[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the Euro Heart Survey Programme of the European Society of Cardiology is to evaluate to which extent clinical practice endorses existing guidelines as well as to identify differences in population profiles, patient management, and outcome across Europe. The current survey focuses on the invasive diagnosis and treatment of patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD).
Between November 2001 and March 2002, 7769 consecutive patients undergoing invasive evaluation at 130 hospitals (31 countries) were screened for the presence of one or more coronary stenosis >50% in diameter. Patient demographics and comorbidity, clinical presentation, invasive parameters, treatment options, and procedural techniques were prospectively entered in an electronic database (550 variables+29 per diseased coronary segment). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated at 30 days and 1 year. Out of 5619 patients with angiographically proven coronary stenosis (72% of screened population), 53% presented with stable angina while ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was the indication for coronary angiography in 16% and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina in 30%. Only medical therapy was continued in 21%, whereas mechanical revascularization was performed in the remainder [percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 58% and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 21%]. Patients referred for PCI were younger, were more active, had a lower risk profile, and had less comorbid conditions. CABG was performed mostly in patients with left main lesions (21%), two- (25%), or three-vessel disease (67%) with 4.1 diseased segments, on average. Single-vessel PCI was performed in 82% of patients with either single- (45%), two- (33%), or three-vessel disease (21%). Stents were used in 75% of attempted lesions, with a large variation between sites. Direct PCI for STEMI was performed in 410 cases, representing 7% of the entire workload in the participating catheterization laboratories. Time delay was within 90 min in 76% of direct PCI cases. In keeping with the recommendations of practice guidelines, the survey identified under-use of adjunctive medication (GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors). Mortality rates at 30 days and 1 year were low in all subgroups. MACE primarily consisted of repeat PCI (12%).
The current Euro Heart Survey on coronary revascularization was performed in the era of bare metal stenting and provides a global European picture of the invasive approach to patients with CAD. These data will serve as a benchmark for the future evaluation of the impact of drug-eluting stents on the practice of interventional cardiology and bypass surgery.
European Heart Journal 06/2005; 26(12):1169-79. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical and angiographic outcome of patients with mild coronary lesions treated with balloon angioplasty or coronary stenting (coronary plaque sealing, i.e. dilatation of angiographically non-significant lesions) compared to moderate and severe stenoses.
Patients with chronic stable angina and a single de novo lesion in a native coronary vessel scheduled to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were selected from 14 different studies. Off-line analysis of angiographic outcomes was assessed in all patients using identical and standardised methods of data acquisition, analysis and definitions. Clinical endpoints were adjudicated by independent clinical events committees. All quantitative coronary angiographic (QCA) analyses were performed in the same core laboratory. Stenosis severity prior to PCI was categorised into three groups: <50% diameter stenosis (DS), 50-99%DS and >99%DS pre. A total of 3812 patients were included in this study; 1484 patients (39%) were successfully treated with balloon angioplasty (BA) only and stented angioplasty was performed in 2328 patients (61%).One-year mortality and rate of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) (Kaplan-Meier) did not differ between BA and stented angioplasty for any of the stenosis severity categories. Following BA, the combined event rate (death and non-fatal MI) was 4.8, 4.6 and 0% in the <50, 50-99 and >99%DS categories, respectively. Following stented angioplasty, the combined event rate was 3.1, 4.4 and 4.8% in the same categories. The need for repeat revascularisation corrected for stenosis severity in the Cox proportional-hazards regression model was reduced by 20% after stented angioplasty (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95%CI 0.69-0.93).
The concept of plaque sealing is appealing from the theoretical point of view. However, with current technology, plaque sealing cannot prevent death and future non-fatal MIs in the long-term because 1-year event rates after PCI of non-significant stenoses remain unacceptably elevated when compared with the estimated 1-year probability of a non-fatal MI in lesions with a <50%DS. Moreover, major adverse cardiac events at 1-year after PCI are not directly related to the degree of pre-procedural stenosis severity.
European Heart Journal 03/2003; 24(6):541-51. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As noted repeatedly, the treatment of in-stent restenosis remains one of the most vexing shortcomings in interventional cardiology. Coronary restenosis is often manifested by symptom recurrence, which is translated into an increased rate of repeat revascularization.
European Heart Journal 03/2003; 24(3):217-8. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to assess whether coronary stents have modified the predictive value of demographic, clinical and quantitative coronary angiographic (QCA) predictors of coronary restenosis.
A systematic analysis in a large cohort of registries and randomized trials of the percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent era has never been performed.
A total of 9,120 treated lesions in 8,156 patients included in nine randomized trials and 10 registries, with baseline, post-procedural and six-month follow-up QCA analyses, were included in this study. Predictors of restenosis were identified with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Interaction terms were introduced in the regression equation to evaluate whether the predictors of restenosis were common to both eras or specific for either one of the revascularization techniques.
The restenosis rate was 35% after PTCA and 19% after angioplasty with additional stenting. In the univariate analysis, favorable predictors were previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), stent use, stent length and a large pre-procedural minimal lumen diameter (pre-MLD); unfavorable predictors were weight, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, multi-vessel disease, lesion length and a high residual post-procedural diameter stenosis (post-DS). Predictors specific for the PTCA population were a large post-procedural MLD (post-MLD) as favorable and a severe pre-procedural DS (pre-DS) as unfavorable. Favorable predictors specific for the stent population were a large post-MLD and a large pre-procedural reference diameter (pre-RD). In the multivariate analysis, the best model included the following favorable predictors: stent use, a large post-MLD, previous CABG and the interaction term between stent use and a large post-MLD; unfavorable predictors were lesion length and diabetes mellitus.
There are no major differences in demographic and clinical predictors of coronary restenosis between PTCA and stent populations. In the modern (stent) era, a severe pre-DS is no longer an unfavorable predictor of restenosis. Still important, but more so in the stent population, is a large post-MLD (optimal result). Finally, a larger pre-RD became a favorable predictor with the advent of stenting.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2001; 38(3):645-52. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: To assess ,determinants ,of clinical decision-making ,in patients with stable coronary,artery disease. Methods: The 2936 patients with stable angina ,pectoris who ,enrolled the Euro Heart Survey ,on Coronary ,Revascularization were ,subject ,of this analysis. After the diagnosis has been confirmed, physicians decided upon treatment: medical management, or revascularization therapy by percutaneous,coronary ,intervention ,(PCI) or coronary ,bypass ,surgery (CABG). We applied ,logistic regression ,analyses ,to evaluate ,the relation between,baseline,characteristics and treatment,decision: medical,treatment versus PCI, medical treatment versus CABG and PCI versus CABG. Results: Median age was 64 years, 77% were men and 20% had diabetes. Medical therapy was intended in 690 (24%), PCI in 1503 (51%), and CABG inthe,remaining ,743 (25%) patients respectively. Revascularization was generally preferred in patients with more severe anginal complaints, an intermediate to large area of myocardium at risk, and a preserved left ventricular function, who had not undergone prior coronary revascularization, provided lesions were suitable for treatment. CABG was preferred over PCI in multivessel or left main disease, as well as in those with concomitant valvular heart disease, provided a sufficient number of lesions were suitable for CABG. In those with previous CABG, more often PCI was ,prefered ,than re-CABG. Diabetes was ,not associated ,with more often preference,for CABG.