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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Guidelines should help the practicing nephrologists to reduce the variability in diagnostic and treatment strategies, and achieve the best possible patients' outcomes. The aim of our study was to look at the treatment strategies and the shortcomings in the implementation of the chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) KDOQI guidelines in dialysis units across the Republic of Macedonia in 2009, and to analyze trends with regard to our previous analysis from 2005. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent in 2009 to all dialysis units in our country for data concerning CKD-MBD in dialysis patients. This study included 742 patients, comparable with the reply we got on the same our 2005 survey, with a total of 588 patients. We collected the last 6 months mean values of biochemical parameters [calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH)], as well as treatment data including dialysate Ca concentration, phosphate binding agents, and vitamin D doses. RESULTS: The majority of patients in both surveys had values within the target ranges for all parameters, except for iPTH, which was <150 pg/ml in most patients, in both reports. Compared to the 2005 study, in 2009 we found a significantly improved control of all four biochemical parameters, but a greater proportion of patients within guidelines targets was found only for serum Ca (79 vs. 67.4%, P < 0.05). Treatment with low Ca dialysate concentration of 1.25 mmol/L continued to be an underused option (3.7 vs. 6.1%), while the 1.75 mmol/L was still the standard dialysate in the majority of patients (57.7 vs. 64.2%). The dose of calcium carbonate was significantly reduced (2.77 ± 1.71 vs. 3.06 ± 1.54, P < 0.01) in 2009 compared to 2005. The mean of the achieved targets increased significantly in 2009 (2.33 ± 1.05 vs. 2.13 ± 1.03, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: There was an improved control of all bone and mineral parameters in our dialysis units, following the publication of the CKD-MBD KDOQI guidelines. In order to improve the iPTH values, a more frequent use of low Ca dialysate (1.25 mmol/L) and of non-calcium-based phosphate binders in this small subset of patients should be implemented, as recommended by the guidelines. Individualization of the CKD-MBD management may be successful, even when newer treatment options are not available. Finally, the guidelines implementation process should be a continuous and self-monitored process, with the help of periodic surveys.
International Urology and Nephrology 12/2011; 44(6). DOI:10.1007/s11255-011-0092-x · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of sustained viral response after treatment of hepatitis C with pegylated interferon alpha-2a in hemodialysis patients.
14 hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C were treated with pegylated interferon alpha-2a for a period of 48 weeks. Achieved sustained viral response rate was 35.7% (5/14 patients) at week 72, i.e. 24 weeks after the treatment ended. All treated patients were then prospectively followed until week 144. Follow-up viral data, such as HCV antibodies, serum HCV RNA, and HCV RNA genotype, were determined at week 96 and week 144. HCV antibodies were determined by a 3rd-generation ELISA assay. The presence of HCV RNA was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (AMPLICOR Hepatitis C Virus Test). HCV genotype was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by hybridization of amplified products. The biochemical data were recorded every 24 weeks during the follow-up period.
The 5 patients (35.7%), who achieved sustained viral response (SVR), remained HCV RNA negative at week 96. At week 144, 4 hemodialysis patients (28.6%) remained HCV RNA negative. There was a relapse of HCV infection in 1 patient after week 96 of the study. The patients who remained HCV RNA negative also maintained the achieved biochemical response throughout the follow-up period.
Long-term follow-up of treated hemodialysis patients with pegylated interferon alpha-2a showed persistence of the sustained viral and biochemical response.
The International journal of artificial organs 04/2009; 32(3):180-4. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in hemodialysis patients is of great concern because they have a higher rate of mortality than HCV-negative hemodialysis patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alpha-2a monotherapy in hemodialysis patients with chronic HCV infection.
Fourteen dialysis patients with chronic HCV infection were scheduled to receive 135 mug pegylated interferon alpha-2a subcutaneously, once a week, after dialysis session for a period of 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety were assessed by end of treatment viral response, sustained viral response, biochemical response, and adverse events. Serum HCV RNA levels were assessed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), while HCV genotype was analyzed by RT-PCR followed by hybridization of amplified products.
Of the 14 patients enrolled in the study, 9 completed treatment. Eight patients (57%) had undetectable levels of HCV RNA at the end of treatment, while one patient remained positive. Two (14.3%) patients were discontinued because of insufficient therapeutic response. Three patients (21.34%) did not finish treatment because serious adverse events occurred: one patient with bronchopneumonia and one with pericarditis were discontinued from treatment, while one patient died due to cerebral hemorrhage. Sustained viral response was present in 36% of the patients (5/8 patients) at the end of the follow up period. Biochemical response with normalization of serum ALT levels during treatment was observed in all treated patients (83 +/- 20.1 U/L at baseline vs. 23.4 +/- 4.6 U/L at week 48). The most common adverse events were flu-like syndrome, myalgia, arthralgia, and pancytopenia. Most of the adverse events were manageable. The serious adverse events were believed to be unrelated to the therapy, but rather to the co-morbidities of the hemodialysis patients.
Pegylated interferon alpha-2a treatment was effective in a considerable proportion of the treated hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C, and it was reasonably safe to use.
Renal Failure 02/2007; 29(8):961-6. DOI:10.1080/08860220701641579 · 0.78 Impact Factor