 ± 10% [-43.7 ± 29.9 min/day]). No significant changes in classroom sitting time were observed in the UK control group, while a significant reduction was observed in the Australian control group (-5.9 ± 11.7% [-28.2 ± 28.3 min/day]). Irrespective of implementation, incorporating sit-to-stand desks into classrooms appears to be an effective way of reducing classroom sitting in this diverse sample of children. Longer term efficacy trials are needed to determine effects on children's health and learning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    Journal of Public Health 06/2015; DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdv084 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mothers’ self-efficacy for limiting their children’s television viewing is an important correlate of this behaviour in young children. However, no studies have examined how maternal self-efficacy changes over time, which is potentially important during periods of rapid child development. This study examined tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children’s television viewing over 15-months and associations with children’s television viewing time. Methods In 2008 and 2010, mothers (n = 404) from the Melbourne InFANT Program self-reported their self-efficacy for limiting their child’s television viewing at 4- and 19-months of age. Tertiles of self-efficacy were created at each time and categorised into: persistently high, persistently low, increasing or decreasing self-efficacy. Weighted kappa and multinomial logistic regression examined tracking and demographic and behavioural predictors of change in self-efficacy. A linear regression model examined associations between tracking categories and children’s television viewing time. Results Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting children’s television viewing was low (kappa = 0.23, p < 0.001). Mothers who had persistently high or increasing self-efficacy had children with lower television viewing time at 19-months (β = −35.5; 95 % CI = −54.4,-16.6 and β = 37.0; 95 % CI = −54.4,-19.7, respectively). Mothers of children with difficult temperaments were less likely to have persistently high self-efficacy. Mothers who met adult physical activity guidelines had 2.5 greater odds of increasing self-efficacy. Conclusions Interventions to increase and maintain maternal self-efficacy for limiting children’s television viewing time may result in lower rates of this behaviour amongst toddlers. Maternal and child characteristics may need to be considered when tailoring interventions.
    BMC Public Health 05/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1858-3 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Actual and perceived object control (commonly ball) skill proficiency is associated with higher physical activity in children and adolescents. Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movement to control/play the electronic gaming system and therefore provide an opportunity for screen time to become more active. The purpose of this study was to determine whether playing sports AVGs has a positive influence on young children's actual and perceived object control skills. Two group pre/post experimental design study. Thirty-six children aged 6-10 years old from one school were randomly allocated to a control or intervention condition. The Test of Gross Motor Development-3 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence for Young Children assessed perceived object control skill. The intervention consisted of 6×50min lunchtime AVG sessions on the Xbox Kinect. Two to three sport games were chosen for participants to play each session. General linear models with either perceived object control or actual object control skill as the outcome variables were conducted. Each base model adjusted for intervention status and pre-score of the respective outcome variable. Additional models adjusted for potential confounding variables (sex of child and game at home). No significant differences between the control and intervention groups were observed for both outcomes. This study found that playing the Xbox Kinect does not significantly influence children's perceived or actual object control skills, suggesting that the utility of the Xbox Kinect for developing perceived and actual object control skill competence is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.05.002
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    Grace H E Liong · Nicola D Ridgers · Lisa M Barnett
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    ABSTRACT: -Given that children with low movement skill competence engage in less physical activity, it is important to understand how children's perceptions relate to actual movement competence. This study examined relationships between (i) children's self-perception and objective assessments of their movement skills (object control and locomotor) and (ii) parents' perceptions of the children's movement skills and objective assessment. Children's skill perceptions were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children. Parent perceptions of their child's skills were assessed using a modified version of this instrument. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition assessed children's skills objectively. Participants were 136 Australian children (51% boys; M = 6.5 yr., SD = 1.1) and 133 parents. Regression analyses (by sex) examined the relationship between perceptions and children's scores for actual skilled performance. Boys' perceptions were associated with their actual object control ability. Parents accurately perceived boys' object control ability and girls' locomotor ability, but not the reverse. This suggests interventions aiming to improve children's movement skills could target parents and be designed to teach parents how to recognize good and poor skill performance in their children.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 02/2015; 120(2). DOI:10.2466/10.25.PMS.120v18x2 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) accounts for much of adults' waking hours (≈40%) and substantially contributes to overall daily energy expenditure. Encompassing activity behaviours of low intensity (standing with little movement) through to those with a higher intensity (slow walking), LIPA is ubiquitous, yet little is known about how associations with health may vary depending on its intensity. We examined the associations of objectively assessed LIPA, categorized as either low- or high- LIPA, and MVPA, with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured in 4614 US adults (47±17 yrs) who participated in the 2003-04 and 2005-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles. Multiple linear regression analyses examined associations of three accelerometer-derived physical activity (SD increment/day) intensity categories (low-LIPA [LLPA: 100-761 counts·min]; high-LIPA [HLPA: 762-1951 counts·min]; moderate [MPA: 1952-5724 counts·min] and, vigorous [VPA: ≥5725 counts·min]) with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and medical confounders. All intensities of physical activity were beneficially associated with waist circumference, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, fasting insulin, β-cell function and insulin sensitivity (P<0.05); only some activity intensities showed significant associations with systolic blood pressure (LLPA), body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose (HLPA, MPA, VPA). Generally, size of effect increased with PA intensity. Overall, further adjustment for waist circumference attenuated associations with MPA and VPA to a greater extent than with LLPA and HLPA. These cross-sectional findings provide novel evidence for the potential benefits of increasing both LLPA and HLPA; they further reinforce the established importance of MVPA - the mainstay of public health recommendations.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 02/2015; 47(10). DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000631 · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Sophie McKenzie · Shaun Bangay · Lisa M. Barnett · Nicola D. Ridgers · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes the design, development, and implementation feasibility of a purpose-built mobile active videogame (M-AVG) named "Pirate Adventure," which was designed for primary school-aged children to engage in physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS), such as hopping, sidestepping, jumping, or running, in an afterschool setting. The design of "Pirate Adventure" was the result of a collaboration between games designers and health researchers. "Pirate Adventure" was designed and developed using Android(®) (Google, Mountain View, CA) phone sensors to respond to player actions within a playground environment. Using an interactive game framework, players solve clues and complete PA and FMS challenges via sensing the physical world through marked-out key game locations. Fourteen primary school-aged children participated in the feasibility evaluation, which took place in four afternoon sessions. The game was evaluated using Android phone telemetry data and a post-gameplay survey for children on their opinions and enjoyment of the game. The "Pirate Adventure" game design facilitated an enjoyable treasure hunt game (average of 11 minutes of activity per game) with narrative elements supporting children's engagement with movement activities. The majority of children (n=9/13) reported that they would like to play the game again. Combining real world and virtual world content through "Pirate Adventure" was moderately successful, with multiple gameplay sessions occurring. Further implementation feasibility testing, under more controlled conditions, needs to be conducted to assert the benefits of using a M-AVG for children's PA and FMS.
    12/2014; 3(6):379-387. DOI:10.1089/g4h.2013.0097
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine associations between fundamental movement skills and weekday and weekend physical activity among preschool children living in deprived communities. Design Cross-sectional observation study. Methods Six locomotor skills and 6 object-control skills were video-assessed using The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. Physical activity was measured via hip-mounted accelerometry. A total of 99 children (53% boys) aged 3-5 years (M 4.6, SD 0.5) completed all assessments. Multilevel mixed regression models were used to examine associations between fundamental movement skills and physical activity. Models were adjusted for clustering, age, sex, standardised body mass index and accelerometer wear time. Results Boys were more active than girls and had higher object-control skill competency. Total skill score was positively associated with weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = 0.034) but not weekday physical activity categories (p > 0.05). When subdomains of skills were examined, object-control skills was positively associated with light physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.008) and with light (p = 0.033), moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.028) and light- and moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.008) physical activity at weekends. Locomotor skill competency was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.016) and light physical activity during the weekend (p = 0.035). Conclusions The findings suggest that developing competence in both locomotor and object-control skills may be an important element in promoting an active lifestyle in young children during weekdays and at weekends.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.09.014 · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Lisa Barnett · Leah E Robinson · Elizabeth K Webster · Nicola Diane Ridgers
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose was to determine the reliability of an instrument designed to assess young children's perceived movement skill competence in two diverse samples. Method: A pictorial instrument assessed 12 perceived Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) based on the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition. Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) and internal consistency analyses were conducted. Paired sample t-tests assessed change in mean perceived skill scores. Bivariate correlations between the inter-trial difference and the mean of the trials explored proportional bias. Results: Sample 1 (S1) were culturally diverse Australian children (n = 111; 52% boys) aged 5-8 years (M = 6.4, SD = 1.0) with educated parents. Sample 2 (S2) were racially diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged American children (n = 110; 57% boys) aged 5-10 years (M = 6.8, SD = 1.1). For all children, the internal consistency for 12 FMS was acceptable (S1 = 0.72, 0.75, S2 = 0.66, 0.67). ICCs were higher in S1 (0.73) than S2 (0.50). Mean changes between trials were small. There was little evidence of proportional bias. Conclusion: Lower values in S2 may be due to differences in study demographic and execution. Whilst the instrument demonstrated reliability/internal consistency, further work is recommended in diverse samples.
    Journal of physical activity & health 09/2014; DOI:10.1123/jpah.2014-0141 · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Lisa M. Barnett · Nicola D. Ridgers · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The relationship between actual and perceived object control (OC) competence (ball skills) and the contribution to young children's physical activity is not known. Methods The Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed actual OC competence and a modified version of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children assessed perceived OC competence. Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was measured via accelerometry. Three mixed regression models were performed: i) OC competence as the predictor and the outcome as perceived OC, ii) perceived OC competence as the predictor and the outcome MVPA and ii) actual OC as the predictor and the outcome MVPA. Models adjusted for school clustering, monitor wear time, sex and age. Interactions between respective predictor variables and sex were performed if warranted. A total of 102 children (56% boys, 44% girls) aged 4-8 years (M 6.3, SD 0.92) completed assessments. Results Girls had lower perceived and actual OC competence and were less active than boys. Actual OC competence was positively associated with perceived OC competence (B = 0.11, t(96) = 2.25, p < 0.001, p = 0.027) and this relationship did not differ by sex (p = 0.449); however, neither actual (p = 0.092) nor perceived OC competence (p = 0.827) were associated with MVPA. Discussion Young children's perceived ball skill abilities appear to relate to actual competence; however, these measures were not associated with physical activity. In older children, OC skill is associated with physical activity so targeting young children's OC skills is an intervention priority.
    03/2014; 18(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.03.001
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    ABSTRACT: The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p < 0.001) more active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p < 0.001) and very high (p < 0.05) intensity physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively) and vigorous (p < 0.001) physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.
    BMC Public Health 02/2014; 14(1):192. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-192 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    Nicola D Ridgers · Anna Timperio · Ester Cerin · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable debate about the possibility of physical activity compensation. This study examined whether increased levels in physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour on one day were predictive of lower levels in these behaviours on the following day (compensatory mechanisms) among children. Two hundred and forty-eight children (121 boys, 127 girls) aged 8-11 years from nine primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, wore a GT3X+ ActiGraph for seven consecutive days. Time spent in light (LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was derived using age-specific cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts[BULLET OPERATOR]min. Meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, daylight hours) were obtained daily and matched to accelerometer wear days. Multilevel analyses (day, child, school) were conducted using generalized linear latent and mixed models. On any given day, every additional 10 minutes spent in MVPA was associated with approximately 25 minutes less LPA and 5 minutes less MVPA the following day. Similarly, additional time spent in LPA on any given day was associated with less time in LPA and MVPA the next day. Time spent sedentary was associated with less sedentary time the following day. Adjusting for meteorological variables did not change observed compensation effects. No significant moderating effect of sex was observed. The results are consistent with the compensation hypothesis, whereby children appear to compensate their physical activity or sedentary time between days. Additional adjustment for meteorological variables did not change the observed associations. Further research is needed to examine what factors may explain apparent compensatory changes in children's physical activity and sedentary time.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 01/2014; 46(8). DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000275 · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Lisa M Barnett · Nicola D Ridgers · Avigdor Zask · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: To determine reliability and face validity of an instrument to assess young children's perceived fundamental movement skill competence. Validation and reliability study. A pictorial instrument based on the Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed perceived locomotor (six skills) and object control (six skills) competence using the format and item structure from the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children. Sample 1 completed object control items in May (n=32) and locomotor items in October 2012 (n=23) at two time points seven days apart. Children were asked at the end of the test-retest their understanding of what was happening in each picture to determine face validity. Sample 2 (n=58) completed 12 items in November 2012 on a single occasion to test internal reliability only. Sample 1 children were aged 5-7 years (M=6.0, SD=0.8) at object control assessment and 5-8 years at locomotor assessment (M=6.5, SD=0.9). Sample 2 children were aged 6-8 years (M=7.2, SD=0.73). Intra-class correlations assessed in Sample 1 children were excellent for object control (intra-class correlation=0.78), locomotor (intra-class correlation=0.82) and all 12 skills (intra-class correlations=0.83). Face validity was acceptable. Internal consistency was adequate in both samples for each subscale and all 12 skills (alpha range 0.60-0.81). This study has provided preliminary evidence for instrument reliability and face validity. This enables future alignment between the measurement of perceived and actual fundamental movement skill competence in young children.
    01/2014; 18(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.12.004

Publication Stats

2k Citations
216.04 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2015
    • Deakin University
      • Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Vic
      Vic, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2005–2010
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • • Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES)
      • • School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
      Liverpool, ENG, United Kingdom