M D Bain

St George's, University of London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (33)213.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of thymidine phosphorylase (TP, EC2.4.2.4) due to mutations in the nuclear gene TYMP. TP deficiency leads to plasma and tissue accumulations of thymidine and deoxyuridine which generate imbalances within the mitochondrial nucleotide pools, ultimately leading to mitochondrial dysfunction.(1) MNGIE is characterized clinically by leukoencephalopathy, external ophthalmoplegia, peripheral polyneuropathy, cachexia, and enteric neuromyopathy manifesting as gastrointestinal dysmotility. The condition is relentlessly progressive, with patients usually dying from a combination of nutritional and neuromuscular failure at an average age of 37 years.(2) Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) offers a permanent cure. Clinical and biochemical improvements following AHSCT have been reported but it carries a high mortality risk and is limited by matched donor availability.(3) A consensus proposal for standardizing AHSCT recommends treatment of patients without irreversible end-stage disease and with an optimally matched donor; a majority of patients are ineligible and thus there is a critical requirement for an alternative treatment.(4.)
    Neurology 08/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defects in mitochondrial function are increasingly recognised as central to the pathogenesis of many diseases, both inherited and acquired. Many of these mitochondrial defects arise from abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA and can result in multisystem disease, with gastrointestinal involvement common. Moreover, mitochondrial disease may present with a range of non-specific symptoms, and thus can be easily misdiagnosed, or even considered to be non-organic. We describe the clinical, histopathological and genetic findings of six patients from three families with gastrointestinal manifestations of mitochondrial disease. In two of the patients, anorexia nervosa was considered as an initial diagnosis. These cases illustrate the challenges of both diagnosing and managing mitochondrial disease and highlight two important but poorly understood aspects, the clinical and the genetic. The pathophysiology of gastrointestinal involvement in mitochondrial disease is discussed and emerging treatments are described. Finally, we provide a checklist of investigations for the gastroenterologist when mitochondrial disease is suspected.
    Digestive and Liver Disease 06/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Neurology 09/2008; 71(9):686-8. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an inherited disorder which leads to elevated cellular levels of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and systemic accumulation of its precursor, 2-deoxyadenosine. These metabolites impair lymphocyte function, and inactivate S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) respectively, leading to severe immunodeficiency. Enzyme replacement therapy with polyethylene glycol-conjugated ADA is available, but its efficacy is reduced by anti-ADA neutralising antibody formation. We report here carrier erythrocyte encapsulated native ADA therapy in an adult-type ADA deficient patient. Encapsulated enzyme is protected from antigenic responses and therapeutic activities are sustained. ADA-loaded autologous carrier erythrocytes were prepared using a hypo-osmotic dialysis procedure. Over a 9-yr period 225 treatment cycles were administered at 2-3 weekly intervals. Therapeutic efficacy was determined by monitoring immunological and metabolic parameters. After 9 yr of therapy, erythrocyte dATP concentration ranged between 24 and 44 micromol/L (diagnosis, 234) and SAHH activity between 1.69 and 2.29 nmol/h/mg haemoglobin (diagnosis, 0.34). Erythrocyte ADA activities were above the reference range of 40-100 nmol/h/mg haemoglobin (0 at diagnosis). Initial increases in absolute lymphocyte counts were not sustained; however, despite subnormal circulating CD20(+) cell numbers, serum immunoglobulin levels were normal. The patient tolerated the treatment well. The frequency of respiratory problems was reduced and the decline in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s and vital capacity reduced compared with the 4 yr preceding carrier erythrocyte therapy. Carrier erythrocyte-ADA therapy in an adult patient with ADA deficiency was shown to be metabolically and clinically effective.
    European Journal Of Haematology 11/2007; 79(4):338-48. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the potential of a single administration of carrier erythrocyte entrapped antigen to elicit humoral responses in the Balb/c mouse. Humoral responses to primary immunizations of erythrocyte encapsulated antigens were compared with those obtained with adjuvanted antigen administered via the subcutaneous route. Ig isotype responses to primary immunizations of erythrocyte entrapped antigen and subcutaneous antigen were compared to responses observed in mice that subsequently received booster immunizations with un-entrapped antigen. This study demonstrates that a single administration of antigen-loaded carrier erythrocytes is able to elicit humoral immune responses comparable or superior to those obtained via the adjuvanted subcutaneous vaccination route. The IgG isotype profiles demonstrate that the erythrocyte entrapment of antigens is another mechanism by which the Th responses to antigens maybe modulated.
    Vaccine 09/2006; 24(35-36):6129-39. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report here riboflavin responsiveness in a patient with glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency, compound heterozygous for the S139L and P248L mutations and with 20% residual GCDH enzyme activity in vitro. Our results suggest the mitochondrial GCDH homotetramer remains intact with one of these mutations associated with the binding site of the single FAD cofactor and that pharmacological doses of the cofactor precursor may be sufficient to induce an increase in activity in the mutant GCDH enzyme, although not sufficient to normalise urinary organic acid excretion. Serine139 is one of nine conserved amino acid residues that line the binding site of the protein and is in close proximity to both substrate and FAD cofactor. It is possible that steric alterations caused by substitution of serine with leucine at this position may be overcome with high cofactor concentrations. P248L is also associated with some residual GCDH activity in other patients and the unique combination of S139L with P248L may also explain the results in our patient. Responsiveness to riboflavin in our patient has been compared with two other patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 and minimal residual GCDH activity, one with homozygosity for the R257Q mutation and one with heterozygosity for the G354S mutation and a novel G156V mutation. A low lysine diet reduced glutaric acid excretion in our riboflavin-responsive GCDH-deficient patient almost to control values. She is now 21 years of age and clinically and neurologically normal.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 06/2006; 88(1):29-37. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent trimethylaminuria in children is caused by autosomal recessively inherited impairment of hepatic trimethylamine (TMA) oxidation due to deficiency of flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) secondary to mutations in the FMO3 gene. Trimethylaminuria or 'fish odour syndrome' is due to excessive excretion into body fluids and breath of TMA derived from the enterobacterial metabolism of dietary precursors. The disorder is present from birth but becomes apparent as foods containing high amounts of choline or of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) from marine (sea or saltwater) fish are introduced into the diet. In our experience, trimethylaminuria (FMO3 deficiency) in children is rare. We have compared the dynamics and diagnostic efficacy of choline loading with marine fish meals in six children with trimethylaminuria. Loading with a marine fish meal provides a simple and acceptable method for confirmation of diagnosis of suspected trimethylaminuria in children, with the effects being cleared more quickly than with a choline load test. However, oral loading with choline bitartrate allows estimation of residual oxidative capacity in vivo and is a useful adjunct to molecular studies. Patients homozygous for the 'common' P153L mutation in the FMO3 gene showed virtual complete lack of residual TMA N-oxidative capacity, consistent with a nonfunctional or absent FMO3 enzyme, whereas a patient with the M82T mutation showed some residual oxidative capacity. A patient compound heterozygous for two novel mutations, G193E and R483T, showed considerable residual N-oxidative capacity. A further patient, heterozygous for two novel sequence variations in the FMO3 gene, consistently showed malodour and elevated urinary TMA/TMAO ratios under basal conditions but a negative response to both choline and marine fish meal loading. Comparison of the effects of administration of antibiotics (metronidazole, amoxicillin, neomycin) on gut bacterial production of trimethylamine from choline showed they all reduced TMA production to a limited extent, with neomycin being most effective. 'Best-practice' diagnostic and treatment guidelines are summarized.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 03/2006; 29(1):162-72. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Gaucher disease, a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase results in the accumulation of glucocerebroside within the lysosomes of the monocyte-macrophage system. Prior to the availability of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), splenectomy was often indicated for hypersplenism. Haemorheological abnormalities could be expected in view of the anaemia and abnormal lipid metabolism in these patients and the role of the spleen in controlling erythrocyte quality. To investigate the effect of Gaucher disease on blood and plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation and erythrocyte deformability, and to determine whether observed rheological differences could be attributed to splenectomy. Haematological and haemorheological measurements were made on blood collected from 26 spleen-intact patients with Gaucher disease, 16 splenectomised patients with Gaucher disease, 6 otherwise healthy asplenic non-Gaucher disease subjects and 15 healthy controls. No haemorheological differences could be demonstrated between spleen-intact patients with Gaucher disease and the control group. Compared to controls, both asplenic Gaucher disease and asplenic non-Gaucher disease study groups had a reduced MCHC (P = 0.003 and 0.005, respectively) and increased whole blood viscosity at 45% haematocrit (Hct), relative viscosity and red cell aggregation index - all measured at low shear (P < 0.05 for all). Additionally, asplenic patients with Gaucher disease alone showed an increased MCV (P = 0.006), an increased whole blood viscosity at 45% Hct measured at high shear (P = 0.019), and a reduced relative filtration rate (P = 0.0001), compared to controls. These observations demonstrate a direct and measurable haemorheological abnormality in Gaucher disease only revealed when there is no functioning spleen to control erythrocyte quality.
    European Journal Of Haematology 10/2005; 75(3):252-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 36-year follow-up on the original patient described with methylmalonic aciduria has shown that she has methylmalonyl-CoA apomutase deficiency. The main clinical problem associated with her methylmalonic aciduria is progressive renal impairment requiring commencement of haemodialysis at 42 years of age.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 02/2005; 28(6):1179-80. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neurometabolic disorder glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency is biochemically characterised by an accumulation of the marker metabolites 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaric acid, and glutarylcarnitine. If untreated, the disease is complicated by acute encephalopathic crises, resulting in neurodegeneration of vulnerable brain regions, in particular the putamen. 3-hydroxyglutaric acid is considered the major neurotoxin in this disease. There are only preliminary data concerning glutaric acid concentrations in the brains of affected children and the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and glutarylcarnitine has not been described. In the present study, we investigated post mortem the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaric acids as well as glutarylcarnitine in 14 different brain regions, internal organs, and body fluids (urine, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid) in a 14-year-old boy. 3-Hydroxyglutaric acid showed the highest concentration (62 nmol/g protein) in the putamen among all brain areas investigated. The glutarylcarnitine concentration was also highest in the putamen (7.1 nmol/g protein). We suggest that the regional-specific differences in the relative concentrations of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid contribute to the pattern of neuronal damage in this disease. These results provide an explanatory basis for the high vulnerability of the putamen in this disease, adding to the strong corticostriatal glutamatergic input into the putamen and the high excitotoxic susceptibility of neostriatal medium spiny neurons.
    Neuropediatrics 07/2003; 34(5):253-60. · 1.19 Impact Factor
  • 12/2001: pages 47-50;
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    ABSTRACT: Polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase (pegademase) is used for enzyme replacement therapy for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency caused by adenosine deaminase deficiency. The entrapment of pegademase within human energy-replete carrier erythrocytes using a hypo-osmotic dialysis procedure was investigated with the objective of prolonging the in vivo circulatory half-life of the enzyme and maintaining therapeutic blood levels. Native unmodified adenosine deaminase (ADA) was similarly studied. The efficiency of pegademase entrapment was low (9%) whereas the entrapment of native unmodified ADA was substantial (50%), suggesting that the polyethylene glycol side-chains were impeding intracellular entrapment. The biochemical characteristics and the osmotic fragility of these carrier erythrocytes were not adversely affected by the entrapment of either pegademase or native ADA. In vivo survival studies of pegademase-loaded 51Cr-labelled carrier erythrocytes in an ADA-deficient adult patient showed a mean cell half-life of 16 d. Carrier erythrocyte-entrapped pegademase and native ADA had in vivo half-lives of 20 and 12.5 d, respectively, demonstrating that entrapment prolongs the half-life over that of plasma pegademase, which has a circulating half-life of 3-6 d. These results provide the basis for a more extensive clinical evaluation of carrier erythrocyte-entrapped native adenosine deaminase therapy.
    British Journal of Haematology 07/2000; 109(3):549-54. · 4.94 Impact Factor
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/2000; 486:47-50. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    The Lancet 02/2000; 355(9198):148. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the net financial benefit of neonatal screening for phenylketonuria (PKU): by a simple pooling of cost data from the literature; and by a more complex modelling approach. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify papers containing data on the monetary costs and benefits of neonatal screening for PKU. The methodological quality of the studies was appraised, and data were extracted on resource use and expenditure. Monetary data were converted to common currency units, and standardised to UK incidence rates. Net benefits were calculated for median, best case and worst case scenarios, and the effect of excluding poor quality studies and data was tested. The net benefit was also estimated from a model based on data from the literature and assumptions appropriate for the current UK situation. Extensive sensitivity analysis was conducted. The direct net benefit of screening based on the median costs and benefits from the 13 studies identified was 143,400 Pounds per case detected and treated (39,000 Pounds and 241,800 Pounds for worst case and best case scenarios respectively). The direct net benefit obtained by the modelling approach was lower at 93,400 Pounds per case detected and treated. Screening remained cost saving under sensitivity analysis, except with low residential care costs (less than 12,300 Pounds per annum), or very low incidence rates (less than 1 in 27,000). The economic literature on PKU screening is of variable quality. The two methods of secondary analysis lead to the same conclusion: that neonatal PKU screening is worthwhile in financial terms alone in the UK, and that it justifies the infrastructure for collecting and testing neonatal blood samples. This result cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other countries.
    Journal of Epidemiology &amp Community Health 04/1999; 53(3):179-86. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erythrocytes offer the exciting opportunity of being used as carriers of therapeutic agents. Encapsulation within erythrocytes will give the therapeutic agent a clearance equivalent to the normal life of the erythrocyte therefore maintaining therapeutic blood levels over prolonged periods and also giving a sustained delivery to the monocyte-macrophage system (reticulo-endothelial system). Both the dose and frequency of therapeutic interventions could thus be reduced. Ensuring a near-physiological survival time of carrier erythrocytes is essential to their successful use as a sustained drug delivery system, and this has not been demonstrated in man. In this study we assessed the survival in vivo of autologous unloaded energy-replete carrier erythrocytes in nine volunteers, using a standard 51Cr erythrocyte-labelling technique. Within 144 h after infusion there was a 3 to 49% fall in circulating labelled cells, followed thereafter by an almost complete return to initial circulating levels; surface counting demonstrated an initial sequestration of erythrocytes by the spleen and subsequent release. Mean cell life and cell half-life of the carrier erythrocytes were within the normal range of 89 to 131 days and 19 to 29 days respectively. These results demonstrate the viability of carrier erythrocytes as a sustained drug delivery system.
    Clinical Science 03/1999; 96(2):171-8. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developments in screening technology and increased understanding of the natural history and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) have produced pressure to extend neonatal screening programmes. This review aims to assess the evidence for the appropriateness of such programmes. A formal systematic literature review was conducted. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were used to select papers for critical appraisal by pairs of reviewers. Standard criteria were used to assess the appropriateness of neonatal screening for various IEMs. Site visits were conducted to assess new technologies for newborn screening. A total of 1866 papers were identified and 407 systematically selected for full critical appraisal. Published evidence confirmed that universal newborn screening for phenylketonuria (PKU) meets all of the screening criteria and justifies the expense and infrastructure necessary for the collection and testing of neonatal blood spots. There was insufficient evidence in the literature to assess the cost-effectiveness of screening for any other IEMs. There was reasonable evidence to support inclusion in extended neonatal screening of four other IEMs: biotinidase deficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1). Large-scale trials of screening for biotinidase, CAH, MCAD and GA1 should be conducted, with careful evaluation to establish their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in practice. Screening for the latter two disorders would be dependent upon the use of tandem mass spectrometry (tandem MS). The application of tandem MS to newborn screening requires further evaluation. The extension of neonatal screening programmes to other IEMs is not currently justified.
    Journal of Public Health Medicine 10/1998; 20(3):331-43.
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    Biochemical Society Transactions 03/1997; 25(1):96S. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES. To establish a database of literature and other evidence on neonatal screening programmes and technologies for inborn errors of metabolism. To undertake a systematic review of the data as a basis for evaluation of newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism. To prepare an objective summary of the evidence on the appropriateness and need for various existing and possible neonatal screening programmes for inborn errors of metabolism in relation to the natural history of these diseases. To identify gaps in existing knowledge and make recommendations for required primary research. To make recommendations for the future development and organisation of neonatal screening for inborn errors of metabolism in the UK. HOW THE RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED. There were three parts to the research. A systematic review of the literature on inborn errors of metabolism, neonatal screening programmes, new technologies for screening and economic factors. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and a working database of relevant papers was established. All selected papers were read by two or three experts and were critically appraised using a standard format. Seven criteria for a screening programme, based on the principles formulated by Wilson and Jungner (WHO, 1968), were used to summarise the evidence. These were as follows. Clinically and biochemically well-defined disorder. Known incidence in populations relevant to the UK. Disorder associated with significant morbidity or mortality. Effective treatment available. Period before onset during which intervention improves outcome. Ethical, safe, simple and robust screening test. Cost-effectiveness of screening. A questionnaire which was sent to all newborn screening laboratories in the UK. Site visits to assess new methodologies for newborn screening. The classical definition of an inborn error of metabolism was used (i.e., a monogenic disease resulting in deficient activity in a single enzyme in a pathway of intermediary metabolism). RESEARCH FINDINGS. INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM. Phenylketonuria (PKU) (incidence 1:12,000) fulfilled all the screening criteria and could be used as the 'gold standard' against which to review other disorders despite significant variation in methodologies, sample collection and timing of screening and inadequacies in the infrastructure for notification and continued care of identified patients. Of the many disorders of organic acid and fatty acid metabolism, a case can only be made for the introduction of newborn screening for glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1; estimated incidence 1:40,000) and medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency (estimated incidence 1:8000-1:15,000). Therapeutic advances for GA1 offer prevention of neurological damage but further investigation is required into the costs and benefits of screening for this disorder. MCAD deficiency is simply and cheaply treatable, preventing possible early death and neurological handicap. Neonatal screening for these diseases is dependent upon the introduction of tandem mass spectrometry (tandem MS). This screening could however also simultaneously detect some other commonly-encountered disorders of organic acid metabolism with a collective incidence of 1:15,000.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
    Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 02/1997; 1(11):i-iv, 1-95. · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • Biochemical Society Transactions 09/1996; 24(3):441S. · 2.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

373 Citations
213.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2013
    • St George's, University of London
      • Division of Clinical Sciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1990–2005
    • St. George's School
      • Department of Child Health
      Middletown, Rhode Island, United States
    • St George Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2003
    • University of Iowa Children's Hospital
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States