Nicola D Ridgers

Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (69)162.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine associations between fundamental movement skills and weekday and weekend physical activity among preschool children living in deprived communities. Design Cross-sectional observation study. Methods Six locomotor skills and 6 object-control skills were video-assessed using The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. Physical activity was measured via hip-mounted accelerometry. A total of 99 children (53% boys) aged 3-5 years (M 4.6, SD 0.5) completed all assessments. Multilevel mixed regression models were used to examine associations between fundamental movement skills and physical activity. Models were adjusted for clustering, age, sex, standardised body mass index and accelerometer wear time. Results Boys were more active than girls and had higher object-control skill competency. Total skill score was positively associated with weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = 0.034) but not weekday physical activity categories (p > 0.05). When subdomains of skills were examined, object-control skills was positively associated with light physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.008) and with light (p = 0.033), moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.028) and light- and moderate-to-vigorous (p = 0.008) physical activity at weekends. Locomotor skill competency was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays (p = 0.016) and light physical activity during the weekend (p = 0.035). Conclusions The findings suggest that developing competence in both locomotor and object-control skills may be an important element in promoting an active lifestyle in young children during weekdays and at weekends.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose was to determine the reliability of an instrument designed to assess young children's perceived movement skill competence in two diverse samples.
    Journal of physical activity & health. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p < 0.001) more active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p < 0.001) and very high (p < 0.05) intensity physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively) and vigorous (p < 0.001) physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.
    BMC Public Health 02/2014; 14(1):192. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    Nicola D Ridgers, Anna Timperio, Ester Cerin, Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable debate about the possibility of physical activity compensation. This study examined whether increased levels in physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour on one day were predictive of lower levels in these behaviours on the following day (compensatory mechanisms) among children. Two hundred and forty-eight children (121 boys, 127 girls) aged 8-11 years from nine primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, wore a GT3X+ ActiGraph for seven consecutive days. Time spent in light (LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) was derived using age-specific cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts[BULLET OPERATOR]min. Meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, daylight hours) were obtained daily and matched to accelerometer wear days. Multilevel analyses (day, child, school) were conducted using generalized linear latent and mixed models. On any given day, every additional 10 minutes spent in MVPA was associated with approximately 25 minutes less LPA and 5 minutes less MVPA the following day. Similarly, additional time spent in LPA on any given day was associated with less time in LPA and MVPA the next day. Time spent sedentary was associated with less sedentary time the following day. Adjusting for meteorological variables did not change observed compensation effects. No significant moderating effect of sex was observed. The results are consistent with the compensation hypothesis, whereby children appear to compensate their physical activity or sedentary time between days. Additional adjustment for meteorological variables did not change the observed associations. Further research is needed to examine what factors may explain apparent compensatory changes in children's physical activity and sedentary time.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 01/2014; · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Lisa M Barnett, Nicola D Ridgers, Avigdor Zask, Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: To determine reliability and face validity of an instrument to assess young children's perceived fundamental movement skill competence. Validation and reliability study. A pictorial instrument based on the Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed perceived locomotor (six skills) and object control (six skills) competence using the format and item structure from the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children. Sample 1 completed object control items in May (n=32) and locomotor items in October 2012 (n=23) at two time points seven days apart. Children were asked at the end of the test-retest their understanding of what was happening in each picture to determine face validity. Sample 2 (n=58) completed 12 items in November 2012 on a single occasion to test internal reliability only. Sample 1 children were aged 5-7 years (M=6.0, SD=0.8) at object control assessment and 5-8 years at locomotor assessment (M=6.5, SD=0.9). Sample 2 children were aged 6-8 years (M=7.2, SD=0.73). Intra-class correlations assessed in Sample 1 children were excellent for object control (intra-class correlation=0.78), locomotor (intra-class correlation=0.82) and all 12 skills (intra-class correlations=0.83). Face validity was acceptable. Internal consistency was adequate in both samples for each subscale and all 12 skills (alpha range 0.60-0.81). This study has provided preliminary evidence for instrument reliability and face validity. This enables future alignment between the measurement of perceived and actual fundamental movement skill competence in young children.
    Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia. 01/2014;
  • Lisa M. Barnett, Nicola D. Ridgers, Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The relationship between actual and perceived object control (OC) competence (ball skills) and the contribution to young children's physical activity is not known. Methods The Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed actual OC competence and a modified version of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children assessed perceived OC competence. Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was measured via accelerometry. Three mixed regression models were performed: i) OC competence as the predictor and the outcome as perceived OC, ii) perceived OC competence as the predictor and the outcome MVPA and ii) actual OC as the predictor and the outcome MVPA. Models adjusted for school clustering, monitor wear time, sex and age. Interactions between respective predictor variables and sex were performed if warranted. A total of 102 children (56% boys, 44% girls) aged 4-8 years (M 6.3, SD 0.92) completed assessments. Results Girls had lower perceived and actual OC competence and were less active than boys. Actual OC competence was positively associated with perceived OC competence (B = 0.11, t(96) = 2.25, p < 0.001, p = 0.027) and this relationship did not differ by sex (p = 0.449); however, neither actual (p = 0.092) nor perceived OC competence (p = 0.827) were associated with MVPA. Discussion Young children's perceived ball skill abilities appear to relate to actual competence; however, these measures were not associated with physical activity. In older children, OC skill is associated with physical activity so targeting young children's OC skills is an intervention priority.
    Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 01/2014;
  • Rita L Rosa, Nicola D Ridgers, Lisa M Barnett
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents a direct observational tool for assessing children's body movements and movement skills during active video games. The Observation Tool of Active Gaming and Movement (OTGAM) was informed by the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. 18 elementary school children (12 boys, 6 girls; M age = 6.1 yr., SD = 0.9) were observed during Nintendo Wii game play. Using the OTAGM, researchers were able to capture and quantify the children's body movements and movement skills during active play of video games. Furthermore, the OTAGM captured specific components of object control skills: strike, throw, and roll. Game designers, health promotion practitioners, and researchers could use this information to enhance children's physical activity and movement skills.
    Perceptual and Motor Skills 12/2013; 117(3):935-49. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Young children are at risk of not meeting physical activity recommendations. Identifying factors from the first year of life which influence toddlers' physical activity levels may help to develop targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine early childhood predictors of toddlers' physical activity across the domains of maternal beliefs and behaviours, infant behaviours and the home environment. Data from 206 toddlers (53 % male) participating in the Melbourne InFANT Program were collected in 2008--2010 and analysed in 2012. Mothers completed a survey of physical activity predictors when their child was 4- (T1) and 9- months old (T2). Physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers at 19- months (T3) of age. One infant behaviour at T1 and one maternal belief and two infant behaviours at T2 showed associations with physical activity at T3 and were included in multivariate analyses. After adjusting for the age at which the child started walking and maternal education, the time spent with babies of a similar age at 4-months (beta = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.10]) and the time spent being physically active with their mother at 9-months (beta = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.12]) predicted children's physical activity at 19-months of age. Promotion of peer-interactions and maternal-child co-participation in physical activity could serve as a health promotion strategy to increase physical activity in young children. Future research is required to identify other early life predictors not assessed in this study and to examine whether these factors predict physical activity in later life stages.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 11/2013; 10(1):123. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the interpersonal and physical environment mediators of the Transform-Us! mid-intervention effects on physical activity (PA) during recess and lunchtime. Transform-Us! is a clustered randomised school-based intervention with four groups: sedentary behaviour intervention (SB-I), PA intervention (PA-I), combined PA+SB-I and control group. All children in grade 3 from 20 participating primary schools in Melbourne, Australia were eligible to complete annual evaluation assessments. The outcomes were the proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA) during recess and lunchtime assessed by accelerometers. Potential mediators included: perceived social support from teachers; perceived availability of line markings; perceived accessibility of sports equipment; and perceived school play environment. Generalised linear models were used and mediation effects were estimated by product-of-coefficients (a·b) approach. 268 children (8.2 years, 57% girls at baseline) provided complete data at both time points. A significant intervention effect on MVPA during recess in the SB-I and PA-I groups compared with the control group (proportional difference in MVPA time; 38% (95% CI 21% to 57%) and 40% (95% CI 20% to 62%), respectively) was found. The perceived school play environment was significantly positively associated with MVPA at recess among girls. An increase in perceived social support from teachers suppressed the PA+SB-I effect on light PA during recess (a·b= -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.00). No significant mediating effects on PA during recess and lunchtime were observed. A positive perception of the school play environment was associated with higher MVPA during recess among girls. Future studies should conduct mediation analyses to explore underlying mechanisms of PA interventions.
    British journal of sports medicine 10/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Issue addressed The aim of this project was to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies used by health-promotion organisations that focus on increasing physical activity and improving nutrition within the local community. Methods Semistructured telephone or face-to-face interviews with 25 key informants from stakeholder organisations were conducted. Key informants discussed strategies used by their organisation to effectively recruit and retain participants into community-based healthy eating and/or physical activity programs. Transcribed data were analysed with NVivo software. Results Effective recruitment strategies included word of mouth, links with organisations, dissemination of printed materials, media, referrals, cross-promotion of programs and face-to-face methods. Effective retention strategies included encouraging a sense of community ownership, social opportunities, recruiting a suitable leader and offering flexibility and support. Fees and support for recruiting and retaining participants was also identified. Conclusion This study provides novel insights to a greatly under researched topic in the field of health promotion. There are two key take-home messages from the present study that are applicable to health practitioners as well as developers and deliverers of community health-promotion programs: (1) it is imperative that all community health organisations report on the effectiveness of their recruitment and retention, both successes and failures; and (2) there is a clear need to tailor the recruitment and retention approach to the target population and the setting the program is occurring in. So what? These findings provide important insights for the development of future community-based healthy eating and physical activity programs.
    Health promotion journal of Australia: official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals 10/2013; 24(2):104-10. · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Playground interventions offer an opportunity to enhance school recess physical activity. We aimed to assess the effects of playground marking on objectively measured school recess physical activity in French children. Participants were four hundred and twenty children (6-11years old) from 4 primary schools in Nord-Pas de Calais, France. Children's physical activity (PA) was measured with a uniaxial accelerometer twice a day (morning and afternoon recess) during a 4-day school week in April and May 2009. Two experimental schools (EG) received a recess-based intervention (playground markings) and two others served as control (CG). Percentage of time spent in sedentary (SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), very high (VHPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) intensity PA during school recess was measured before and after intervention. At baseline, school recess PA among children from CG was significantly (p<0.001) higher than EG children. No interaction was observed between the recess-based intervention and gender. After the intervention, the EG spent significantly (p<0.05) more time in MPA, VPA and MVPA with a concomitant significant decrease in SED (p<0.05) compared to baseline, while the PA in CG remained unchanged. Painted playground markings had a positive short-term effect on school recess physical activity levels.
    Preventive Medicine 08/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying periods of the day which are susceptible to varying levels of physical activity (PA) may help identify key times to intervene and potentially change preschool children's PA behaviours. This study assessed variability of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during weekdays and weekend days among preschool children. One hundred and eighty-eight children (aged 3-5 years; 53.2% boys) from a northwest English city wore uni-axial accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Higher levels of MVPA were recorded in boys, particularly those who attended preschool for a half day. Children who attended preschool for a full day engaged in 11.1 minutes less MVPA than children who attended for a half day. After-school hours were characterised by a decrease in activity for all groups. Patterns of activity during the weekend were smoother with less variability. This study identified discrete segments of the week, specifically afterschool and during the weekend, when preschoolers engage in low levels of PA. Higher levels of MVPA among children who attended preschool for less time each day suggests that the structured preschool environment is related to decreased activity. Consequently, there is a need for interventions in young children to focus on school and home environments.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 06/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The afterschool period holds promise for the promotion of physical activity, yet little is known about the importance of this period as children age. PURPOSE: To examine changes in physical activity of children aged 5-6 years and 10-12 years and their sedentary time in the afterschool period over 3 and 5 years, and to determine the contribution of this period to daily physical activity and sedentary behavior over time. METHODS: Data from two longitudinal studies conducted in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Accelerometer data were provided for 2053 children at baseline (Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods Study [CLAN]: 2001; Health, Eating and Play Study [HEAPS]: 2002/2003); 756 at 3-year follow-up (time point 2 [T2]); and 622 at 5-year follow-up (T3). Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity were determined using age-adjusted cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as≤100counts/minute. Multilevel analyses, conducted in April 2012, assessed change in physical activity and sedentary time and the contributions of the afterschool period to overall levels. RESULTS: Afterschool MPA and VPA decreased among both cohorts, particularly in the younger cohort, who performed less than half of their baseline levels at T3 (MPA: T1=24minutes; T3=11minutes; VPA: T1=12minutes; T3=4minutes). LPA also declined in the older cohort. Afterschool sedentary time increased among the younger (T1=42minutes; T3=64minutes) and older cohorts (T1=57minutes; T3=84minutes). The contribution of the afterschool period to overall MPA and VPA increased in the older cohort from 23% to 33% over 5 years. In the younger cohort, the contribution of the afterschool period to daily MPA and VPA decreased by 3% over 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of the afterschool period for children's physical activity increases with age, particularly as children enter adolescence.
    American journal of preventive medicine 06/2013; 44(6):605-611. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The optimal targets and strategies for effectively reducing sedentary behavior among young people are unknown. Intervention research that explores changes in mediated effects as well as in outcome behaviors is needed to help inform more effective interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the mid-intervention mediating effects on children's objectively assessed classroom and total weekday sedentary time in the Transform-Us! intervention. METHODS: The results are based on 293 children, aged 7- to 9-years-old at baseline, from 20 schools in Melbourne, Australia. Each school was randomly allocated to one of four groups, which targeted reducing sedentary time in the school and family settings (SB; n = 74), increasing or maintaining moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity in the school and family settings (PA; n = 75), combined SB and PA (SB + PA; n = 80), or the current practice control (C; n = 64). Baseline and mid-intervention data (5--9 months) were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012. Classroom and total weekday sedentary time was objectively assessed using ActiGraph accelerometers. The hypothesized mediators including, child enjoyment, parent and teacher outcome expectancies, and child perceived access to standing opportunities in the classroom environment, were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: The SB + PA group spent 13.3 min/day less in weekday sedentary time at mid-intervention compared to the control group. At mid-intervention, children in the SB group had higher enjoyment of standing in class (0.9 units; 5-unit scale) and all intervention groups had more positive perceptions of access to standing opportunities in the classroom environment (0.3-0.4 units; 3-unit scale), compared to the control group. However, none of the hypothesized mediator variables had an effect on sedentary time; thus, no mediating effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: While beneficial intervention effects were observed on some hypothesized mediating variables and total weekday sedentary time at mid-intervention, no significant mediating effects were found. Given the dearth of existing information, future intervention research is needed that explores mediated effects. More work is also needed on the development of reliable mediator measures that are sensitive to change overtime.Trial registrationACTRN12609000715279ISRCTN83725066.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 05/2013; 10(1):62. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Miklós Tóth, Nicola D Ridgers, Martina Uvacsek
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The benefits of physical activity to maintain optimal health and well-being in children and adolescents are undisputed. The school environment offers opportunities for children to be physically active. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to systematically examine the effects of recess-based interventions on the physical activity (PA) levels of school-aged children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify papers reporting interventions to promote PA during school recess and/or lunchtime periods. The search was conducted in six databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus™, Web of Science, Proquest, Cochrane and Scopus) for papers published between January 2000 and April 2011. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were included in the review if (i) they reported the findings of an intervention targeting PA levels of children and/or adolescents during school recess and/or lunchtime; (ii) have a measure of PA as an outcome variable; (iii) participants were aged between 5 and 18 years; and (iv) were published in English. METHODS: Two authors independently searched the literature using the same search strategies to identify papers reporting interventions that promote PA during school recess and lunchtime periods. Methodological quality was assessed using an adapted eight item assessment scale. The effects of the interventions were assessed with a rating system used in a recent review of interventions in youth. RESULTS: The search originally retrieved 2,265 articles. Nine published peer-reviewed journal articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Eight studies used randomized controlled trials and one was a controlled trial. Three studies demonstrated high methodological quality (33%). None of the studies adequately reported the randomization procedure or used power calculations. Few studies reported potential confounders and three studies had less than a 6 week follow-up. Five studies demonstrated a positive intervention effect on children's PA levels, with four reporting statistically significant increases and two reporting significant decreases in recess PA. The summary of the levels of evidence for intervention effects found inconclusive results for all intervention types, though promising strategies that require further investigation were identified. LIMITATIONS: Whilst every effort was made to ensure that this review was as encompassing as possible, it may be limited by its search terms especially if there were studies with unclear titles or abstracts. In addition, only manuscripts published in English were considered, eliminating any possible studies published in other languages. CONCLUSIONS: All of the studies used an objective measure to assess PA outcomes, although several criteria were consistently absent from the studies. The levels of evidence were not sufficient to establish conclusive intervention effects on children's recess PA. This could be due to the small number of published studies. There is a need for higher-quality intervention research to strengthen published findings to inform recess PA interventions. Intervention research is needed in adolescents due to the absence of school recess intervention research in this population.
    Sports Medicine 03/2013; · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • Lisa M. Barnett, Nicola D. Ridgers, Lisa Hanna, Jo Salmon
    Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health. 02/2013;
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    Nicola D Ridgers, Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents' physical activity levels during school break time are low and understanding correlates of physical activity and sedentary time in this context is important. This study investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between a range of individual, behavioural, social and policy/organisational correlates and objectively measured school break time physical activity and sedentary time. In 2006, 146 adolescents (50% males; mean age = 14.1±0.6 years) completed a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for ≥3 school days. Time spent engaged in sedentary, light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school break times (recess and lunchtime) were calculated using existing cut-points. Measures were repeated in 2008 among 111 adolescents. Multilevel models examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Bringing in equipment was cross-sectionally associated with 3.2% more MVPA during break times. Females engaged in 5.1% more sedentary time than males, whilst older adolescents engaged in less MVPA than younger adolescents. Few longitudinal associations were observed. Adolescents who brought sports equipment to school engaged in 7.2% less LPA during break times two years later compared to those who did not bring equipment to school. These data suggest that providing equipment and reducing restrictions on bringing in sports equipment to school may promote physical activity during school recess. Strategies targeting females' and older adolescents', in particular, are warranted.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56838. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    Frontiers in Public Health 01/2013; 1:74.
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    ABSTRACT: The minimal physical activity intensity that would confer health benefits among adolescents is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of accelerometer-derived light-intensity (split into low and high) physical activity, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity with cardiometabolic biomarkers in a large population-based sample. The study is based on 1,731 adolescents, aged 12-19 years from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Low light-intensity activity (100-799 counts/min), high light-intensity activity (800 counts/min to <4 METs) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity (≥4 METs, Freedson age-specific equation) were accelerometer-derived. Cardiometabolic biomarkers, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were measured. Triglycerides, LDL- cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and homeostatic model assessments of β-cell function (HOMA-%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) were also measured in a fasting sub-sample (n = 807). Adjusted for confounders, each additional hour/day of low light-intensity activity was associated with 0.59 (95% CI: 1.18-0.01) mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure. Each additional hour/day of high light-intensity activity was associated with 1.67 (2.94-0.39) mmHG lower diastolic blood pressure and 0.04 (0.001-0.07) mmol/L higher HDL-cholesterol. Each additional hour/day of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity was associated with 3.54 (5.73-1.35) mmHG lower systolic blood pressure, 5.49 (1.11-9.77)% lower waist circumference, 25.87 (6.08-49.34)% lower insulin, and 16.18 (4.92-28.53)% higher HOMA-%S. Time spent in low light-intensity physical activity and high light-intensity physical activity had some favorable associations with biomarkers. Consistent with current physical activity recommendations for adolescents, moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity had favorable associations with many cardiometabolic biomarkers. While increasing MVPA should still be a public health priority, further studies are needed to identify dose-response relationships for light-intensity activity thresholds to inform future recommendations and interventions for adolescents.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71417. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

990 Citations
162.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Deakin University
      • Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
  • 2013
    • University of Wollongong
      • Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences
      Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
    • VU University Medical Center
      • Department of Public and Occupational Health
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Alberta
      • Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2005–2013
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • • School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
      • • Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES)
      Liverpool, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Semmelweis University
      • Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary