Nestor Mercado

Saint Luke's Health System (KS, USA), Kansas City, Kansas, United States

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Publications (24)204.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The authors sought to study the characteristics and outcomes of patients with contralateral carotid artery occlusions (CCOs) undergoing elective carotid artery stenting (CAS). CCOs are associated with adverse neurological events following carotid endarterectomy. In-hospital outcomes were examined in patients with and without CCO undergoing elective CAS in the Carotid Artery Revascularization and Endarterectomy (CARE) registry. A CCO was defined as a 100% occlusion of the contralateral internal carotid artery. To minimize differences in measured comorbidities, a 3:1 propensity matching analysis was performed comparing 42 clinical and demographic variables between CCO and non-CCO patients from the CARE registry. The primary endpoint was a composite of in-hospital death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Between April 2005 and January 2012, 13,993 eligible patients underwent elective CAS, of whom 1,450 (10%) had CCO. There were 5,500 CAS procedures (1,375 CCO and 4,125 non-CCO) identified in the propensity analysis. The primary composite endpoint occurred in 29 (2.1%) and 107 (2.6%) patients with and without CCO, respectively (adjusted odds ratio: 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 1.23, p = 0.316). In the CARE registry, there was no evidence that the presence of a CCO was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke in patients undergoing elective CAS. These findings may have implications on the selection of carotid revascularization procedures for such patients.
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 01/2013; 6(1):59-64. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to characterize the extent and composition of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus or the metabolic syndrome (Met Syn) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Diabetes and Met Syn patients have increased rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), yet a systematic description of nonculprit lesions for these high-risk groups is incomplete. In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study, ACS patients underwent 3-vessel quantitative coronary angiography, grayscale, and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Subsequent MACE (cardiac death or arrest, myocardial infarction, or rehospitalization for unstable or progressive angina) were adjudicated to the originally treated culprit versus untreated nonculprit lesions in 3 patient groups: 1) diabetes; 2) Met Syn; and 3) neither. Median length of follow-up was 3.4 years. Of 673 patients, 119 (17.7%) had diabetes and 239 (35.5%) had Met Syn. The cumulative 3-year MACE rate was 29.4% in patients with diabetes, 21.3% with Met Syn, and 17.4% with neither (p = 0.03). MACE adjudicated to untreated nonculprit lesions occurred in 18.7%, 11.7%, and 9.7% of patients, respectively (p = 0.06). Nonculprit lesions in diabetes and Met Syn patients were longer and had greater plaque burden, smaller lumen areas, with greater necrotic core and calcium content. Diabetes and Met Syn patients with future MACE had greater necrotic core and calcification compared with the normal cardiometabolic group. In this PCI ACS population, patients with diabetes and Met Syn had higher 3-year MACE rates. Lesion length, plaque burden, necrotic core, and calcium content were significantly greater among nonculprit lesions of patients with diabetes and Met Syn, but only necrotic core and calcium were significantly greater in the nonculprit lesions of patients with a future MACE in this exploratory analysis.
    JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 03/2012; 5(3 Suppl):S42-52. · 14.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterise plaque phenotypes in the left main stem (LMS) and the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery using virtual histology assisted intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Patients with IVUS pullbacks including no less than the proximal 30 mm of the LAD and through the ostium of the left main were identified from a global IVUS registry. Plaque composition and phenotype frequency in the LMS and five consecutive non-overlapping 6 mm segments in the LAD were studied, resulting in six analysed segments per patient. There were 74 patients (72% male, mean age 65 years). The median LMS length was 5.4 mm (IQR 2.8-8.7 mm). The percent of fibrofatty plaque was greater in the LMS compared to the proximal LAD segments (27.9% [20.0-39.2] vs. 17.3% [12.2-23.1], p<0.001). Dense calcium and necrotic core content was less prevalent in the LMS compared to the LAD segments (2.5% [0.9-4.7] vs. 7.9% [4.1-12.3], p<0.001; and 8.0% [3.7-11.8] vs. 14% [9.2-17.9], p<0.001). The frequency of thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) was higher in the LAD compared with LMS (0% vs. 16.9% [4.9-34.5], p<0.001). Within the LAD, TCFA was most frequently observed in the second 6 mm segment, 12 mm from the ostium. TCFA was present more frequently in the proximal LAD than LMS, supporting the notion that plaque rupture occurs in non-uniform locations throughout the coronary tree and preferentially spares the LMS.
    EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 07/2011; 7(3):347-52. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2011; 57(14).
  • Mimi Guarneri, Nestor Mercado, Christopher Suhar
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, $2.5 trillion is spent on healthcare annually. Seven chronic diseases account for half of all this expense. Of these 7, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus are largely preventable. Integrative cardiology programs that focus on risk-factor modification through lifestyle change combined with early detection and advanced lipid management offer a new paradigm to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
    Nutrition in Clinical Practice 12/2009; 24(6):701-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several clinical trials have shown that antagonists of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor decreased the incidence of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and the need for urgent revascularization when administered immediately before or during the 24- to 48-hour period after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, these agents increased the risk of thrombocytopenia and periprocedural bleeding complications. Therefore, the relation between periprocedural bleeding complications during PCI and long-term outcome was assessed in 6,995 patients in the EXCITE trial. Periprocedural bleeding was classified as none, mild, moderate, and severe. Measured outcomes included the incidence of all-cause mortality or the composite end point (cardiovascular disease) of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Subjects were followed up for a median of 210 days (7 months). Mean patient age was 59.1 years, and 21.8% were women. Periprocedural bleeding complications occurred in 1,869 patients (26.7%), and blood transfusion was administered to 189 patients (2.7%). In multivariate analysis, periprocedural bleeding complications were significantly associated with increased risk of the composite outcome for mild (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64 to 0.97), moderate (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.20), and severe bleeding complications (HR 3.55, 95% CI 2.20 to 5.73) during follow-up. Also, the necessity of blood transfusion was an important predictor of the composite end point (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.96 to 3.60). Patients in the United States were more likely to be administered a blood transfusion than non-US patients independently of cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, moderate and severe periprocedural bleeding complications increased the risk of mortality and incident cardiovascular events after PCI.
    The American journal of cardiology 05/2009; 103(7):917-22. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proteinuria was associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in community-based cohorts. The association of proteinuria with mortality and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was unknown. The association of urinary dipstick proteinuria with mortality and cardiovascular events (composite of death, myocardial infarction, or nonhemorrhagic stroke) in 5,835 subjects of the EXCITE trial was evaluated. Dipstick urinalysis was performed before PCI, and proteinuria was defined as trace or greater. Subjects were followed up for 210 days/7 months after enrollment for the occurrence of events. Multivariate Cox regression analysis evaluated the independent association of proteinuria with each outcome. Mean age was 59 years, 21% were women, 18% had diabetes mellitus, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was present in 750 patients (13%). During follow-up, 22 subjects (2.9%) with proteinuria and 54 subjects (1.1%) without proteinuria died (adjusted hazard ratio 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65 to 4.84, p <0.001). The severity of proteinuria attenuated the strength of the association with mortality after PCI (low-grade proteinuria, hazard ratio 2.67, 95% CI 1.50 to 4.75; high-grade proteinuria, hazard ratio 3.76, 95% CI 1.24 to 11.37). No significant association was present for cardiovascular events during the relatively short follow-up, but high-grade proteinuria tended toward increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.45, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.61).In conclusion, proteinuria was strongly and independently associated with mortality in patients undergoing PCI. These data suggest that such a relatively simple and clinically easy to use tool as urinary dipstick may be useful to identify and treat patients at high risk of mortality at the time of PCI.
    The American journal of cardiology 11/2008; 102(9):1151-5. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-perceived health status may be helpful in identifying patients at high risk for adverse outcomes. The Euro Heart Survey on Coronary Revascularization (EHS-CR) provided an opportunity to explore whether impaired health status was a predictor of 1-year mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing angiographic procedures. Data from the EHS-CR that included 5619 patients from 31 member countries of the European Society of Cardiology were used. Inclusion criteria for the current study were completion of a self-report measure of health status, the EuroQol Questionnaire (EQ-5D) at discharge and information on 1-year follow-up, resulting in a study population of 3786 patients. The 1-year mortality was 3.2% (n = 120). Survivors reported fewer problems on the five dimensions of the EQ-5D as compared with non-survivors. A broad range of potential confounders were adjusted for, which reached a p<0.10 in the unadjusted analyses. In the adjusted analyses, problems with self-care (OR 3.45; 95% CI 2.14 to 5.59) and a low rating (< or =60) on health status (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.94) were the most powerful independent predictors of mortality, among the 22 clinical variables included in the analysis. Furthermore, patients who reported no problems on all five dimensions had significantly lower 1-year mortality rates (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.81). This analysis shows that impaired health status is associated with a 2-3-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality in patients with CAD, independent of other conventional risk factors. These results highlight the importance of including patients' subjective experience of their own health status in the evaluation strategy to optimise risk stratification and management in clinical practice.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 04/2007; 93(3):339-44. · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to assess determinants of clinical decision making in patients with stable coronary artery disease. The 2936 patients with stable angina pectoris who enrolled in the Euro Heart Survey on Coronary Revascularization were the subject of this analysis. After the diagnosis has been confirmed, physicians decided on treatment: medical management or revascularization therapy by means of percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary bypass surgery. We applied logistic regression analyses to evaluate the relation between baseline characteristics and treatment decision: medical treatment versus percutaneous coronary intervention, medical treatment versus coronary bypass surgery, and percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary bypass surgery. The median age was 64 years, 77% were men, and 20% had diabetes. Medical therapy was intended in 690 (24%) patients, percutaneous coronary intervention in 1503 (51%) patients, and coronary bypass surgery in the remaining 743 (25%) patients, respectively. Revascularization was generally preferred in patients with more severe anginal complaints, an intermediate-to-large area of myocardium at risk, and preserved left ventricular function who had not undergone prior coronary revascularization, provided lesions were suitable for treatment. Coronary bypass surgery was preferred over percutaneous coronary intervention in multivessel or left main disease, as well as in those with concomitant valvular heart disease, provided a sufficient number of lesions were suitable for coronary bypass surgery. In those with previous coronary bypass surgeries, more often percutaneous coronary intervention was preferred than redo coronary bypass surgery. Diabetes was not associated with more frequent preference for coronary bypass surgery. In the hospitals that participated in the Euro Heart Survey on Coronary Revascularization, treatment decisions in stable coronary artery disease were largely in agreement with professional guidelines and determined by multiple factors. Most important deviations between guideline recommendations and clinical practice were seen in patients with extensive coronary disease, impaired left ventricular function, and diabetes.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 12/2006; 132(5):1001-9. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease changed over the last two decades, favouring the number of patients treated by means of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) when compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed to compare these two competing revascularization techniques. Because of the strict enrolment criteria of RCTs in which highly selected patients are recruited, the applicability of the results may be limited in clinical practice. The current study evaluates to what extent patients in clinical practice were similar to those who participated in RCTs comparing PCI with CABG. Clinical characteristics and 1-year outcome of 4713 patients enrolled in the Euro Heart Survey on Coronary Revascularization were compared with 8647 patients who participated in 14 major RCTs, comparing PCI with CABG. In addition, we analysed which proportion of survey patients would have disqualified for trial participation (n=3033, 64%), aiming at identifying differences between trial-eligible and trial-ineligible survey patients. In general, important differences were observed between trial participants and survey patients. Patients in clinical practice were older, more often had comorbid conditions, single-vessel disease, and left main stem stenosis when compared with trial participants. Almost identical differences were observed between trial-eligible and trial-ineligible survey patients. In clinical practice, PCI was the treatment of choice, even in patients who were trial-ineligible (46% PCI, 26% CABG, 28% medical). PCI remained the preferred treatment option in patients with multi-vessel disease (57% in trial-eligible and 40% in trial-ineligible patients, respectively, P<0.001); yet, the risk profile of patients treated by PCI was better than that for patients treated either by CABG or by medical therapy. In the RCTs, there was no mortality difference between PCI and CABG. In clinical practice, however, we observed 1-year unadjusted survival benefit for PCI vs. CABG (2.9 vs. 5.4%, P<0.001). Survival benefit was only observed in trial-ineligible patients (3.3 vs. 6.2%, P<0.001). Many patients in clinical practice were not represented in RCTs. Moreover, only 36% of these patients were considered eligible for participating in a trial comparing PCI with CABG. We demonstrated that RCTs included younger patients with a better cardiovascular risk profile when compared with patients in everyday clinical practice. This study highlights the disparity between patients in clinical practice and patients in whom the studies that provide the evidence for treatment guidelines are performed.
    European Heart Journal 04/2006; 27(6):671-8. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: To assess ,determinants ,of clinical decision-making ,in patients with stable coronary,artery disease. Methods: The 2936 patients with stable angina ,pectoris who ,enrolled the Euro Heart Survey ,on Coronary ,Revascularization were ,subject ,of this analysis. After the diagnosis has been confirmed, physicians decided upon treatment: medical management, or revascularization therapy by percutaneous,coronary ,intervention ,(PCI) or coronary ,bypass ,surgery (CABG). We applied ,logistic regression ,analyses ,to evaluate ,the relation between,baseline,characteristics and treatment,decision: medical,treatment versus PCI, medical treatment versus CABG and PCI versus CABG. Results: Median age was 64 years, 77% were men and 20% had diabetes. Medical therapy was intended in 690 (24%), PCI in 1503 (51%), and CABG inthe,remaining ,743 (25%) patients respectively. Revascularization was generally preferred in patients with more severe anginal complaints, an intermediate to large area of myocardium at risk, and a preserved left ventricular function, who had not undergone prior coronary revascularization, provided lesions were suitable for treatment. CABG was preferred over PCI in multivessel or left main disease, as well as in those with concomitant valvular heart disease, provided a sufficient number of lesions were suitable for CABG. In those with previous CABG, more often PCI was ,prefered ,than re-CABG. Diabetes was ,not associated ,with more often preference,for CABG.
    01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to provide a quantitative analysis of the 1-year clinical outcomes of patients with multisystem coronary artery disease who were included in recent randomized trials of percutaneous coronary intervention with multiple stenting versus coronary artery bypass graft surgery. An individual patient database was composed of 4 trials (Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study, Stent or Surgery Trial, Argentine Randomized Trial of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Multivessel Disease 2, and Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study 2) that compared percutaneous coronary intervention with multiple stenting (N = 1518) versus coronary artery bypass graft surgery (N = 1533). The primary clinical end point of this study was the combined incidence of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke at 1 year after randomization. Secondary combined end points included the incidence of repeat revascularization at 1 year. All analyses were based on the intention-to-treat principle. After 1 year of follow-up, 8.7% of patients randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention with multiple stenting versus 9.1% of patients randomized to coronary artery bypass graft surgery reached the primary clinical end point (hazard ratio 0.95 and 95% confidence interval 0.74-1.2). Repeat revascularization procedures occurred more frequently in patients allocated to percutaneous coronary intervention with multiple stenting compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (18% vs 4.4%; hazard ratio 4.4 and 95% confidence interval 3.3-5.9). The percentage of patients who were free from angina was slightly lower after percutaneous coronary intervention with multiple stenting than after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (77% vs 82%; P = .002). One year after the initial procedure, percutaneous coronary intervention with multiple stenting and coronary artery bypass graft surgery provided a similar degree of protection against death, myocardial infarction, or stroke for patients with multisystem disease. Repeat revascularization procedures remain high after percutaneous coronary intervention, but the difference with coronary artery bypass graft surgery has narrowed in the era of stenting.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 09/2005; 130(2):512-9. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the Euro Heart Survey Programme of the European Society of Cardiology is to evaluate to which extent clinical practice endorses existing guidelines as well as to identify differences in population profiles, patient management, and outcome across Europe. The current survey focuses on the invasive diagnosis and treatment of patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD). Between November 2001 and March 2002, 7769 consecutive patients undergoing invasive evaluation at 130 hospitals (31 countries) were screened for the presence of one or more coronary stenosis >50% in diameter. Patient demographics and comorbidity, clinical presentation, invasive parameters, treatment options, and procedural techniques were prospectively entered in an electronic database (550 variables+29 per diseased coronary segment). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated at 30 days and 1 year. Out of 5619 patients with angiographically proven coronary stenosis (72% of screened population), 53% presented with stable angina while ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was the indication for coronary angiography in 16% and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina in 30%. Only medical therapy was continued in 21%, whereas mechanical revascularization was performed in the remainder [percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 58% and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 21%]. Patients referred for PCI were younger, were more active, had a lower risk profile, and had less comorbid conditions. CABG was performed mostly in patients with left main lesions (21%), two- (25%), or three-vessel disease (67%) with 4.1 diseased segments, on average. Single-vessel PCI was performed in 82% of patients with either single- (45%), two- (33%), or three-vessel disease (21%). Stents were used in 75% of attempted lesions, with a large variation between sites. Direct PCI for STEMI was performed in 410 cases, representing 7% of the entire workload in the participating catheterization laboratories. Time delay was within 90 min in 76% of direct PCI cases. In keeping with the recommendations of practice guidelines, the survey identified under-use of adjunctive medication (GP IIb/IIIa receptor blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors). Mortality rates at 30 days and 1 year were low in all subgroups. MACE primarily consisted of repeat PCI (12%). The current Euro Heart Survey on coronary revascularization was performed in the era of bare metal stenting and provides a global European picture of the invasive approach to patients with CAD. These data will serve as a benchmark for the future evaluation of the impact of drug-eluting stents on the practice of interventional cardiology and bypass surgery.
    European Heart Journal 06/2005; 26(12):1169-79. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with adverse outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), but it is unclear which of these revascularization strategies is associated with lower risk for morbidity and mortality in this population. In the Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study (ARTS), we compared long-term clinical outcomes after CABG or PCI with multivessel stenting in patients with CKD. The ARTS randomly assigned 1205 participants with and without CKD to CABG or PCI with multivessel stenting. We defined CKD as creatinine clearance < or =60 mL/min, estimated by the Cockroft-Gault equation. The primary outcome was the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke; and, a secondary outcome was repeat revascularization. Participants were followed for a mean of 3 years after their intervention. We evaluated whether randomization to CABG or PCI was associated with different outcomes among participants with CKD. Two hundred ninety participants (25%) had CKD at entry into ARTS. One hundred fifty-one received PCI, and 139 received CABG. No difference was observed in the primary endpoint with CABG or PCI among CKD participants (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] CABG vs PCI = 0.93; 95% CI 0.54-1.60; P = .97). However, CABG was associated with a reduced risk for repeat revascularization (HR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.14-0.54; P < .01). Compared with participants with normal renal function, CKD was associated with a nearly 2-fold risk for the primary outcome (unadjusted HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.7; P < .01). After multivariate adjustment, this association remained significant (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.4). In patients with multivessel CAD and CKD, treatment with CABG or PCI with multivessel stenting led to similar outcomes of death, MI, or stroke, but CABG was associated with decreased repeat revascularizations. When compared with ARTS participants with normal renal function, those with CKD had substantially elevated risk of adverse clinical outcomes after coronary revascularization.
    American heart journal 03/2005; 149(3):512-9. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of the extent of coronary disease (single- or multivessel) and of fluvastatin treatment on the incidence of long-term cardiac atherosclerotic complications in the Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS). A total of 1063 patients with single-vessel disease and 614 patients with multivessel disease were randomized to receive fluvastatin (40 mg bid) or placebo for at least 3 years following a first successful percutaneous coronary intervention. The incidence of cardiac atherosclerotic events (cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and coronary re-interventions not related to restenosis) was evaluated. Patients with multivessel disease tended to be older and presented a higher prevalence of associated risk factors and cardiovascular antecedents. The presence of multivessel disease markedly increased the risk of cardiac atherosclerotic events compared with single-vessel disease among patients allocated to placebo (RR 1.67 [95% CI: 1.24-2.25]; p<0.001). In patients treated with fluvastatin, however, no significant differences in long-term outcomes were observed between patients with multivessel disease and patients single-vessel disease (RR 1.28 [95% CI: 0.90-1.81]; p=0.2). Multivessel coronary disease impaired the 4-year outcomes after percutaneous intervention. However, the hazardous effect of multivessel disease was significantly reduced by long-term fluvastatin treatment.
    International Journal of Cardiology 03/2005; 98(3):479-86. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mild renal impairment is an important risk factor for late cardiovascular complications. This substudy of the Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS) assessed the effect of fluvastatin on outcome of patients who had renal dysfunction and those who did not. Complete data for creatinine clearance calculation (Cockcroft-Gault formula) were available for 1,558 patients (92.9% of the LIPS population). Patients were randomized to fluvastatin or placebo after successful completion of a first percutaneous coronary intervention. Follow-up time was 3 to 4 years. The effect of baseline creatinine clearance on coronary atherosclerotic events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and coronary reinterventions not related to restenosis) was evaluated. Baseline creatinine clearance (logarithmic transformation) was inversely associated with an incidence of adverse events among patients who received placebo (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.982 to 0.998, p = 0.01). However, no association was noted between creatinine clearance and the incidence of adverse events among patients who received fluvastatin (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.0, p = 0.63). No further deterioration in creatinine clearance was observed during follow-up, regardless of baseline renal function or allocated treatment. Occurrence of adverse events was not related to changes in renal function during follow-up. Fluvastatin therapy markedly decreased the risk of coronary atherosclerotic events after percutaneous intervention in patients who had lower values of creatinine clearance at baseline. The benefit of fluvastatin was unrelated to any effect on renal function.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 03/2005; 95(4):445-51. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes after coronary artery revascularization remains controversial. We studied 1,203 patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and underwent stenting (n = 599) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; n = 604) in the Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study. Patients were assigned to 1 of 3 groups according to BMI: <25, 25 to 30, and >30 kg/m(2). At 3-year follow-up, the incidence of death, cerebrovascular events, or myocardial infarction was similar for these BMI categories regardless of the revascularization technique used. Rates of repeat revascularization procedures were significantly higher among patients who had been randomized to stenting but were similar across BMI groups. For patients who had been randomized to undergo CABG, there was a significant decrease in repeat revascularization procedures in obese patients (p = 0.03). Among patients who underwent stenting, BMI had no effect on the 3-year combined end point of rate of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events. Among patients who underwent CABG, major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event rates were significantly lower for patients who were obese (11%) or overweight (16%) compared with patients who had a normal BMI (24%; p = 0.008). Thus, in a large cohort of patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and underwent surgical or percutaneous revascularization, BMI had no effect on 3-year outcome of those who underwent stenting. Conversely, among patients who underwent CABG, those who were overweight or obese had a significantly better outcome than did those who had a normal BMI with regard to survival without major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, mainly due to lower rates of repeat revascularization procedures.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 02/2005; 95(4):439-44. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the pattern of late luminal loss after sirolimus-eluting or bare stent implantation. The study population comprised 238 patients treated with sirolimus-eluting stents and 526 patients treated with conventional stents. The distribution of late loss of sirolimus stents was largely skewed to the right and differed from the distribution for bare stents. When divided according to the presence of binary restenosis (diameter stenosis >50%), restenotic lesions in the bare stent group (26.0%) had a late loss of 1.40+/-0.64 mm and in the sirolimus group (7.9%) of 1.16+/-0.76 mm. Nonrestenotic lesions in the bare stent group had a late loss of 0.58+/-0.44 mm, whereas the late loss of nonrestenotic lesions in the sirolimus group remained close to zero (-0.05+/-0.33 mm). Differences between poststenting and follow-up measurements in the sirolimus group (late loss) resembled variations observed in repeated angiographic measurements, as assessed from a random sample of 30 segments measured repeatedly. After multivariate adjustment, stent type did not influence the degree of late loss in restenotic lesions. However, nonrestenotic bare stents had a significantly larger estimated luminal loss (0.58 mm; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.65) than sirolimus-eluting stents, for which the predicted late loss was almost 0 (-0.04 mm; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.02). The pattern of late loss after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation follows a peculiar behavior, different from lesions treated with conventional stents. Whether this is explained by an unusual statistical distribution or a biological all-or-none response of restenosis after sirolimus-eluting stenting remains to be investigated.
    Circulation 12/2004; 110(20):3199-205. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restenosis and consequent adverse cardiac events are increased in diabetics undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Use of intracoronary stents may ameliorate such risks; however, factors influencing the likelihood of restenosis after stent deployment in this high-risk patient subgroup are unknown. We retrospectively analyzed all stented diabetic patients in 16 studies of percutaneous coronary intervention, all of which underwent core angiographic analysis at Cardialysis, Rotterdam. Univariate and multivariate analyses, with 37 clinical and angiographic variables, compared those with and without restenosis and predicted restenosis rates calculated through the use of reference charts derived from angiographic data. Within the studies, 418 of 3090 (14%) stented patients with 6-month angiographic follow-up had diabetes. Restenosis (> or =50% diameter stenosis at follow-up) occurred in 550 of 2672 (20.6%) nondiabetic and 130 of 418 (31.1%) diabetic patients (P<0.001). Univariate predictors of restenosis in diabetics were smaller vessel reference diameter (RD) (P<0.001), smaller minimal luminal diameter before stenting (P=0.01), smaller minimal luminal diameter and percent diameter stenosis after stenting (P<0.001, P=0.04), greater stented length of vessel (P<0.001), and reduced body mass index (BMI) (P=0.04). With the use of multivariate analysis, only smaller RD (P=0.003), greater stented length of vessel (P=0.04), and reduced BMI (P=0.04) were associated with restenosis. Reference charts demonstrated an incremental risk of restenosis that appears solely dependent on vessel RD. Restenosis after stent deployment is significantly increased in diabetic patients. Vessel caliber, stented length of vessel, and lower BMI are predictors of in-stent restenosis in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, vessel caliber affected the predicted risk of restenosis incrementally.
    Circulation 02/2004; 109(7):867-73. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute myocardial infarction is a common disease with serious consequences in mortality, morbidity, and cost to the society. Coronary atherosclerosis plays a pivotal part as the underlying substrate in many patients. In addition, a new definition of myocardial infarction has recently been introduced that has major implications from the epidemiological, societal, and patient points of view. The advent of coronary-care units and the results of randomised clinical trials on reperfusion therapy, lytic or percutaneous coronary intervention, and chronic medical treatment with various pharmacological agents have substantially changed the therapeutic approach, decreased in-hospital mortality, and improved the long-term outlook in survivors of the acute phase. New treatments will continue to emerge, but the greatest challenge will be to effectively implement preventive actions in all high-risk individuals and to expand delivery of acute treatment in a timely fashion for all eligible patients.
    The Lancet 04/2003; 361(9360):847-58. · 39.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

976 Citations
204.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Saint Luke's Health System (KS, USA)
      Kansas City, Kansas, United States
  • 2011
    • St. Luke's Hospital (MO, USA)
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 2002–2003
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Cardiology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands