[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) is a promising strategy for malaria control. A study conducted in Mali in 2008 showed that administration of three courses of IPTc with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) at monthly intervals reduced clinical malaria, severe malaria and malaria infection by >80% in children under 5 years of age. Here we report the results of a follow-on study undertaken to establish whether children who had received IPTc would be at increased risk of malaria during the subsequent malaria transmission season.
Morbidity from malaria and the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia were measured in children who had previously received IPTc with SP and AQ using similar surveillance methods to those employed during the previous intervention period.
1396 of 1508 children (93%) who had previously received IPTc and 1406 of 1508 children (93%) who had previously received placebos were followed up during the high malaria transmission season of the year following the intervention. Incidence rates of clinical malaria during the post-intervention transmission season (July-November 2009) were 1.87 (95% CI 1.76-1.99) and 1.73 (95% CI; 1.62-1.85) episodes per child year in the previous intervention and placebo groups respectively; incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.09 (95% CI 0.99-1.21) (P = 0.08). The prevalence of malaria infection was similar in the two groups, 7.4% versus 7.5%, prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.99 (95% CI 0.73-1.33) (P = 0.95). At the end of post-intervention malaria transmission season, the prevalence of anaemia, defined as a haemoglobin concentration<11g/dL, was similar in the two groups (56.2% versus 55.6%; PR = 1.01 [95% CI 0.91-1.12]) (P = 0.84).
IPTc with SP+AQ was not associated with an increase in incidence of malaria episodes, prevalence of malaria infection or anaemia in the subsequent malaria transmission season.
PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e23390. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0023390 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc), targeting the transmission season, reduces the incidence of clinical malaria. However, these studies were conducted in communities with low coverage with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Whether IPTc provides additional protection to children sleeping under an ITN has not been established.
To assess whether IPTc provides additional protection to children sleeping under an ITN, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IPTc with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ) in three localities in Kati, Mali. After screening, eligible children aged 3-59 mo were given a long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) and randomised to receive three rounds of active drugs or placebos. Treatments were administered under observation at monthly intervals during the high malaria transmission season in August, September, and October 2008. Adverse events were monitored immediately after the administration of each course of IPTc and throughout the follow-up period. The primary endpoint was clinical episodes of malaria recorded through passive surveillance by study clinicians available at all times during the follow-up. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 150 randomly selected children weekly and in all children at the end of the malaria transmission season to assess usage of ITNs and the impact of IPTc on the prevalence of malaria, anaemia, and malnutrition. Cox regression was used to compare incidence rates between intervention and control arms. The effects of IPTc on the prevalence of malaria infection and anaemia were estimated using logistic regression. 3,065 children were screened and 3,017 (1,508 in the control and 1,509 in the intervention arm) were enrolled in the study. 1,485 children (98.5%) in the control arm and 1,481 (98.1%) in the intervention arm completed follow-up. During the intervention period, the proportion of children reported to have slept under an ITN was 99.7% in the control and 99.3% in intervention arm (p = 0.45). A total of 672 episodes of clinical malaria defined as fever or a history of fever and the presence of at least 5,000 asexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum per microlitre (incidence rate of 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76-2.05 episodes per person year) were observed in the control arm versus 126 (incidence rate of 0.34; 95% CI 0.29-0.41 episodes per person year) in the intervention arm, indicating a protective effect (PE) of 82% (95% CI 78%-85%) (p<0.001) on the primary endpoint. There were 15 episodes of severe malaria in children in the control arm compared to two in children in the intervention group giving a PE of 87% (95% CI 42%-99%) (p = 0.001). IPTc reduced the prevalence of malaria infection by 85% (95% CI 73%-92%) (p<0.001) during the intervention period and by 46% (95% CI 31%-68%) (p<0.001) at the end of the intervention period. The prevalence of moderate anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <8 g/dl) was reduced by 47% (95% CI 15%-67%) (p<0.007) at the end of intervention period. The frequencies of adverse events were similar between the two arms. There was no drug-related serious adverse event.
IPTc given during the malaria transmission season provided substantial protection against clinical episodes of malaria, malaria infection, and anaemia in children using an LLIN. SP+AQ was safe and well tolerated. These findings indicate that IPTc could make a valuable contribution to malaria control in areas of seasonal malaria transmission alongside other interventions.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00738946. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
PLoS Medicine 02/2011; 8(2):e1000407. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000407 · 14.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of artemisinin derivative-based combination therapy (ACT) such as artesunate plus amodiaquine is currently recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose combinations are more adapted to patients than regimens involving multiple tablets and improve treatment compliance. A fixed-dose combination of artesunate + amodiaquine (ASAQ) was recently developed. To assess the efficacy and safety of this new combination and to define its optimum dosage regimen (once or twice daily) in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, a multicentre clinical study was conducted.
A multicentre, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, parallel-group study was conducted in five African centers in Cameroon, Madagascar, Mali and Senegal from March to December 2006. Efficacy and safety of ASAQ were assessed compared to those of artemether + lumefantrine (AL). The WHO protocol with a 28-day follow-up for assessing the drug therapeutic efficacy was used. Patients suffering from uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomized to receive ASAQ orally once daily (ASAQ1), ASAQ twice daily (ASAQ2) or AL twice daily (AL) for three days. The primary outcome was PCR-corrected parasitological cure rate and clinical response.
Of 941 patients initially randomized and stratified into two age groups (<5 years, and >or=5 years), 936 (99.5%) were retained for the intent to treat (ITT) analysis, and 859 (91.3%) patients for the per protocol (PP) analysis. Among ITT population, up to D28, PCR-corrected adequate parasitological and clinical response rates were 95.2% in the ASAQ1 group, 94.9% in the ASAQ2 group and 95.5% in the AL group. Moreover, the cure rate evaluated among PP population was >or=98.5% in both ASAQ therapeutic arms. Therapeutic response rates did not display any significant differences between age groups or between one geographical site and another. Altogether, this demonstrates the non-inferiority of ASAQ1 regimen compared to both ASAQ2 and AL regimens. During follow-up mild and moderate adverse events including gastrointestinal and/or nervous disorders were reported in 29.3% of patients, with no difference between groups in the nature, frequency or intensity of adverse events.
The non-inferiority of ASAQ compared with AL was demonstrated. The fixed-dose combination artesunate + amodiaquine (ASAQ) is safe and efficacious even in young children under 5 years of age. Whilst administration on a twice-a-day basis does not improve the efficacy of ASAQ significantly, a once-a-day intake of this new combination clearly appears as an effective and safe therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria both in adults and children. Implications of such findings are of primary importance in terms of public health especially in African countries. As most national policies plan to strengthen malaria control to reach the elimination of this disease, anti-malarial drugs such as the artesunate + amodiaquine fixed-dose ACT will play a pivotal role in this process.
The protocol was registered with the www.clinicaltrials.gov open clinical trial registry under the identifier number NCT00316329.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy has already been demonstrated in a number of studies all over the world, and some of them can be regarded as comparably effective. Ease of administration of anti-malarial treatments with shorter courses and fewer tablets may be key determinant of compliance.
Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and over six months of age were recruited in Cameroon, Mali, Rwanda and Sudan. 1,384 patients were randomly assigned to receive artesunate-sulphamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS-SMP) three-day (once daily for 3 days) regimen (N = 476) or AS-SMP 24-hour (0 h, 12 h, 24 h) regimen (N = 458) or artemether-lumefantrine (AL), the regular 6 doses regimen (N = 450). The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority (using a margin of -6%) of AS-SMP 24 hours or AS-SMP three days versus AL on the PCR-corrected 28-day cure rate.
The PCR corrected 28-day cure rate on the intention to treat (ITT) analysis population were: 96.0%(457/476) in the AS-SMP three-day group, 93.7%(429/458) in the AS-SMP 24-hour group and 92.0%(414/450) in the AL group. Likewise, the cure rates on the PP analysis population were high: 99.3%(432/437) in the AS-SMP three-day group, 99.5%(416/419) in the AS-SMP 24-hour group and 99.7(391/394)% in the AL group. Most common drug-related adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms (such as vomiting and diarrhea) which were slightly higher in the AS-SMP 24-hour group.
AS-SMP three days or AS-SMP 24 hours are safe, are as efficacious as AL, and are well tolerated.