Mutsuko Koizumi

National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (6)8.29 Total impact

  • Mutsuko Hirata‐Koizumi, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Akihiko Hirose, Makoto Ema
    General, Applied and Systems Toxicology, 12/2009; , ISBN: 9780470744307
  • Ryuichi Hasegawa, Mutsuko Koizumi, Akihiko Hirose
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    ABSTRACT: Risk assessment of chemicals is essential for the estimation of chemical safety, and animal toxicity data are typically used in the evaluation process, which consists of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Hazard identification entails the collection of all available toxicity data and assessment of toxicity endpoints based on findings for repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity or genotoxicity and species-specificity. Once a review is compiled, the allowable lifetime exposure level of a chemical is estimated from a dose-response assessment based on several measures. For non-carcinogens and non-genotoxic carcinogens, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) is divided by uncertainty factors (e.g. with environmental pollutants) or safety factors (e.g. with food additives) to derive a tolerable daily intake (TDI) or acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively. These factors include interspecies and individual differences, duration of exposure, quality of data, and nature of toxicity such as carcinogenicity or neurotoxicity. For genotoxic carcinogens, low dose extrapolation is accomplished with mathematical modeling (e.g. linearized multistage model) from the point of departure to obtain exposure levels that will be associated with an excess lifetime cancer risk of a certain level. Data for levels of chemicals in food, water and air, are routinely used for exposure assessment. Finally, risk characterization is performed to ensure that the established 'safe' level of exposure exceeds the estimated level of actual exposure. These principles have led to the evaluation of several existing chemicals. To establish a guideline for residual solvents in medicine, the permitted daily exposure (PDE), equivalent to TDI, of N,N-dimethylformamide was derived on the basis of developmental toxicity (malformation) and of N-methylpyrrolidone on the basis of the developmental neurotoxicity. A TDI for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was derived from assessment of testicular toxicity.
    Congenital Anomalies 07/2004; 44(2):51-9. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The repeated dose toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a flame retardant, was examined in male and female newborn rats given TBBPA orally at 0, 40, 200, or 600 mg/kg per day for 18 days from 4 days of age until weaning at 21 days of age. Half the rats in each dose group were sacrificed for a full gross necropsy and a histopathology on the organs and the tissues at 22 days of age and the remaining rats were reared without any treatment from post-weaning until 84 days of age to examine the recovery and the delayed occurrence of toxic effects. Treatment with 200 or 600 mg/kg TBBPA-induced nephrotoxicity characterized by the formation of polycystic lesions, and some deaths occurred in the 600 mg/kg group. There was no gender difference of nephrotoxicity and there were no other critical toxicities. At 85 days of age, nephrotoxic lesions were still present in the 200 and 600 mg/kg groups, but no abnormalities indicating delayed occurrence of toxic effects were found in the treated groups. In order to investigate the specificity of the nephrotoxicity induced by TBBPA in newborn rats, TBBPA was given to male and female young rats (5 weeks old) by oral administration at 0, 2000, or 6000 mg/kg per day for 18 days. The kidneys showed no histopathological changes even at the high dose. These results clearly indicate that the nephrotoxicity of TBBPA is specific for newborn rats although the toxic dose level was relatively high. To gain insight into the possible effects on human infants, the mechanism of this unexpected nephrotoxicity of TBBPA in newborn rats should be examined.
    Toxicology Letters 05/2004; 150(2):145-55. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine susceptibility of infants to 3-methylphenol, a repeated dose toxicity study was conducted with oral administration to newborn and young rats. In an 18-day newborn study from postnatal days 4 to 21 at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, various clinical signs including deep respiration, hypersensitivity on handling and tremors under contact stimulus, and depressed body weight gain were observed at 300 mg/kg. At 100 mg/kg, hypersensitivity and tremors were also noted in a small number of males only on single days during the dosing period. No adverse effects were observed in the 30 mg/kg group. There were no abnormalities of physical development, sexual maturation and reflex ontogeny. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for newborn rats was considered to be 30 mg/kg/day and the unequivocally toxic level 300 mg/kg/day. In a 28-day study starting at 5 weeks of age, clinical signs and depression of body weight gain, as observed in the newborn rats, appeared in both sexes at 1000 mg/kg but not 300 mg/kg. The NOAEL and the unequivocally toxic level were 300 mg/kg/day and 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively. From these results, newborn rats were concluded to be 3 to 10 times more susceptible to 3-methylphenol than young rats. However, the realistic no adverse effect dose for the newborn must be slightly lower than 100 mg/kg/day, at which the toxicity incidence was very low, rather than 30 mg/kg/day. Based on this speculation and the equal toxicity at unequivocally toxic levels, the differences in the susceptibility to 3-methylphenol could be concluded to be 3 to 4 times. This is consistent with the results of our previous comparative studies on 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol and 3-aminophenol, which showed 2 to 4 times differences in the susceptibility between newborn and young rats.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 06/2003; 28(2):59-70. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated dose toxicity of 3-aminophenol was examined on oral administration to newborn and young rats, and susceptibility was analyzed in terms of the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and the unequivocally toxic level. In the 18-day newborn rat study, starting at day 4 after birth, tremors and depression of body weight gain were observed, as well as hypertrophy of thyroid follicular epithelial cells and increases of relative liver and kidney weights at 240 mg/kg. Increase of relative liver weights in males and decrease of blood sugar in females without any histopathological changes at 80 mg/kg were not considered to be adverse effects. No chemical-related changes were observed at 24 mg/kg. Abnormalities of external development and reflex ontogeny in the newborn were not observed. In the 28-day study, starting at 5 weeks of age, depression of body weight gain, tremors, anemia, and liver, kidney and thyroid toxicity were observed at 720 mg/kg. Although slight pigmentation in the renal proximal tubular epithelium was observed in females at 240 mg/kg, this was not considered to be an adverse effect because of the lack of changes in related toxicological parameters. It was concluded that the NOAEL is 80 mg/kg/day in newborn rats and 240 mg/kg/day in young rats, with unequivocally toxic levels of 240 mg/kg/day and 720 mg/kg/day, respectively. Based on these two endpoints, the susceptibility of newborn rats to the chemical was approx. 3 times higher than that of young rats, consistent with our previous results for 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2003; 27(5):411-21. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The toxicities of 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol in newborn and young rats was examined and the susceptibility of newborn rats was analyzed in terms of presumed unequivocally toxic and no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs). In the 18-day repeated dose newborn rat study, 4-nitrophenol was orally given from Day 4 to Day 21 after birth but did not induce any toxicity up to 160 mg/kg in the main study, although it induced death in one of six males at 160 mg/kg, and three of six males and one of six females at 230 mg/kg in a prior dose-finding study. In the 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study starting at 6 weeks of age, 4-nitrophenol caused the death of most males and females at 1,000 mg/kg but was not toxic at 400 mg/kg except for male rat-specific renal toxicity. As unequivocally toxic levels were considered to be 230 mg/kg/day in newborn rats and 600 to 800 mg/kg/day in young rats, and NOAELs were 110 mg/kg/day in newborn rats and 400 mg/kg/day in young rats, the susceptibility of the newborn to 4-nitrophenol appears to be 2.5 to 4 times higher than that of young animals. In the newborn rat study of 2,4-dinitrophenol, animals died at 30 mg/kg in the dose-finding study and significant lowering of body and organ weights was observed at 20 mg/kg in the main study. In the 28-day young rat study, clear toxic signs followed by death occurred at 80 mg/kg but there was no definitive toxicity at 20 mg/kg. As unequivocally toxic levels and NOAELs were considered to be 30 and 10 mg/kg/day in newborn rats and 80 and 20 mg/kg/day in young rats, respectively, the toxicity of 2,4-dinitrophenol in newborns again seems to be 2 to 3 times stronger than in young rats. Abnormalities of external development and reflex ontogeny in the newborn were not observed with either chemical. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the toxic response in newborn rats is at most 4 times higher than that in young rats, at least in the cases of 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2002; 26(5):299-311. · 1.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

81 Citations
8.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2009
    • National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan
      • Division of Risk Assessment
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan