[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), AIDs related morbidity and mortality have declined. However, the advent of HAART brought the new problem of immune recovery inflammatory syndrome. Cytomegalovirus retinitis remains the most common cause of visual loss in AIDs patients. Some patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis who experienced immune recovery as a consequence of HAART develop worsening of visual symptoms from immune recovery uveitis (IRU).
We report a case of cytomegalovirus retinitis and AIDs who developed an unusual presentation of IRU after the initiation of HAART. A 40-year-old woman presented with a history of blurry vision in the right eye. She was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus infection and cytomegalovirus retinitis, treated with intravitreal injections of ganciclovir. The retinitis improved. One week after HAART initiation, she developed IRU, characterized by increased intraocular inflammation, extensive frosted branch angiitis and cystoid macular edema. The CD4+ T lymphocyte count increased from 53 to 107 cells/mm3. Systemic prednisolone with continuation of HAART and intravitreal injections of ganciclovir were given with significant improvement.
Atypical presentation of IRU, characterized by extensive frosted branch angiitis and increased intraocular inflammation may occur in immunocompromised patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis who experienced immune recovery. The time from HAART initiation to develop IRU may vary from days to months. This case demonstrated a very rapidly developed IRU which should be recognized and appropriately managed to avoid permanent damage of the eye.
Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection. 06/2013; 3(1):52.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Little attention has been paid to clinical features of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical manifestations and comorbidities of patients without HIV infection who have CMV-associated posterior uveitis or panuveitis. DESIGN AND SETTING Retrospective observational case series in an academic research setting. PARTICIPANTS The medical records were reviewed of 18 patients (22 affected eyes) diagnosed as having posterior uveitis or panuveitis who had aqueous positive for CMV by polymerase chain reaction techniques. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic data, clinical manifestations, and associated systemic diseases were recorded. RESULTS Ocular features included focal hemorrhagic retinitis (n = 13) and peripheral retinal necrosis (n = 7). Two eyes had no focal retinal lesions but manifested vasculitis and vitritis. All patients exhibited vitreous inflammation. Inflammatory reactions in anterior segments developed in 14 of 22 eyes (64%). Retinal vasculitis was observed in 16 of 22 eyes (73%) and included mostly arteries (in 13 of 16 eyes [81%]). Eleven of 18 patients were taking immunosuppressive medications (5 for hematologic malignant diseases, 4 for systemic autoimmune diseases, and 2 following organ transplants). One additional patient was diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin lymphoma 3 months after the onset of CMV-associated panuveitis, and another patient had primary immunodeficiency disorder. Of the remaining 5 patients, 2 had diabetes mellitus, and 3 had no associated systemic diseases and exhibited no evidence of immune deficiency. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Cytomegalovirus-associated infections of posterior eye segments can develop in patients without HIV infection who have compromised immune function of variable severity but may occur also in individuals who have no evidence of immune insufficiency. Cytomegalovirus infections located in posterior eye segments in patients without HIV infection caused intraocular inflammatory reaction in all cases and demonstrated more variable clinical presentation than classic CMV retinitis observed in patients with HIV infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of cyclosporine 0.05% (CsA) eye drops in patients with Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) who had chronic dry eye. Design: Prospective noncomparative interventional case series. Methods: Thirty cases of SJS patients who developed dry eye defined by symptoms and signs, including the Schirmer I test, the fluorescein clearance test (FCT), and corneal staining (fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining) were treated with CsA 0.05% eye drops twice daily for 6 months. Dry eye symptoms, eye injection, tear break up time (TBUT), and corneal staining were evaluated before and after the treatment at 0, 2, 4, and 6 months. The Shirmer I test and FCT were evaluated at 0 and 6 months. Results: Seventeen patients (56.67%) completed the study. Eight patients (26.67%) withdrew from the study as a result of intolerable side effects of CsA, which included pain, redness, and eyelid swelling. Five cases were lost in follow up. All 17 cases demonstrated significant improvement in dry eye symptoms, conjunctival injection, corneal staining, Schirmer I test, and FCT (P<0.05). Conclusions: CsA 0.05% eye drops might be beneficial in the treatment of chronic dry eye associated with SJS.
Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2013; · 1.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : To compare the efficacy of topical cyclosporine [0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA)] and preservative-free artificial tears in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD).
: A 3-month prospective, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group controlled trial enrolled 70 patients with symptomatic MGD and unstable tear film [tear breakup time (TBUT) <8 seconds]. Patients were randomized to topical CsA (0.05%; group A) and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (control; group B) instilled twice daily for 3 months. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), lid margin inflammation, meibomian gland expression, conjunctival injection, corneal and interpalpebral dye staining, noninvasive tear breakup time (NIBUT) using the Tearscope Plus and invasive fluorescein tear breakup time (FBUT), and Schirmer I test were performed.
: At the 3-month evaluation, mean OSDI, NIBUT and FBUT, lid margin inflammation, meibomian gland expressibility, and tarsal injection showed significant improvement from baseline in group A (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively). In group B, only the OSDI improved significantly from baseline at 3 months (P = 0.003). TBUTs (NIBUT and FBUT) were significantly longer in group A at all visits, and the mean change of TBUTs from baseline was also significantly greater in group A at 3 months (P < 0.001).
: Topical CsA 0.05% twice daily may be helpful in the treatment of MGD mainly by improving tear film stability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report histopathologically proven bacterial infection manifested multifocal interstitial (stromal) keratitis (IK) with definite previous history of prolong topical steroid use. Standard managements of bacterial keratitis did not provoke enough benefit.
A retrospective analysis of 19 eyes in 15 patients referred to Siriraj Hospital between 2004 and 2010.
Multifocal intrastromal infiltration, with relatively quiet ocular reaction and mild inflammation were initially presented in all eyes. They all previously had been diagnosed of presumed viral keratitis, and had been given topical corticosteroid treatment for a prolonged period of time without healing. Autoimmune disease workups were all negative. Corneal scrapings showed negative culture results in all eyes. However, bacteria within stromal lamellae with absent or minimal inflammatory cells were demonstrated in all eyes by corneal biopsies. In addition, cytology results obtained from 16S rDNA sequencing revealed Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in one eye and coagulase-negative staphylococci in two eyes. No case responded well to intensive topical and systemic antibiotics. However they were successfully treated with penetrating keratoplasty (11 eyes, 57.9%) or intrastromal antibiotic injections (8 eyes, 42.1%).
Bacterial infection should be a concern in prolonged chronic IK. This was considered as primary bacterial IK or bacterial superinfection in immunocompromised cornea. Early recognition and appropriately aggressive managements contribute to successful outcome. Corneal biopsy is always essential and 16S rDNA sequencing is useful in this distinct clinical entity.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 11/2012; 95(11):1425-32.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical outcomes of cultivated corneal limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) using human amniotic membrane for corneal limbal stem-cell deficiency.
Prospective, noncomparative case series. Eighteen patients (19 eyes) with severe ocular surface diseases were chosen to undergo CLET using human amniotic membrane. Twelve eyes received auto-CLET, and seven eyes received allo-CLET. Clinical outcomes of corneal surface epithelialization, conjunctivalization, inflammation, visual acuity, graft status, and complications were observed.
Corneal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane (two to four layers) was positive for molecular markers p63, ABCG2, CK3, and CK12. The mean patient age was 44.7 ± 15.2 years. A successful clinical outcome, defined as corneal epithelialization without central conjunctivalization or severe inflammation, was obtained in 14 (73.7%) of 19 eyes (mean follow-up 26.1 ± 13.5 months; range 6-47). A histopathologic success, defined as absence of goblet cells at the central cornea, was achieved in 12 (63.2%) eyes. Clinical failures occurred in five (26.3%) of 19 eyes, and histopathologic failures occurred in seven (36.8%) of 19 eyes. Survival analysis at 1 year showed that the clinical success rate was 77.9% and the pathological success rate was 72.3%. Fourteen of 19 (73.7%) eyes had visual acuity improvements after CLET. Six cases underwent penetrating keratoplasty; five of these grafts remained clear after 20.4 ± 6.9 months (range, 12-31) of follow-up. Complications included infectious keratitis (three cases) and recurrent symblepharon (one case). All complicated cases had lid abnormalities. Factors affecting the final clinical outcomes were lid abnormalities, abnormal corneal stromal beds, and complications.
CLET can successfully restore ocular surface damage in most cases with corneal limbal stem cell deficiency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report crystal formation as a complication of intravitreal ganciclovir injection.
A 73-year-old female patient with unilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis was treated with intravitreous ganciclovir (4 mg/0.04 mL).
After the intravitreal injection, sudden crystallization was observed in the vitreous humor. The patient experienced marked reduction in visual acuity and increased intraocular pressure. Despite aqueous paracenthesis and pars plana vitrectomy, optic atrophy was observed and her visual acuity remained unimproved after 12 months.
Crystal formation can occur as a complication of intravitreal ganciclovir injection. Associated retinal and optic nerve damage was found which results in permanent visual morbidity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the efficacy of amniotic membrane patching (AMP) for acute chemical and thermal ocular burns and compare the results with a control group.
Fifteen patients (21 eyes) with acute ocular burn severity grading of II to IV were retrospectively reviewed. Thirteen eyes were treated with preserved AMP while eight eyes were treated with conventional treatment. Outcomes and complications were evaluated and compared between eyes in the AMP group and the control group with the same severity of burn.
In the AMP group, the mean age was 36.9 +/- 11.7 years (range, 20-58). The mean follow-up time was 8.0 +/- 6.8 months (range, 1-20). Complete epithelialization was achieved in 69.2% (9/13 eyes) in total, 100% (5/5 eyes), 100% (3/3 eyes) and 20% (1/5 eyes) in grade II, III and IV respectively. Mean epithelial healing time in the AMP group was 10.4 +/- 5.8 days (range, 4-20). Comparison of grade 2 and 3 burns showed that the AMP group in which patching was performed within 5 days resulted in faster epithelial healing, less corneal haze and limbal deficiency than in the group in which patching was performed after 5 days, and the control group (mean epithelial defect 7.0 +/- 2.0, 19.5 +/- 0.7, 9.9 +/- 10.8 days respectively).
Adjunctive treatment of ocular burns with AMP promoted rapid epithelial healing and reduced corneal complication. Surgery performed in the early stage tended to yield a better outcome.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 03/2007; 90(2):319-26.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the short-term efficacy of hypotonic 0.18% sodium hyaluronate in patients with evaporative tear-sufficient dry eye due to lipid tear deficiency (LTD).
This was a randomised, double-blind, controlled, exploratory study. A total of 10 patients with dry eye due to LTD were treated as follows: one drop of hypotonic 0.18% sodium hyaluronate in one eye and one drop of isotonic 0.3% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC)/0.1% dextran in the other eye. Non-invasive tear film break-up time (NIBUT) evaluated by using a tear scope with grid pattern and subjective ocular symptoms of dry eye were assessed at 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after instillation.
Both sodium hyaluronate and HPMC/dextran caused a significant (p<0.05) improvement in NIBUT and symptoms. Mean (SD) NIBUT in the sodium hyaluronate group was 3.2 (1.0), 6.4 (2.8), 5.5 (1.9), 5.3 (1.3) and 3.9 (1.7) s at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min, respectively, compared with 3.6 (1.9), 5.5 (3.2), 5.0 (1.5), 4.4 (2.2) and 3.5 (1.2) s in the HPMC/dextran group. However, increase in NIBUT was significantly (p<0.05) greater and longer in the sodium hyaluronate group than in the HPMC/dextran group.
Treatment with sodium hyaluronate and HPMC/dextran eye drops is useful for treating patients with dry eye due to LTD. However, sodium hyaluronate caused a significantly (p<0.05) greater increase in NIBUT values than HPMC/dextran in such patients.
British Journal of Ophthalmology 02/2007; 91(1):47-50. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the efficacy of subconjunctival 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and triamcinolone injection in halting the progression of impending recurrent pterygium.
Randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial.
One hundred nine patients who had undergone pterygium excision within the previous 6 months and developed grade 3 characteristics (impending recurrent pterygium).
A total of 109 eyes with impending recurrent pterygium were stratified randomly into 3 groups by treatment: 35 eyes served as the control group, 39 eyes received a 5-mg intralesional injection of 5-FU weekly for 2 weeks, and 35 eyes received one 20-mg intralesional injection of triamcinolone. All groups received 1% prednisolone acetate eye drops 4 times daily for 8 weeks.
Recurrence rate, success rate, and survival analysis were compared among the groups.
With a mean follow-up time of 10.9+/-5.5 months (range, 6-26 months), the success rates of the 5-fluorouracil and triamcinolone groups were higher than the control group (87.2%, 71.4%, and 48.6%, respectively). 5-fluorouracil was significantly (P = 0.001) more effective in inhibiting the recurrence of pterygium compared with the control group at all time points during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the recurrence-free period of pterygium in the 5-FU group was significantly (P = 0.005) longer than that of the control group but not in the triamcinolone group compared with the controls (P = 0.063). There was no significant difference between the 5-FU group and the triamcinolone group (P = 0.362). Minimal reversible complications such as steroid-induced glaucoma and superficial punctate epitheliopathy developed during the study.
Intralesional injection of 5-FU and triamcinolone was more effective in inhibiting the recurrence of pterygium than topical steroid alone, with the results in the 5-FU group reaching statistical significance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the demographic, clinical manifestations, treatment and visual outcome of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) in a group of Thai patients.
Retrospective case series.
Patients with VKH disease in Pramongkutklao Hospital from January 1998 to December 2002 were identified. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcome were analyzed.
Among the 33 patients, there were 12 males and 21 females with a mean age of onset of 35 +/- 13.4 year-old (range 17-67). Serous retinal detachment was detected in 48%. Transient hearing loss, vitiligo, poliosis and alopecia occurred in 18%, 24%, 15% and 33% respectively. Forty two percent of the patients were treated with systemic corticosteroids alone and 58% with a combination of steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. At the end of the follow-up, visual acuity (VA) improved in 55%, remained unchanged in 36% and worsened in 9% of the eyes. Final VA of equal or better than 20/40 was obtained in 76%. The mean follow-up time was 21.6 +/- 14.9 months (range 2-64).
Demographic data, clinical manifestations, and treatment outcome of this group of Thai patients are comparable with studies from other countries.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/2005; 88 Suppl 9:S26-30.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the efficacy of topical 0.002% mitomycin C (MMC) as an adjunctive and alternative treatment in primary and recurrent conjunctival-corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CCIN) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
The medical records of 7 patients with histopathologically confirmed CCIN and conjunctival SCC were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were treated with topical 0.002% MMC 4 times daily. The tumor size pre- and post-treatment, clinical response, and ocular complications were evaluated.
The mean age of the patients was 56 +/- 13.4 years. The most common presenting symptom was foreign body sensation (57.1%) with a mean duration of 2.3 +/- 3.8 months. Six patients had pathologically proven CCIN (85.7%) and 1 had SCC (14.3%). Before MMC treatment, 6 eyes (85.7%) had recurrences after surgical excision. The tumor-free period ranged from 2 to 19 months. Two patients had multiple recurrences. MMC 0.002% 4 times daily was applied for a period of 5.4 +/- 4.4 weeks (range, 2-14). All had complete tumor regression as observed clinically and confirmed by impression cytology. Side effects of MMC therapy included ocular irritation, mild conjunctival hyperemia, and punctate keratopathy. There were no serious complications detected. The mean follow-up time was 30.7 +/- 15 months (range, 2-52) with no evidence of clinical recurrence in any case.
Topical 0.002% MMC showed a favorable outcome as an adjunctive and alternative treatment of CCIN and SCC with regression of primary and recurrent tumors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One single family of corneal lattice dystrophy was examined and interviewed to elucidate the variety of clinical manifestations, factors associated with visual impairment, and the impact on the patient's quality of life. Forty-three out of 88 family members (48.9%) were affected. The inheritance pattern was autosomal dominant. Corneal haze grading from 1 to 4 was 5.3 per cent, 26.3 per cent, 43.4 per cent, and 25 per cent respectively. Surface irregularity grading from 1 to 4 was 18.4 per cent, 39.5 per cent, 32.9 per cent, and 9.2 per cent respectively. Forty-five per cent of the patients had VA < or = 20/200. Corneal haziness, irregularity, corneal erosion and disease duration were significantly related to visual impairment (p < 0.05). This disturbed the patient's activities such as reading (79.1%), working (62.8%) and daily life (69.8%). Corneal lattice dystrophy within the same family may present with different manifestations depending on the severity and duration of the disease and might be misdiagnosed. Inadequate knowledge among patients was susceptible to the high prevalence of the disease leading to impaired quality of life.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 08/2003; 86(8):727-36.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in persistent corneal epithelial defect with or without stromal thinning and corneal perforation.
28 patients (28 eyes) with persistent corneal epithelial defect unresponsive to medical treatment were given preserved human amniotic membrane transplants. The patients were divided into three groups: group A, persistent corneal epithelial defect 10 eyes; group B, epithelial defect with stromal thinning 13 eyes; and group C, corneal perforation five eyes. AMT was performed using one layer in group A and multilayers in group B and C. The causes of persistent epithelial defect were neurotrophic keratopathy (24 eyes), limbal deficiency (six eyes), exposure keratopathy (four eyes), and Mooren's ulcer (one eye).
Success was noted in 82.1% (23/28 eyes) in all groups, with 80% (8/10 eyes), 84.6% (11/13 eyes), and 80% (4/5 eyes) in groups A, B, and C respectively, with a mean follow up of 10.9 months (1-30 months). The mean epithelialisation time after AMT was 2.1 weeks. The healing times of groups B and C are also significantly shorter than group A (p=0.017 and 0.018, respectively). Corneal stromal thickness was significantly increased in all cases in groups B and C (p=0.006). Those with corneal perforation in group C were completely healed by multilayer AMT. There was no difference in the epithelialisation time between successful cases treated by a single operation (17 eyes) or repeated operation (six eyes). Vision improved in 18.9% (8/28 eyes) and worsened as a result of cataract formation in 2.3% (1/28 eyes). Failure was noted in 17.9% (5/28 eyes), because of corneal infection (two eyes), neurotrophic keratopathy with and without limbal deficiency (two eyes), and intractable corneal perforation (one eye). No patient developed major immediate postoperative complications or graft rejection.
Amniotic membrane can successfully treat refractory corneal epithelial defect by promoting epithelial healing and thus prevent corneal perforation. It can be used as a treatment for corneal perforation by restoring corneal stromal thickness so that emergency penetrating keratoplasty can be avoided.
British Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2002; 85(12):1455-63. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To study the efficacy of preserved human amniotic membrane in the reconstruction of conjunctival defect created during surgical removal of conjunctival lesions or symblepharon lysis.Methods. Preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation was performed in 93 eyes of 85 patients for reconstruction of various conjunctival surface problems. The indications for surgery were (1) pterygium excision (54 eyes), (2) conjunctival tumors excision (23 eyes), lysis of symblepharon (13 eyes), and covering a scleral graft (three eyes).Results. Success was noted in 69.9% (65/93) eyes, partially success in 22.6% (21/93) eyes, and failure in 7.5% (7/93) eyes with a mean follow-up of 8.9 months (1-28 months). In pterygium, conjunctival tumor, symblepharon, and scleral graft group, the success rate in each group was 70.3%, 78.3%, 53.8%, and 66.7% respectively. No serious immediate post-operative complications or graft rejection occurred.Conclusion. Amniotic membrane transplantation can be considered an alternative treatment for difficult ocular surface problems, and is effective in promoting epithelial healing, and reducing inflammation and scarring.
Cell and Tissue Banking 02/2001; 2(1):31-39. · 1.17 Impact Factor